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WE16 - The State of Women in Engineering


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WE16 - The State of Women in Engineering

  1. 1. The State of Women in Engineering Welcome 1:00 p.m. – 2:30 p.m. Friday, October 28, 2016
  2. 2. The State of Women in Engineering Jessica Rannow FY17 President Society of Women Engineers
  3. 3. The State of Women in Engineering – Framing the Discussion Peggy Layne, P.E., F.SWE Assistant Provost for Faculty Development Office of the Executive Vice President and Provost Virginia Tech
  4. 4. Employed women within the science and engineering workforce as a percentage of selected occupations: 2013 Source: Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering: 2015. www.nsf.gov/statistics.wmpd/
  5. 5. Source: American Society for Engineering Education, 2016
  6. 6. 15.7% 10.5% 18.4% 23.2% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% All faculty Professor Associate Professor Assistant Professor Percentage of Women Engineering Faculty Source: American Society for Engineering Education, 2016
  7. 7. 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 All full-time workers All scientists & engineers Aerospace engineers Mechanical engineers Median Earnings (dollars) Men Women Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2014 American Community Survey
  8. 8. Why So Few? What Does Social Science Tell Us About Women in Engineering? Peter Meiksins, Ph.D. Vice Provost for Academic Programs Professor of Sociology Cleveland State University
  9. 9. There is no single answer • Need to consider what happens at each point in the life course: • K-12 • University • Leaks in the pipeline • Workplace • Race and gender
  10. 10. K-12 Pipeline: Why aren’t girls attracted to engineering? • Is the field still stereotyped as male? • Does engineering present itself so as to appeal to young women? • Is it about math? Ø Math achievement? Ø Do girls enjoy/value math? Ø Do girls have options? Ø Stereotype threat
  11. 11. What happens in university? • Is there a chilly climate? • Is the curriculum too “male?”
  12. 12. Are there leaks in the pipeline? • Do more women leave during college? • Do women graduates enter the profession? • Do women continue on to graduate programs?
  13. 13. What happens in the workplace? • Is there hiring bias? • Work/family conflict? • Are women’s contributions undervalued?
  14. 14. Women of color: Why even fewer? • Starting at community colleges • Declining enrollment at HBCUs • Need to address both race and gender
  15. 15. Established and Emerging Themes in Research on Women in Engineering Kacey Beddoes, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Sociology University of Massachusetts Lowell
  16. 16. Leading Themes Established 1. Explicit bias 2. Engineering gendered male 3. Math outcomes 4. Leaky pipeline Emerging 1. Teamwork culture 2. Intersectionality
  17. 17. Emerging Theme: Teamwork Culture • Growing body of evidence documenting gender biases in teamwork settings • implicit and explicit biases and sexism • Contributions not recognized / ideas not “heard” • microaggressions • team roles • project topics • evaluation
  18. 18. Emerging Theme: Teamwork Culture • Suggestions that teamwork culture distinguishes engineering from other fields and helps explain underrepresentation • Fundamental shift in thinking about underrepresentation
  19. 19. Emerging Theme: Intersectionality • Gender cannot be understood apart from other facets of identity • Race and ethnicity • Socioeconomic status • Sexual orientation • Forms of disadvantage not additive, but intersecting in complex ways
  20. 20. Promising Directions for Future Research • Stereotypes: where have they changed and where do they still have effects? • Workplace experiences of engineers outside the academy • What can be done to make engineering more appealing to women? • What are the gendered structures of engineering education and workplaces that impede change?
