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INDIAN FINANCIAL SYSTEM
An Introduction on
Meaning and Definition
 Financial System is a complex, well-integrated set
of sub-systems of
 Financial institution,
 M...
Formal and Informal Financial system
 Formal Financial Sector is characterized by
presence of an organized, institutional...
Financial Dualism
 Financial Dualism: It is the combination of
formal and informal financial system.
Informal financial system
 Informal Financial Sector is an unorganized,
non-institutional and non-regularized system
deal...
Components of Formal Financial System
1. Financial institutions;
2. Financial markets;
3. Financial instruments;
4. Financ...
Components of Formal Financial System
 Term finance institutions: IFCI, IDBI, ICICI,
SIDBI,IIBI.
Components of Formal Financial System-
Institutions
 Term finance institutions: IFCI (1948), IDBI
(1964), ICICI (1955), S...
Financial Markets
 Financial markets are the mechanism enabling
participants to deal in financial claims.
 Literally, fi...
Types of Financial Markets
1. Money Market: a market for short-term
securities or securities with a maturity of less than
...
Types of the Capital Market
1. Primary market: it refers to the market:
 Where securities are created/issued;
 where the...
Types of the Capital Market
1. Primary market: it refers to the market:
 Where securities are created/issued;
 where the...
Types of the Capital Market
1. Primary market:
2. Secondary market:
 Over the counter: trade thorough the direct counters...
3. Financial Instruments
 Financial asset or the financial instrument is
the claim of money, against a particular person ...
Features of a Security
 Marketable;
 Traceable;
 Tailor-made.
Financial Services
 Financial facilitate the
ease of:
1. Borrowing and funding;
2. Lending and investing;
3. Buying and s...
Categories of Financial Services
1. Fund intermediation:
2. Liquidity facility:
3. Payment mechanism:
4. Risk management:
...
Functions of a Financial System
 Mobilize and allocate savings;
 Monitor corporate performance;
 Provide payment and se...
Financial System and Economic
 Increase in rate of saving and investments;
 Increase in the productivity and production;...
Keys elements of well functioning financial system
 A strong legal and regulatory environment;
 Stable money;
 Sound pu...
Mobilization of Funds
Financial Markets
 Financial markets are the mechanism enabling
participants to deal in financial claims.
 Literally, fi...
Types of Financial Markets
1. Money Market: a market for short-term
securities or securities with a maturity of less than
...
THE MONEY MARKET
An Introduction to
Meaning and Definition
 Money market refers to the market for financial
assets that are close substitutes for money;
 It...
Features and characteristics of money market
1. Money market refers to the market for financial assets
that are close subs...
Functions of money market
• Money market is generally expected to perform
three broad functions:
1. Provide balancing mech...
Benefits of The Efficient Money Market
1. Provides a stable source of funds to banks;
2. Encourage development of non bank...
The Indian Money Market
Role of Reserve Bank of India in The Money Market
 Money market comes under the direct purview of
Reserve Bank of India;
...
Organization of money market in India
 Formal/organized money market;
 Informal/unorganized money market.
Historical Background of Money Market in India
Developments in Money Market in India
 In the 1980s:
1. Sukhamoy chakravor...
Historical Background of Money Market in India
Developments in Money Market in India
 In the 1990s:
1. M. Narsimham commi...
Historical Background of Money Market in India
Developments in Money Market in India
 In the 1990s:
1. M. Narsimham commi...
Money Marker Centers In India
 There are three money market centers in India,
which are located at:
1. Mumbai
2. Delhi
3....
Money Market Instruments
1. Treasury bills;
2. Call money;
3. Notice money;
4. Term money;
5. Commercial papers (CP);
6. C...
Money Market Instruments
1. Treasury bills are short-term instruments used by
the government to raise short-term funds;
• ...
Money Market Instruments
2. Call money: commercial banks borrow money
from other banks to maintain minimum cash
balance kn...
Money Market Instruments
3. Notice Money: commercial banks borrow money
from other banks to maintain minimum cash
balance ...
