• Wood is a natural material that’s easy to work
upon, widely available in huge quantities, and
has several varieties. Each type of wood can be
used for specific purposes.
• It is lightweight and sturdy, Further, it is
available in a variety of patterns and looks
• The material has been used since ancient times.
Therefore, skilled workers who have adequate
knowledge about the different types of wood are
easily available globally.
3. Timeline of wood
Wood has been used since
both structurally and for frames,
furnishing, storages etc. inside the
Different kinds of wood are used
for different purposes based on
their properties. In the modern
world there is extensive use of
engineered wood (for storages,
furnishing, door panels, partitions,
cladding etc.) along with natural
• Wood retains its thermal properties. Thus, it is
highly resistant to high temperatures. The heat
conductivity of wood is relatively low in
comparison to materials such as aluminum,
marble, steel, or glass.
• It can absorb sound and echo, making it a
favorite material for the construction of offices
and residential structures.
• Wood is a bad conductor of electric waves.
Hence, it’s perfect to provide insulation to a
living or working area.
• Wooden houses are inexpensive to build and extend and enjoy low running
and maintenance costs over a long period of time. However, this also
depends on the availability of wood in the local area.
• Wood paneling is particularly popular for ceilings, covering irregularities,
minimizing maintenance, and simplifying the fitting of lighting and the
7. Types of natural wood
• Wood can be broadly classified as
Softwood and Hardwood. Density is
a major determinant of the strength
of wood. Hardwoods, being denser
than the softwoods, are stronger and
• Botanical characteristic is another
feature which differentiates
softwood and hardwood
8. Soft wood
• Softwood: Softwood comes from the coniferous trees. These trees are also
known as evergreen trees as leaves do not fall till the new ones grow. Softwood
usually grows in regions having a cold climate. Coniferous trees grow fast; hence,
they are less expensive as compared to hardwood. They are more sustainable as
they can be easily grown.
Pinewood: Pinewood is a soft, white or light-yellow wood which is light in
weight and straight-grained. It resists shrinkage, swelling, and warping but
decays when comes in contact with soil. Pine is very easy to shape and stain.
• USES: It is used to make all kinds of indoor and outdoor furniture. It is also
used to make frames of doors and windows, flooring, and paving materials.
Knotty pine is often used for a decorative effect. It is also one of the sources of
Spruce wood: Spruce wood is strong and hard. It finishes well and has a low
resistance to decay. It has moderate shrinkage and is light in weight.
• USES: It is commonly used for masts and spars of ships, aircraft, crates, boxes,
paneling, cladding, general millwork, and ladders.
9. Cedar Wood: Cedarwood is a knotty softwood that has a red-brown color with light
lines. Cedar is soft as compared to other softwoods. The wood texture is uniform
and highly resistant to decay and insects. They are aromatic in nature.
• USES: It is one of the famous wood types used for lining drawers, chests, and
boxes. Simple cases and storage closets are also constructed from this wood.
Firwood: Fir is straight grain and has a reddish-brown color. It is uniform in texture
and non-resinous and has poor resistance to decay. Fir is hard in comparison to
other softwoods. It cannot be stained easily
• USES: It is used for furniture, doors, frames, windows, plywood, veneer, general
millwork and interior trim.
Hemlock wood: Hemlock wood is light-weight and has moderate strength. It has a
low resistance to decay and is non-resinous.
• USES: It is used in the construction of lumber, planks, doors, boards, joinery,
subflooring and crates.
10. Hard wood
Teakwood: It is yellow to dark brown in color and is extremely heavy, strong, durable,
weather-resistant, warp-resistant, and does not decay. Often strongly figured, teak may
show straight grain pattern. The natural oils in teak make them termite and pest-
resistant. Teak does not burn easily. It is quite expensive when compared to other wood
• USES: It is commonly used as a structural wood for wooden framed houses, doors,
windows, and partitions. It is an excellent choice for outdoor furniture like garden
benches and lounge chairs. Most homeowners prefer teak for their indoor furniture like
beds and wardrobes. It is also used in veneer production.
Rosewood: Rosewood is very hard and has a dark reddish-brown color. It has a unique
fragrance. It is hard to work on and needs a lot of polishing. East Indian rosewood is
also known as Sheesham and is considered to be very valuable.
• USES: Rosewood is used in tool handles, art projects, decorative veneers, and furniture.
• Hardwood comes from deciduous trees that have broad leaves, produce fruits or
nuts, and are generally inactive in the winter. Hardwoods have a more dense
structure in comparison to softwoods.
11. Oak wood: It has a very distinct grain and finish. Oak is a heavy, strong, light-colored hardwood.
It is very easy to work on. It has good resistance to moisture, fungus, and yeast. It has two basic
varieties: white and red (also known as black oak)
• USES: It is an excellent choice for household and office furniture like bookshelves and cabinets.
It is also widely preferred for outdoor furniture. Due to its moisture-resistant property, it is also
used in ships and boats. In modern times, interior decor experts are employing oak for flooring,
timber-framed structures, and veneer production.
Mahogany wood: Mahogany wood is also known as Honduras. The wood is reddish-brown in
color. It is strong, with a uniform pore structure and poorly defined annual rings. It is an
excellent carving wood and finishes well. It takes stain very well, rendering a great finish to the
piece of furniture. One of its many advantages is that it doesn’t warp, swell, or shrink. It can be
used underwater too.
• USES: It is most commonly used in fashion cabinets, nested tables, dining table sets, and other
types of indoor furniture. Mahogany is also used in boat building, window frames, sills, and
Cherry wood: Cherry wood is sometimes called fruitwood. It is light to reddish-brown in color,
hard, strong, warp-resistant, and closed grained wood. It resists warping and checking. It is easy
to carve and polish.
USES: It works well when used for decorative carving and for making solid furniture like
cabinets, shelves, and tables.
12. Walnut wood: Walnut wood is one of the most versatile and popular wood types with
a very fine texture. The wood is light to dark chocolate brown in color with a straight
grain in the trunk. Walnut is strong, hard and durable, without being excessively heavy,
and warp-resistant. It has excellent woodworking qualities and takes finishes well. It is
very expensive compared to other types of hardwood.
USES: It is an ideal wood choice for crafting dining table sets, coffee tables, veneer,
musical instruments, gun stocks, and decoration.
13. Engineered wood
• Engineered wood is a product that is
manufactured to appear like wood, using
different materials such as shredded wood
fibers, sawdust, adhesives and various
chemicals. The product can then be cut and
sawed like timber.
• Engineered wood, meaning man-made
wood, is designed and tested to be strong,
durable and moisture resistant. Certain
products are manufactured using
waterproof adhesives, especially for
14. Engineered wood
• Engineered wood comes in a vast variety of grades, thickness and standard
sizes to suit vast majority of designs and are used for host of different
purposes such as building homes, commercial spaces, furniture, interior
designs, industrial applications and many others.
• There are multiple kinds of engineered wood available to suit different
applications and budgets.