  21. 21. Promising Directions for Future Research • Rigorous studies addressing the intersections of race, ethnicity, gender, and sexuality • Meta-analyses that look across disciplines to make sense of conflicting findings and provide grounds for moving forward to advance research • Gender in teamwork
  22. 22. Driving Positive Systemic Change in STEM Workplaces Through Critical Research, Policy, & Practice Heather Metcalf, Ph.D. Director of Research & Analysis The Association for Women in Science metcalf@awis.org
  23. 23. AWIS Research Areas • Diversity, inclusion, & broadening participation • Equitable workplace policies, practices, & cultures • Leadership, promotion, & recognition • Innovation & entrepreneurship
  24. 24. Diversity, Inclusion, & Broadening Participation • Broadening Participation Report • > 68% of people who report “severe difficulty” walking are outside of the workforce, vs <14% of people with no difficulty walking • LGBTQ+ women in physics: 3x more harassment • Since 2003, black women have earned 1% of PhDs in physics, engineering, math & computer science, & geosciences respectively • One AWIS member was the only black person in the U.S. to earn a PhD in astronomy when she graduated in 2011
  25. 25. Equitable Workplace Policies, Practices, & Cultures • < 3/5 satisfied with work-life integration • = importance by gender below 40 • 54% women v 28% men responsible for core household tasks • Men 16% more likely to report workplaces that are family friendly • Women 10% more likely to report negative career consequences from attempts to obtain WLI Equitable Solutions for Retaining a Robust Workforce How often do work demands conflict with personal life demands?
  26. 26. Leadership, Promotion, & Recognition AWARDS: Regardless of their representation in the nomination pool, women were half as likely to win research awards Service & Teaching Awards Research & Scholarly Awards 0% 15% 30% 45% 60% Physical Sciences Mathematical Sciences Biological & Life Sciences 2011-2014: % Women Tenure Track Faculty % Women Teaching/ Service Awards % Women Scholarly Awards
  27. 27. Innovation & Entrepreneurship • Five most entrepreneurial fields • Highest industry funding • Lowest rates of women’s participation • Women in STEM: • File fewer patents • Half as likely to start, own or manage a business • Half as likely to be tapped by tech transfer officers for commercialization • Receive <4% of venture capital (<1% to women of color) • Receive <14% of SBIR funding • Bias and barriers in: • Funding & access to key networks/sponsors • Training environments • Reward structures & perceptions of commercialization • Promotion
  28. 28. Get in Touch
  29. 29. Engineering Culture & Female Attrition: Four Insights from SWE’s National Gender Culture Study 2016 Beth Michaels Primer Michaels www.primermichaels.com
  30. 30. “I often refer to a subtle headwind that I have felt throughout my career. These results shed new light on just what I was feeling.” Barbara Brockett, V.P. Engineering 30+ yrs. of experience
  31. 31. The National Engineering Culture Study Questions Desired Culture Current Culture Personal Values
  32. 32. What we tolerate is what we endorse.
  33. 33. Reported Constraints Bureaucracy Cost Reduction Hierarchy Resource Constrained / Long Hours Short Term Focus
  34. 34. 1) Women respond to the culture differently than men.
  35. 35. The Values Gap Driving Female Leaders’ Attrition: Accountability
  36. 36. 2) Women have limited tolerance for values stretch.
  37. 37. 3) Women sense time & fairness differently than men.
  38. 38. McKinsey 2016…. 89 European Companies % female leaders / 2 trustees = +48% pre-tax/int earnings +17% stock price growth = Criteria for investment decisions Female Leader Outcomes
  39. 39. 4) Diversity 101 – Gender Intelligence – has disappeared from corporate D/I outcomes.
  40. 40. Female Engineering Leaders’ Message to C-Suite: Be accountable… • Decide what you want • Mean what you say • Take down the barriers and let me do my job.