Money Market Instruments
4. Term money: commercial banks borrow money
from other banks to maintain minimum cash
balance kn...
Link between the call money market and other
financial markets
 Call rate interest rate paid on the call loans;
 MIBOR (...
Measures for curbing high rate of volatility in the
call money market
Money market intermediaries in India
 DHFI(1988)- discount and finance house of India;
 Money market mutual funds of Ind...
Link between the money market and monetary
policy of India
 Direct instruments :
Reserve requirements;
Limits on refina...
Money market derivatives-Interest rates swaps
Money market derivatives-Plain vanilla interest
rate swaps
Money Market Instruments
5. Commercial papers (CP-1990) is an unsecured
short-term promissory note issued at a discount by...
Money Market Instruments
6. Certificates of deposits(CD-1989) are short-
term tradable time deposits issued by commercial
...
Money Market Instruments
7. Commercial bills (CB) are negotiable instruments drawn
on the seller by the buyer, in turn, ac...
Money Market Instruments
7. Commercial bills (CB) are negotiable instruments
drawn on the seller by the buyer, in turn, ac...
Money Market Instruments
9. Collateralized borrowing and lending
obligations (CBLO): same as the call money
facility avail...
THE CAPITAL MARKET
An Introduction to
Meaning and Definition
 Capital market is a market where securities with
the long tenure are bought and sold such as equi...
Types of the Capital Market
1. Primary market: it refers to the market:
 Where securities are created/issued;
 where the...
Role of capital markets in the growth of economy
 It helps in economic growth of a country by
mobilizing the savings and ...
Functions of The Capital Market
1. Mobilization of savings;
2. Provides risk capital to entrepreneurs such as equity and q...
Components of Capital Market
1. Primary market: it refers to the market where
financial securities are created/issued and ...
Primary Market
1. Primary market: it refers to the market where
financial securities are created/issued and sold for
very ...
Issue of The Securities in Primary Market
Name of the Security Domestic issue External issue
1. Equity Corporate (primary...
Issue of The Securities in Primary Market
Other external borrowings Method of investment
1. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI...
Methods of Issuing Equity in Primary Market
1. Public issues through prospectus: IPOs, FPOs;
2. Private placement;
3. Righ...
Secondary Market
 Secondary market: it refers to the market where
those financial securities are re-bought and re-sold
wh...
Functions of The Secondary Market
1. Facilitates liquidity and marketability of securities;
2. Provides valuation of secur...
History of Indian Capital Market
To be updated soon…
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Indian Financial System: a complete guide to indian financial system Bba ifs

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sahil narang
indian financial system
indian capital market
money market of india
history of indian capital market

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Indian Financial System: a complete guide to indian financial system Bba ifs

  1. 1. INDIAN FINANCIAL SYSTEM An Introduction on
  2. 2. Meaning and Definition  Financial System is a complex, well-integrated set of sub-systems of  Financial institution,  Markets,  Instruments, and  Services  which facilitates the transfer and allocation of funds, efficiently and effectively.
  3. 3. Formal and Informal Financial system  Formal Financial Sector is characterized by presence of an organized, institutional and regulated system which caters the financial needs of the modern spheres of the economy.  Informal Financial Sector is an unorganized, non-institutional and non-regularized system dealing with the traditional and rural spheres of the economy.
  4. 4. Financial Dualism  Financial Dualism: It is the combination of formal and informal financial system.
  5. 5. Informal financial system  Informal Financial Sector is an unorganized, non-institutional and non-regularized system dealing with the traditional and rural spheres of the economy.  Advantages: 1). Low Transaction, 2). Minimum default risk, 3). Less of formalities, 4). Less time consuming, 5). Fulfillment of urgent requirements.  Disadvantages: 1). Unregulated 2). High rates of interest 3). Less transparency of procedures, 4). Rise to black money, 5). Exploitation of victims.
  6. 6. Components of Formal Financial System 1. Financial institutions; 2. Financial markets; 3. Financial instruments; 4. Financial services.
