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Canard wing for hawk mk 132 aircraft

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First phase of Design of canard wing for the HAWK MK 132 aircraft

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Canard wing for hawk mk 132 aircraft

  1. 1. “DESIGN OF CANARD WING FOR THE HAWK MK 132 AIRCRAFT” PRESENTED BY: SACHIN L BHUSAL 4KM14AE004 NIROSHA T P 4KM14AE013 PRAJWAL B 4KM14AE015 PRAJWAL P 4KM14AE016 INTERNAL GUIDE: Dharmendra.A .P. Assistant Professor Dept. of Aeronautical Engineering KIT,Mangalore EXTERNAL GUIDE: Mr. Shaik Mahammed Sharief Senior Manager Hawk Final Assembly Aircraft Division HAL,Bengaluru UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF 1
  2. 2. HINDUSTAN AERONAUTICS LIMITED[HAL] HISTORY GROWTH PRODUCTS OF HAL INTRODUCTION 2
  3. 3. HISTORY Incorporated On 23rd December 1940 At Bangalore. Established by Shri Walchand Hirachand. Govt Of India Became One Of The Share Holders On March 1941. Govt Of India Took Over Its Management In 1942. Placed Under Ministry Of Industry And Supply In 1945. Placed Under Ministry Of Defence In 1951. [1] 3
  4. 4. GROWTH Built Aircraft And Engines Of Foreign Design Under License, Such As Prentice, Vampire And Gnat Aircraft. Undertook The Design And Development Of Aircraft Indigenously. In August 1951, The HH-2 Trainer Aircraft, Designed And Produced By The Company Under The Leadership Of Dr.V.M. Ghatge . Nearly 200 Trainers Were Manufactured And Supplied To The Indian Air Force. [1] 4
  5. 5. PRODUCTS Two Seater ‘Pushpak’. ‘Krishak’ For Air Observatory Post Role. HF-24 Jet Fighter ‘Marut’. HJT-16 Basic Jet Trainer ‘Kiran’. Su-30 MKI. Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) ‘Tejas’. Hawk Mk 132 Aircraft . 5
  6. 6. LITERATURE SURVEY 1. Eugene.L.Tu,s,effect Of Canard Deflection On Close Coupled Canard – Wing – Body Aerodynamics , Journal Of Aircraft, Vol. 31, Pp. 138-145, Jan-feb 1994. 2. General Aviation Aircraft Design: Applied Methods And Procedures By Snorri Gudmundsson, Published By Elsevier, Inc. 2010 3. The HAWK Story Harry Fraser-mitchell Formerly British Aerospace Ltd Paper No. 2013/01 Journal Of Aeronautical History 6
  7. 7. BAE-HALAJT HAWK MK 132 Versatile And Cost effective Advance Jet Trainer In The World. Advanced Simulation For Radar, Weapons And Defensive Aids Training. Number One Choice With Modern Air Forces Worldwide. [1] [4] 7
  8. 8. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HAWK MK 132 AIRCRAFT Tandem Seat Aircraft For Ground Attack, Flying, Training And Weapon Training Low Wing And An All-metal Structure Powered By An Adour Mk 871 Turbofan Engine Excellent Flying Characteristics With Good Stability [4] 8
  9. 9. AVIONICS AND TRAINING SYSTEM OF HAWK MK 132 Three, Full Colour, Multi-function Displays Are Used To Display Navigation, Weapon And Systems Information.  Hands-on-throttle-and-stick (HOTAS) Controls Which Are Fully Representative Of Frontline Combat Aircraft. Equipped With A Northrop Grumman Apg-66h Multi- mode Radar. [4] 9
  10. 10. PROPULSION AND PERFORMANCE OF HAWK MK 132 AIRCRAFT Powered By Rolls Royce Adour Mk 871 Turbofan Engine. Maximum Takeoff Weight of 9100 Kg. Internal Fuel Capacity Of 360 Imp Galls And Also Two External Drop Tanks Of 130 Imp Galls Each. Maximum Speed Of 0.84 Mach At Sea Level And 0.85 Mach At 30000 Ft. [4] 10
  11. 11. OBJECTIVE  To Design And Develop A Small Close Coupled Canard Wing For The Hawk MK – 132 AJT Aircraft 11
  12. 12. PROBLEM STATEMENT  To Provide The Pilots The Experience Of Flying Canard Configuration Aircrafts During Their Training Period 12
  13. 13. METHODOLOGY  Weighing And Calculating C.G. Travel Of Hawk MK 132 Aircraft For Different Configuration  Finding Best Place For Canard From C.G.  Calculation For C.G. Travel After Introducing Canard Wing  Sizing Of Canard  To Calculate CL, CD, CM For Canard Wing  Estimating Stability And Stick Fixed Neutral Point For Aircraft 13
