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1) Censorship2) Political affiliation3) Objectivity and impartiality4) Media laws5) PEMRA
According to Ordinary meaning…..“Freedom of press is not an end in itself but a means to the end of achieving a free society” ORAccording to The Universal Declaration of Human Rights…."Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference, and impart information and ideas through any media regardless of frontiers"
According to survey of RWB (Reporters Without Borders)
The country with the “Highest degree” of press freedom was Finland Iceland Netherlands Norway Sweden
The country with the “Lowest degree” of press freedom was Eritrea North Korea Turkmenistan Iran Myanmar (Burma)
Pakistan ranked 152 on World Press Freedom Ranking
What is censorship Types of censorship Effetc of censorship on the freedom of press
Definition & meanings “Censorship is the suppression of speech or other public communication which may be considered: Objectionable Harmful Sensitive OR inconvenient to the general body of people as determined by a government, media outlet, or other controlling body”
Cooperate censorship Military censorship Moral censorship Religious censorship Political censorship
The act of becoming formally connected or joined. Political Affiliations within a media source can influence the type of news and the angle in which this news is depicted.
Political affiliation leads to media bias. Corrupted mass media leads to plutocracy . Due to media bias ideology is superseded by popularity. Change the Voters mind. Impact on turn out.
Impatiality:“Impartial as not being biased and as unprejudiced.”Objectivity: “It defines objective as uninfluenced by emotional, surmise, or personal prejudice; based on observable phenomena; presented factually”
Media Law encompasses laws regulating radio and TV broadcasting to assure satisfactory service and to prevent chaos.
Pakistan has quite an interesting yet sometimes depressing history of laws relating to both print and broadcast media. Presently, most of the black laws have been done away with, but there are still many forms of regulation of the mass media that are still in place.
The Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) is a regulatory body established by Pakistan on 1 March 2002.
Functions of the Authority. PEMRAs Mandate. An Overview of Electronic Media Development in the country. Is PEMRA give freedom to press?