  7. 7. Components of Formal Financial System  Term finance institutions: IFCI, IDBI, ICICI, SIDBI,IIBI.
  8. 8. Components of Formal Financial System- Institutions  Term finance institutions: IFCI (1948), IDBI (1964), ICICI (1955), SIDBI (1989), IIBI (1997).  Specialized services institutions: EXIM (1982), TFCI(1994), ICICI VENTURE;  Sectoral financial institutions: NABARD(1982), NHB(1988).  Investment institutions: UTI(1964), LIC(1955), GIC(1972) and its subsidiaries;  state-level financial institutions: SIDC(1955), SFC(1951).
  9. 9. Financial Markets  Financial markets are the mechanism enabling participants to deal in financial claims.  Literally, financial markets also provide a facility in which their demands and requirements interact to set a price for such claims. (D=S)
  10. 10. Types of Financial Markets 1. Money Market: a market for short-term securities or securities with a maturity of less than one year; 2. Capital market: A market for long-term securities or securities with a maturity period of one or more year.  Primary market;  Secondary market.
  11. 11. Types of the Capital Market 1. Primary market: it refers to the market:  Where securities are created/issued;  where the securities are traded for very first time; 2. Secondary market: it refers to the market where those securities traded which have already been issued in the primary market:  Over the counter;  Trade through stock exchanges;
  12. 12. Types of the Capital Market 1. Primary market: it refers to the market:  Where securities are created/issued;  where the securities are traded for very first time; 2. Secondary market: it refers to the market where those securities traded which have already been issued in the primary market:  Over the counter: trade thorough the direct counters of the company or on the immediate basis;  Trade through stock exchanges: approach to BSE, NSE or any other stock exchange through stock brokers or agents of registered broking companies.
  13. 13. Types of the Capital Market 1. Primary market: 2. Secondary market:  Over the counter: trade thorough the direct counters of the company or on the immediate basis;  Trade through stock exchanges: approach to BSE, NSE or any other stock exchange through stock brokers or agents of registered broking companies.  Stock brokers or agents of registered broking companies: these are the individuals, companies or the institutions registered with SEBI (1992) and are authorised to sale and purchase of securities or the financial assets.  Share khan, Religare and Unicorn etc.
  14. 14. 3. Financial Instruments  Financial asset or the financial instrument is the claim of money, against a particular person or institution, at a future date, for a specific amount;  A financial asset may also include the claim of periodic payment in form of interest or dividend,  Implies Debentures, shares, bonds and notes; 1. Primary securities: Equity, Debentures; 2. Secondary securities: Bank deposits, Insurance policies and Mutual funds.
  15. 15. Features of a Security  Marketable;  Traceable;  Tailor-made.
  16. 16. Financial Services  Financial facilitate the ease of: 1. Borrowing and funding; 2. Lending and investing; 3. Buying and selling; 4. Making and enabling payments and settlements; 5. Managing risk and exposures; Need for Financial Services
  17. 17. Categories of Financial Services 1. Fund intermediation: 2. Liquidity facility: 3. Payment mechanism: 4. Risk management: 5. Financial engineering is the application of mathematical methods to the solution of problems in finance.  It is also known as financial mathematics, mathematical finance, and computational finance.
  18. 18. Functions of a Financial System  Mobilize and allocate savings;  Monitor corporate performance;  Provide payment and settlement system;  Optimum allocation of risk bearing and reduction;  Disseminate price related information;  Offer portfolio adjustment facility;  Lower the cost of transactions;  Promote the process of financial deepening of broadening. Financial Deepening: It refers to the increased provision of financial services with a wider choice of services geared to all levels of society.