  14. 14. INTRODUCTION TO CANARD WING WHAT IS CANARD ? WHY IS CANARD USED? WHERE IS CANARD USED? WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF CANARD? 14
  15. 15. WHY IS CANARD USED?  Increase Manoeuvrability  Improve Performance At High AOA  Also Includes Production Of Lift, Pitch Control ,longitudinal Stability And Control 15
  16. 16. 16 VARIOUS CANARD AIRCRAFTS USED IN MILITARY Su-30 MKI F-15 EUROFIGHTER TYPHOON
  17. 17. TYPES OF CANARDS 17 CLOSE COUPLED LONG ARM SU-30MKI EUROFIGHTER TYPHOON
  18. 18. ADVANTAGES  For unstable aircraft, canard designs may have a CLmax and/or drag advantage.  Inherent instability adds manoeuvrability.  Close coupled canard-wing reduces necessary wing twist.  Canard allows for reduced trim drag.  Possibility for very good stalling characteristics without elevator stops. 18
  19. 19. DISADVANTAGES  High canard CLmax leads to low efficiency.  Canards have poor stealth characteristics.  Canard sizing is very sensitive. 19
  20. 20. WEIGHING AND BALANCE  Excessive weight adversely impacts performance:  Longer take off and landing distance  Reduced climb performance  Reduced ability to withstand turbulence and wind shear forces  Out of Forward C.G. limits can cause:  Reduced up-elevator authority (ability to raise the nose)  Can eliminate the ability to flare for landing  Out of Rear C.G. limits can cause:  Reduced down-elevator authority (ability to lower the nose)  Can make stall recovery difficult or impossible 20
  21. 21. IMPORTANCE OF BALANCE  Center of gravity (CG) : the imaginary point where the aircraft would balance if suspended  CG is critical to an airplane’s stability and elevator effectiveness.  CG limits are the forward and aft center of gravity locations within which the aircraft must be operated at a given weight. 21
  22. 22. WEIGHT AND BALANCE TERMS EMPTY AIRPLANE  Basic empty weight : weight of airplane + equipment + unusable fuel + full engine oil  Licensed empty weight : weight of airplane + equipment + unusable fuel + full engine oil + undrainable oil  Unusable fuel : small amount of fuel in tanks that cannot be used in flight or drained on ground 22
  23. 23. METHODS FOR CALCULATING TOTAL WEIGHT AND CG 23  Table  Graph  computation
  24. 24. COMPUTATION 24 Reference Datum - + 1090 4.75 m 8.21 m 3.25 m 6.503 m 100 C.G. = C.G. =
  25. 25. TABLE 25
  26. 26. 26
  27. 27. PITCHING MOMENT FOR A SIMPLE -WING CANARD SYSTEM 27
  28. 28. CANARD CONTRIBUTION FOR STATIC STABILITY  It is assumed that the elevator deflection is neutral, i.e. δe = 0°. 28
  29. 29. SIZING OF CANARD  Estimation of Cmo and Cmα for the canard configuration for AOAs ranging from – 15 to +25  Effective canard span length, bc = 1.3716 m  Given canard aspect ratio = 3.5 Canard wing area A.R. = , bC = 0.5375 m2 Chord length of canard CC = , CC = 0.39187 m 29
  30. 30. 30 The change in coefficient of lift with respect to change in Angle of attack: CLαc = , CLαc = 3.9983 per radian Canard volume: Vc = , Vc = 0.0214 Coefficient of pitching moment of wing at zero AOA Overall pitching moment given by By calculations Cmo = -0.09845 and Cmα = -1.7094/rad
  31. 31. 31 AOA (deg) AOA (rad) CL CD Cm -15 -0.261795 -1.0467349 0.14752546 0.34906237 -14.5 -0.2530685 -1.0118438 0.13819524 0.33414529 -14 -0.244342 -0.9769526 0.12918129 0.31922821 -13.5 -0.2356155 -0.9420615 0.12048362 0.30431114 -13 -0.226889 -0.9071703 0.11210224 0.28939406 -12.5 -0.2181625 -0.8722791 0.10403713 0.27447698 -12 -0.209436 -0.837388 0.0962883 0.2595599 -11.5 -0.2007095 -0.8024968 0.08885574 0.24464282 -11 -0.191983 -0.7676056 0.08173947 0.22972574 -10.5 -0.1832565 -0.7327145 0.07493948 0.21480866 -10 -0.17453 -0.6978233 0.06845576 0.19989158 Calculated values of CL,CD and Cm for angles ranging from -150 to +250:
  32. 32. 32 AOA (deg) AOA (rad) CL CD Cm -9.5 -0.1658035 -0.6629321 0.06228832 0.1849745 -9 -0.157077 -0.628041 0.05643717 0.17005742 -8.5 -0.1483505 -0.5931498 0.05090229 0.15514034 -8 -0.139624 -0.5582586 0.04568369 0.14022327 -7.5 -0.1308975 -0.5233675 0.04078137 0.12530619 -7 -0.122171 -0.4884763 0.03619532 0.11038911 -6.5 -0.1134445 -0.4535851 0.03192556 0.09547203 -6 -0.104718 -0.418694 0.02797207 0.08055495 -5.5 -0.0959915 -0.3838028 0.02433487 0.06563787 -5 -0.087265 -0.3489116 0.02101394 0.05072079 -4.5 -0.0785385 -0.3140205 0.01800929 0.03580371 -4 -0.069812 -0.2791293 0.01532092 0.02088663 -3.5 -0.0610855 -0.2442382 0.01294883 0.00596955 -3 -0.052359 -0.209347 0.01089302 -0.0089475 -2.5 -0.0436325 -0.1744558 0.00915349 -0.0238646 -2 -0.034906 -0.1395647 0.00773023 -0.0387817 -1.5 -0.0261795 -0.1046735 0.00662325 -0.0536988 -1 -0.017453 -0.0697823 0.00583256 -0.0686158 -0.5 -0.0087265 -0.0348912 0.00535814 -0.0835329 0 0 0 0.0052 -0.09845 0.5 0.0087265 0.03489116 0.00535814 -0.1133671 1 0.017453 0.06978233 0.00583256 -0.1282842 1.5 0.0261795 0.10467349 0.00662325 -0.1432012 2 0.034906 0.13956466 0.00773023 -0.1581183 2.5 0.0436325 0.17445582 0.00915349 -0.1730354 3 0.052359 0.20934699 0.01089302 -0.1879525 3.5 0.0610855 0.24423815 0.01294883 -0.2028696 4 0.069812 0.27912932 0.01532092 -0.2177866 4.5 0.0785385 0.31402048 0.01800929 -0.2327037 5 0.087265 0.34891165 0.02101394 -0.2476208 5.5 0.0959915 0.38380281 0.02433487 -0.2625379 AOA (deg) AOA (rad) CL CD Cm 6 0.104718 0.41869398 0.02797207 -0.2774549 6.5 0.1134445 0.45358514 0.03192556 -0.292372 7 0.122171 0.48847631 0.03619532 -0.3072891 7.5 0.1308975 0.52336747 0.04078137 -0.3222062 8 0.139624 0.55825864 0.04568369 -0.3371233 8.5 0.1483505 0.5931498 0.05090229 -0.3520403 9 0.157077 0.62804097 0.05643717 -0.3669574 9.5 0.1658035 0.66293213 0.06228832 -0.3818745 10 0.17453 0.6978233 0.06845576 -0.3967916 10.5 0.1832565 0.73271446 0.07493948 -0.4117087 11 0.191983 0.76760563 0.08173947 -0.4266257 11.5 0.2007095 0.80249679 0.08885574 -0.4415428 12 0.209436 0.83738796 0.0962883 -0.4564599 12.5 0.2181625 0.87227912 0.10403713 -0.471377 13 0.226889 0.90717029 0.11210224 -0.4862941 13.5 0.2356155 0.94206145 0.12048362 -0.5012111 14 0.244342 0.97695262 0.12918129 -0.5161282 14.5 0.2530685 1.01184378 0.13819524 -0.5310453 15 0.261795 1.04673495 0.14752546 -0.5459624 15.5 0.2705215 1.08162611 0.15717196 -0.5608795 16 0.279248 1.11651728 0.16713475 -0.5757965 16.5 0.2879745 1.15140844 0.17741381 -0.5907136 17 0.296701 1.18629961 0.18800915 -0.6056307 17.5 0.3054275 1.22119077 0.19892077 -0.6205478 18 0.314154 1.25608194 0.21014866 -0.6354648 18.5 0.3228805 1.2909731 0.22169284 -0.6503819 19 0.331607 1.32586427 0.2335533 -0.665299 19.5 0.3403335 1.36075543 0.24573003 -0.6802161 20 0.34906 1.3956466 0.25822304 -0.6951332 20.5 0.3577865 1.43053776 0.27103233 -0.7100502 21 0.366513 1.46542893 0.2841579 -0.7249673 Calculated values of CL,CD and Cm
  33. 33. THE STICK-FIXED AND STICK-FREE NEUTRAL POINTS OF A CANARD CONFIGURATION: 33 hn = -0.9796 m = This places the stick-fixed neutral point some 0.9796 m aft of the leading edge of the MGC
  34. 34. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 34 CL vs. AOA curve
  35. 35. 35Cm vs AOA curve
  36. 36. CONCLUSION  In our close coupled canard wing configuration for the Hawk aircraft, we used to find the best place where the canard aerofoil suits well and it does not affect the CG balancing of the aircraft.  Lift coefficient increases as the canard is added to the wing-body.  At low angles of attacks, the increment of lift slope for various canards’ aspect ratio is small and almost constant. 36
  37. 37. REFERENCES 1. The HAWK Story Harry Fraser-Mitchell Formerly British Aerospace Ltd Paper No. 2013/01 Journal of Aeronautical History 2. Rutan aircraft factory, long-ez – owner’s manual, 2nd ed., October 1981. 3. General Aviation Aircraft Design: Applied Methods and Procedures by Snorri Gudmundsson, published by Elsevier, Inc. 37
  38. 38. THANK YOU 38

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