Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Le téléchargement de votre SlideShare est en cours. ×


Prochain SlideShare
Nature and Scope of PA.pptx
Nature and Scope of PA.pptx
Chargement dans…3

Consultez-les par la suite

1 sur 63 Publicité

Plus De Contenu Connexe

Plus récents (20)



  1. 1. HYPOTHESIS • Is a formal tentative statement of the expected relationship between two or more variables under the study.
  2. 2. • A hypothesIs helps to translate the research problem and objectives into a prediction of the expected results or outcomes of the research study.
  3. 3. • A clearly stated hypothesIs includes the variables to be manipulated or measured, identifies the population to be examined and indicates the proposed outcome for the study.
  4. 4. • The formulation of hypothesis plays an important role in the theory building.
  6. 6. DEFINITION • “Hypothesis is a tentative prediction or explanation of the relationship between two variables’ It implies that there is a systematic relationship between an independent and dependent variable”.
  7. 7. • “Hypothesis is a shrewd guess or inference that is formulated and provisionally adopted to explain observed facts or conditions and to guide in further investigations” … GOOD & HATT
  8. 8. IMPORTANCE OF HYPOTHESIS • Hypothesis enables the researcher to objectively investigate new areas of discovery, thus helps in theory building.
  9. 9. • Hypothesis provides objectivity to the research activity. • Hypothesis provides directions to conduct research.
  10. 10. • Hypothesis provides clear and specific goals to the researchers. These goals provide the investigator with a basis for selecting sample and research procedures to meet the set goals.
  11. 11. • Hypothesis provides a link between theories and actual practical research. • It serves as a bridge between theory and reality.
  12. 12. • A hypothesis suggests the methodology to be chosen to conduct the study. • It is a tentative statement of the anticipated results, it guides the researcher towards the direction in
  13. 13. • It stimulates the thinking process of the researcher a the researcher forms the hypotheses by anticipating the outcome. • It provides directions about the methodology to be chosen & techniques of
  14. 14. • Hypothesis provides an understanding of the researchers about what to expect from the results of the study. • It serves as a framework for drawing conclusions of a
  15. 15. • Without a hypothesis a research would be an aimless wandering.
  16. 16. CHARATERISTICS • A good hypothesis must be written in declarative form using present tense. • It must contain variables, population under study and should be relevant to the research problem & objectives.
  19. 19. CONCEPTUAL CLARITY • A good hypothesis consists of clearly defined and understandable concepts. • It is stated in a very clear terms, the meaning and implications of which cannot be doubted.
  20. 20. EMPIRICAL REFERENTS • A research must have an ultimate empirical referent. • No usable hypothesis can embody moral judgments. A good hypotheses must have empirical basis from the area of enquiry.
  21. 21. OBJECTIVITY • Hypothesis must be objective. (objectivity in data collection, and should be able to keep research activity from researcher value judgment.
  22. 22. SPECIFICITY • A good research hypothesis must be specific, not general and should explain the expected relations between variables . • ( E.g., Exercise and stress).
  23. 23. RELEVANT • The hypothesis should be relevant to the problem and objectives under enquiry. • In addition hypothesis must have relevance with a theory under test in a research process.
  24. 24. TESTABILITY • Hypothesis should be testable and should not be a moral judgment. • It should be directly or indirectly measurable.
  25. 25. • It must be verifiable. • E.g., a hypothesis such as “bad parents produce bad children”., cannot be tested.
  26. 26. • A testable hypothesis clearly states the manipulatable independent variables and measurable dependent variables in specific population which provides a clear idea about an interventional protocol and whether it will be implemented precisely and consistently as a treatment in the study.
  27. 27. • A good hypothesis states the causal link between independent and dependent variables, which is later evaluated by using inferential statistical tests.
  28. 28. CONSISTENCY • A hypothesis should be consistent with an existing body of theories, research findings and other hypothesis. • It should correspond with existing knowledge.
  29. 29. SIMPLICITY • A hypothesis should be formulated in simple and understandable terms. • It should require fewer conditions and assumptions.
  30. 30. AVAILABILITY OF TECHNIQUE • The researcher must ensure that scientific methods are available for testing their proposed thesis.
  31. 31. PURPOSIVENESS • The researcher must formulate only purposeful hypothesis. • Purposiveness refers to the relevance of hypothesis to the research problem and its objectives.
  32. 32. VERIFIABILITY • A good hypothesis should be verifiable in practical terms.