  19. 19. Financial System and Economic  Increase in rate of saving and investments;  Increase in the productivity and production;  Growth in GDP and GNP of India;  Helps in capital formation;  Utilization of idle funds;  Maintains circular flows in economy;  Increase transparency and reduce risk of several defaults.  Improvement in living standard;
  20. 20. Keys elements of well functioning financial system  A strong legal and regulatory environment;  Stable money;  Sound public;  Sound finances and public debt management;  A central bank;  Sound banking system;  Information system;  Well functioning securities market;
  21. 21. Mobilization of Funds
  22. 22. Financial Markets  Financial markets are the mechanism enabling participants to deal in financial claims.  Literally, financial markets also provide a facility in which their demands and requirements interact to set a price for such claims. (D=S)
  23. 23. Types of Financial Markets 1. Money Market: a market for short-term securities or securities with a maturity of less than one year; 2. Capital market: A market for long-term securities or securities with a maturity period of one or more year.  Primary market;  Secondary market.
  24. 24. THE MONEY MARKET An Introduction to
  25. 25. Meaning and Definition  Money market refers to the market for financial assets that are close substitutes for money;  It is the market for overnight to short-term funds and instruments;  Instrument having maturity period of one or less than one year.
  26. 26. Features and characteristics of money market 1. Money market refers to the market for financial assets that are close substitutes for money; 2. It is the market for overnight to short-term funds and instruments; 3. Instrument having maturity period of one or less than one year. 4. It is not a physical location (like stock exchanges), hence activities are conducted over telephones; 5. Collection of several instruments and their markets; 6. Whole sale market of short term debt instruments; 7. Creditworthiness of the participants is important; 8. Main players are: DHFI, RBI, Banking institutions, NBFCs, STCI, PSUs and non-residents Indians. 9. Need based market; 10. Price determination through free play of demand and supply forces;
  27. 27. Functions of money market • Money market is generally expected to perform three broad functions: 1. Provide balancing mechanism to even out the demand for and supply of short term funds; 2. Provide a focal point for central bank intervention for influencing liquidity and general level of interest rates in the economy; 3. Provide reasonable access t suppliers and users of short term funds to fulfill their borrowings and investment requirements at an efficient and market clearing price.
  28. 28. Benefits of The Efficient Money Market 1. Provides a stable source of funds to banks; 2. Encourage development of non bank entities; 3. Facilitates government, market borrowing; 4. Makes effective monetary policy actions; 5. Helps in pricing different floating interest products.
  29. 29. The Indian Money Market
  30. 30. Role of Reserve Bank of India in The Money Market  Money market comes under the direct purview of Reserve Bank of India;  The aims of RBI’s operations in the money market are: 1. To ensure that liquidity and short term interest rates are maintained at levels consistent with the monetary 2. objectives of maintaining price stability; 3. To bring about order in foreign exchange market; Tools of RBI: CRR, SLR and open market operations etc.
  31. 31. Organization of money market in India  Formal/organized money market;  Informal/unorganized money market.
  32. 32. Historical Background of Money Market in India Developments in Money Market in India  In the 1980s: 1. Sukhamoy chakravorty committee on recommended need for development of money market instruments: 1985; 2. N. Vagul’s working group on money market:1987; 3. Introduction of money market instruments: 182-days treasury bills, certificate of deposit and inter-bank participation certificate(1988-89) and commercial papers(1990); 4. Abolition of interest rate ceiling on call money and market based determination of interest rates (1988);
  33. 33. Historical Background of Money Market in India Developments in Money Market in India  In the 1990s: 1. M. Narsimham committee (1991): a high level committee set by government of India for financial sector reforms; 2. Recommendations of Narsimham committee:  Set up Security Trading Corporation of India(1994);  Primary dealer system(1995), satellite dealer system (1997) [In order to increase the liquidity in the money market];  Focuses on financial deepening and financial liberalization;  Introduction of treasury bills with several maturity periods;  Auctioned treasury bills introduced (market determined interest rates)
  34. 34. Historical Background of Money Market in India Developments in Money Market in India  In the 1990s: 1. M. Narsimham committee (1991): a high level committee set by government of India for financial sector reforms; 2. Recommendations of Narsimham committee:  Introduction of repo rates by RBI;  Reactivation of Bank rate(1997), introduction of LAF(2000), open market operations (1998);  Introduction to the Money Market derivatives-FWD rate agreement and interest rates swaps (1999);  Payment system infrastructure: negotiated dealing system(2002), Clearing corporation of India(2002), RTGS(2004);  Operationalised Collateral Borrowing and Lending Obligation (CBLO) under CCIL (2003);
  35. 35. Money Marker Centers In India  There are three money market centers in India, which are located at: 1. Mumbai 2. Delhi 3. Kolkata. Note: Mumbai is the only money market center in India with money flowing in from all parts of the country getting transacted there.