  41. 41. SWE Research Roberta Rincon, Ph.D. Manager of Research Society of Women Engineers
  42. 42. Climate Control: Gender & Racial Bias in Engineering • Study conducted with the Center for WorkLife Law at the University of California, Hastings College of the Law • Joan Williams, Distinguished Professor of Law • Su Li, Ph.D., Director of Research on Organization Bias • Survey of over 3,000 engineers • Focus on implicit bias • Experiences of bias in the workplace • Effects of bias in hiring, promotions, performance evaluations, and compensation
  43. 43. Prove-It-Again “I have learned that I never have the benefit of the doubt…and must make for myself opportunities which are given to others.” – Hispanic female engineer “…I have to prove myself to student[s] and colleagues before I can get the respect that a male will get by default.” – White female engineer White Men Women Engineers of Color I feel that I am held to a higher standard than my colleagues 40% 53% 60% I have to repeatedly prove myself to get the same level of respect and recognition as my colleagues 35% 61% 68% I have been mistaken for administrative or custodial staff 9% 45% 45%
  44. 44. Tightrope “I had my white male counterpart engineers who were being given the opportunity to present papers [at a conference]. My boss wanted me to write those papers for them, but didn’t want me to go to the conference to present.” - African-American female engineer “I was specifically asked to get coffee in the middle of my presentation during one event.” – Hispanic female engineer White Men Women Engineers of Color I seldom receive pushback when I behave assertively 67% 51% 49% I am more often expected to do “office housework” as compared to colleagues in comparable roles 26% 55% 52% I have the same access to desirable assignments as my colleagues 85% 65% 55%
  45. 45. Maternal Wall “The biggest obstacle is the negative perception of needing a flexible work schedule as a single mother.” - African-American female engineer “When I was pregnant, my boss really didn’t know how to handle planning for my absence. He took a team leader role away from me when I was about 20 weeks pregnant ‘just in case’ I had to be out before my due date. “ – White female engineer White Men Women Asking for family leave or flexible work arrangements would not hurt my career 63% 50% Having children did not change my colleagues’ perceptions of my work commitment or competence 78% 55%
  46. 46. Workplace Processes “I miss out on informal social networking opportunities when my colleagues go hunting/fishing/to lunch or happy hour and don’t invite me.” – White female engineer “I didn’t realize until I moved up to [management] how much I was underpaid until I was able to see the entire team’s pay. I also realized the trend was not just with me but the other females on the team.” – White female engineer White Men Women Engineers of Color As compared to my colleagues, I work more but get paid less 29% 40% 48% I feel I get less honest feedback on my performance than my colleagues 20% 29% 35% I have been given the advancement opportunities and promotions I deserve 71% 62% 53% I have had as much access to informal or formal networking opportunities as my colleagues 84% 67% 64%
  47. 47. SWE Research Site research.swe.org
  48. 48. STEM Reentry • Partnership with iRelaunch • Task Force Founding Members: • Booz Allen Hamilton • Caterpillar • Cummins • General Motors Company • IBM • Intel • Johnson Controls reentry.swe.org
  49. 49. 2017 STEM Reentry • Task Force companies will include: • Ford Motor Company • GE Power • Johnson & Johnson • Medtronic • Northrop Grumman • Schneider Electric reentry.swe.org
  50. 50. Future Research • Minority Women in the Workplace • Collaboration with NSBE • Experiences of early career engineers • K-12 • Community college pathways
  51. 51. SWE Magazine Anne Perusek Director of Editorial and Publications Society of Women Engineers
  52. 52. From SWE’s Beginning
  53. 53. Aiding Governmental Agencies 1954 Women’s Bureau Bulletin, U.S. Department of Labor, compiled with SWE’s statistics
  54. 54. And at the Same Time “Women themselves will continue, for some time to come, to carry the major responsibility for development of equal opportunity in engineering.” - Katharine Stinson, SWE’s third president, left, with Joan Barrage. Stinson was the first woman engineer at the Federal Aviation Administration.
  55. 55. Documentation Through the Years Profiles were published irregularly between 1963 and 1982. Research picked up again in 1993 with the release of “A National Survey of Women and Men Engineers: A Study of the Members of 22 Engineering Societies.” A follow-up was released in 2006.
  56. 56. SWE Annual Literature Review More than 15 years running, issued every spring. All past literature reviews are compiled into a single document available at swe.org
  57. 57. Coming this Spring: Special issue of SWE Magazine • Devoted to research, presented in a manner that is accessible to non-academics • Includes: - Annual Literature Review - SWE’s research results - Insights from noted researchers - Digital format with print on demand option - Stay tuned through SWE social media, issue release will be announced in March
  58. 58. In Conclusion Karen Horting, CAE Executive Director & CEO Society of Women Engineers
  59. 59. Questions?
  60. 60. Thank You Please join us at our WE16 Career Fair