  33. 33. PROFOUNDITY OF EFFECT • A good hypothesis should have profound effect upon a variety of research variables.
  34. 34. ECONOMICAL • The expenditure of resources can be controlled if the hypothesis underlying the research that which is undertaken is good.
  35. 35. SOURCES OF HYPOTHESIS • Research hypothesis are generated from a variety of sources such as theoretical or conceptual frameworks.
  37. 37. THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK Theoretical framework or conceptual framework are the most important sources of hypothesis.
  38. 38. • Through a deductive approach these hypothesis are drawn for testing them. • E.g., Pavlov’s theory – a hypothesis can be drawn about modification of behaviour.
  40. 40. PREVIOUS RESEARCH Findings or previous research may be used for framing the hypothesis for a new study that have an area of relevance.
  41. 41. REAL-LIFE EXPERIENCES • Real life experiences may contribute in the formulation of hypothesis.
  42. 42. • Newton had life changing experience of the falling of an apple and formulated the hypothesis that the earth attracts all the mass towards its center before generating a law of gravity.
  43. 43. ACADEMIC LITERATURE Academic literature is based on formal theories, empirical evidences, experiences, observations and conceptualizations of academicians.
  44. 44. • These literatures may serve as good source for formulating hypothesis for research studies.
  45. 45. TYPES .
  46. 46. Descriptive Hypothesis These are propositions, they described the characteristics of a variable. The variable may be an object, person, organisation, situation or event. For ex. "The rate of unemployment among arts graduates is higher than that of commerce graduates".
  47. 47. Relational Hypothesis These are propositions which describe the relationship b/w two variables. The relation suggested many be positive or negative for eg. 'Families with higher income spent more for recreation'. 'Upper class people have more children than lower class people'.
  48. 48. Common Sense Hypothesis These represent the commonsense ideas. They state the existence of empirical uniformities received through day to day observations.
  49. 49. Analytical Hypothesis These are concerned with the relationship of analytic variables. These hypothesis occurs and the higher level of abstraction. It also specifies the relationship between changes in one variable and changes in another.
  50. 50. False Hypothesis A hypothesis which is bound to be unsatisfactory when verified is called a false hypothesis.
  51. 51. Barren Hypothesis A hypothesis from which no consequences can be deducted is called a Barren Hypothesis. It is a hypothesis which cannot to test. Ex. The child fell ill because a wicked women's eye felt upon it. This is a baseless hypothesis because it cannot be verified.
  52. 52. SIMPLE/COMPLEX HYPOTHESIS • SIMPLE HYPOTHESIS: It is a statement which reflects the relationship between two variables. • Usually between a DV and IV • (E.g., low levels of hemoglobin & risk of infection)
  53. 53. • COMPLEX HYPOTHESIS : It is a statement which reflects the relationship between more than two variables. • (E.g., satisfaction among patients who are older & dwelling in rural areas than those who are younger & living in urban areas)
  54. 54. ASSOCIATIVE/CAUSAL HYPOTHESIS • ASSOCIATIVE HYPOTHESIS : Reflects a relationship between variables that occurs or exists in natural settings without manipulation. • This hypothesis is use in correlational research studies.
  55. 55. • CAUSAL HYPOTHESIS : Predicts the cause-and-effect relationship between two or more dependent and independent variables in experimental or interventional setting, where independent variable is manipulated by researcher to examine the effect on dependent variable.
  56. 56. DIRECTIONAL/NON DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS • DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS: Specifies not only the existence, but also the expected direction of the relationship between variables.
  57. 57. • E.g., There is a positive experience between years of teaching experience and job satisfaction among teachers.
  58. 58. • NON DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS : Reflects the relationship between two or more variables, but it does not specify the anticipated direction and nature of relationship such as positive or negative.
  59. 59. • It indicates the existence of relationship between the variables. • E.g., There is a relationship between years of teaching experience and job satisfaction among teachers.
  60. 60. NULL/RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS • NULL HYPOTHESIS (Ho) : It is also known as STATITICAL HYPOTHESIS. And is used for statistical testing and interpretation of statistical outcomes.
  61. 61. • It states the existence of no relationship between the independent and dependent variable. • E.g., There is no relationship between smoking and incidence of lung cancer.
  62. 62. • RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS (H1) : It states the existence of relationship between two or more variables. • E.g., There is relationship between smoking and incidence of lung cancer.