  36. 36. Money Market Instruments 1. Treasury bills; 2. Call money; 3. Notice money; 4. Term money; 5. Commercial papers (CP); 6. Certificates of deposits(CD); 7. Commercial bills (CB); 8. Collateralized borrowing and lending obligations (CBLO).
  37. 37. Money Market Instruments 1. Treasury bills are short-term instruments used by the government to raise short-term funds; • Negotiable securities; • Highly liquid; • No default risk; • Assured yield, low transaction cost, inclusion in SLR limit; • Transacted through SGL account and not issued as a scrip; • Maturity periods are: 91-days, 181-days and 364-days; • Min. amount of 25,000Rs. And multiples of the same. • Categorized as: On-tap, auctioned and Adhoc T-bills.
  38. 38. Money Market Instruments 2. Call money: commercial banks borrow money from other banks to maintain minimum cash balance known as cash reserve ratio (CRR);  Maturity: over the night;  Rating:  Denomination: not specified or equal to NDTL;  Raised by: commercial banks;  Related term: notice money and term money.
  39. 39. Money Market Instruments 3. Notice Money: commercial banks borrow money from other banks to maintain minimum cash balance known as cash reserve ratio (CRR);  Maturity: 1 day to 14 days;  Rating:  Denomination: not specified;  Raised by: commercial banks;  Related term: call money and term money.
  40. 40. Money Market Instruments 4. Term money: commercial banks borrow money from other banks to maintain minimum cash balance known as cash reserve ratio (CRR);  Maturity: 15-364 days;  Rating:  Denomination: not specified;  Raised by: commercial banks;  Related term: notice money and call money.
  41. 41. Link between the call money market and other financial markets  Call rate interest rate paid on the call loans;  MIBOR (1998): developed by National stock exchange of India along with MIBID-Mumbai inter- bank bid rate for overnight money markets; provides quotations from overnight to 24 months;  LIBOR- London inter-bank offer rate;  Call rate volatility: call rates are subject to change;
  42. 42. Measures for curbing high rate of volatility in the call money market
  43. 43. Money market intermediaries in India  DHFI(1988)- discount and finance house of India;  Money market mutual funds of India;
  44. 44. Link between the money market and monetary policy of India  Direct instruments : Reserve requirements; Limits on refinance; Administered interest rates; Qualitative and quantitative restrictions on the credit;  Indirect instruments: Open market operations Repos.
  45. 45. Money market derivatives-Interest rates swaps
  46. 46. Money market derivatives-Plain vanilla interest rate swaps
  47. 47. Money Market Instruments 5. Commercial papers (CP-1990) is an unsecured short-term promissory note issued at a discount by creditworthy corporate, primary dealers and all- Indian financial institution.  maturity: 7 days – 364 days;  Rating: P series of CRISIL;  Denomination: 5 lac and multiples;  Investment through: demat account.
  48. 48. Money Market Instruments 6. Certificates of deposits(CD-1989) are short- term tradable time deposits issued by commercial banks and financial institutions;  Maturity:7 days to 1 year for banks but 1-3 years for FIs ;  Rating:  Denomination: 1 lakh and multiples;  Issued by: financial institutions.  Related term: it is same as FD but freely transferable and tradable unlike the FD.
  49. 49. Money Market Instruments 7. Commercial bills (CB) are negotiable instruments drawn on the seller by the buyer, in turn, accepted and discounted by commercial banks; 1. Types of commercial bills:  Demand bill  Usance bill:  Clean bill:  Documentary bill:  Inland bill:  Foreign bill:  Hundi:  Derivative usance promissory notes:  Inchoate:
  50. 50. Money Market Instruments 7. Commercial bills (CB) are negotiable instruments drawn on the seller by the buyer, in turn, accepted and discounted by commercial banks; 1. Features of commercial bills:  Maturity: 30, 60,90 days usually;  Rating:  Denomination: not specified-can be any amount;  Discounted through: Commercial banks;  some time also known as trade bills; but known as the commercial bill when discount by the bank.
  51. 51. Money Market Instruments 9. Collateralized borrowing and lending obligations (CBLO): same as the call money facility availed by the non-bank financial institutions and entities; Because non-bank financial institutions are not eligible for availing the facility of the call money.
  52. 52. THE CAPITAL MARKET An Introduction to
  53. 53. Meaning and Definition  Capital market is a market where securities with the long tenure are bought and sold such as equity and debt, funds are raised for long period;
  54. 54. Types of the Capital Market 1. Primary market: it refers to the market:  Where securities are created/issued;  where the securities are traded for very first time; 2. Secondary market: it refers to the market where those securities traded which have already been issued in the primary market:  Over the counter;  Trade through stock exchanges;
  55. 55. Role of capital markets in the growth of economy  It helps in economic growth of a country by mobilizing the savings and direct is to the right way for more productive uses: Directs cash from deficit sector to the surplus sector: issue of securities in the primary; domestic, government, corporate sector.  direct cash from the surplus sector to the financial intermediaries: issue of the secondary in the primary market; Facilitation of the liquidity: resale and repurchase of the financial assets through the secondary market.
  56. 56. Functions of The Capital Market 1. Mobilization of savings; 2. Provides risk capital to entrepreneurs such as equity and quasi equity; 3. Encourage broader ownership of productive assets through equity participation; 4. Lower cost of transaction and information; 5. Improve efficiency of capital allocation through competitive pricing methods; 6. Enable quick valuation of the financial assets i.e. share and debentures; 7. Provides insurance against market risk; 8. Increases the width of market by enabling wider participation; 9. Provide operational efficiency; 10. Develop integration among different sectors and participants.
  57. 57. Components of Capital Market 1. Primary market: it refers to the market where financial securities are created/issued and sold for very first time; it serves the mobilization function and capital creation/formation function; 2. Secondary market: it refers to the market where those financial securities are re-bought and re-sold which have already been issued and sold in primary market; it facilitates the liquidity function. Hence, primary market is for the new issues and secondary market is for the outstanding or the existing issues;
  58. 58. Primary Market 1. Primary market: it refers to the market where financial securities are created/issued and sold for very first time; it serves the mobilization function and capital creation/formation function;
  59. 59. Issue of The Securities in Primary Market Name of the Security Domestic issue External issue 1. Equity Corporate (primary issues) Financial intermediaries (secondary issues) Through issue of: Global Depository Receipts (GDR); American Depository Receipt (ADR) 2. Debt Corporate (primary issues) Government (primary issues) External commercial borrowing (ECB) 3. Other external borrowings: i. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) See next slide
  60. 60. Issue of The Securities in Primary Market Other external borrowings Method of investment 1. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Equity form; Debt form; 2. Foreign Institutional Investments (FII) In the form of portfolio investment; 3. Non-resident Indian Deposits (NRI)  short- term and medium term borrowings;
  61. 61. Methods of Issuing Equity in Primary Market 1. Public issues through prospectus: IPOs, FPOs; 2. Private placement; 3. Right issues; 4. Preferential issues;
  62. 62. Secondary Market  Secondary market: it refers to the market where those financial securities are re-bought and re-sold which have already been issued and sold in primary market; it facilitates the liquidity function.
  63. 63. Functions of The Secondary Market 1. Facilitates liquidity and marketability of securities; 2. Provides valuation of securities; 3. Reduces cost of capital; 4. Enable price discovery; 5. Creates a wealth effect;
  64. 64. History of Indian Capital Market To be updated soon…

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