Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Nous utilisons votre profil LinkedIn et vos données d’activité pour vous proposer des publicités personnalisées et pertinentes. Vous pouvez changer vos préférences de publicités à tout moment.

Sociology: Society and Culture

4 554 vues

Publié le

Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.

Publié dans : Formation
  • Is it possible to improve your memory? How can I improve my memory recall? more info... ▲▲▲ https://tinyurl.com/brainpill101
       Répondre 
    Voulez-vous vraiment ?  Oui  Non
    Votre message apparaîtra ici
  • DOWNLOAD FULL BOOKS, INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Répondre 
    Voulez-vous vraiment ?  Oui  Non
    Votre message apparaîtra ici
  • DOWNLOAD FULL BOOKS, INTO AVAILABLE Format, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Répondre 
    Voulez-vous vraiment ?  Oui  Non
    Votre message apparaîtra ici
  • DOWNLOAD FULL BOOKS, INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Répondre 
    Voulez-vous vraiment ?  Oui  Non
    Votre message apparaîtra ici
  • DOWNLOAD FULL BOOKS, INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Répondre 
    Voulez-vous vraiment ?  Oui  Non
    Votre message apparaîtra ici

Sociology: Society and Culture

  1. 1. 02/10/17 02:42 AM 1 Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
  2. 2. Sociology • Socious (Latin) – Companion – Society • Sociology – Scientific study – Human relationships – Arising from continuous interaction of men – In particular setting 02/10/17 02:42 AM 2 Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
  3. 3. Sociology • Sociology – Study of Society and Human Interaction • Human Interaction – Agreement • Harmony – Contradiction • Problems 02/10/17 02:42 AM 3 Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
  4. 4. Sociological Pioneers • Auguste Compte – Father of Sociology • Coined the term Sociology – Positivism • Knowledge comes from sensory experience. • Abstract cannot be proven. – e.g. God 02/10/17 02:42 AM 4 Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
  5. 5. Sociological Pioneers • Harriet Martineau – Mother of Sociology • Religion • Politics • Child rearing • Immigration in the young nation • Problems of contemporary society – Economy • Emancipation of Slaves – Law • Rights of women – Employment – Vote – Education – Trade – Population 02/10/17 02:42 AM 5 Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
  6. 6. Sociological Pioneers • Karl Heinrich Marx • May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883 – Bourgeoisie • Capitalist – Proletariat • Working Class • Can unite – Throw of Capitalism – Result will be classless society. – Create Communism 02/10/17 02:42 AM 6 Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
  7. 7. Sociological Pioneers • Herbert Spencer – Parallelism of the society of animals and man. • Survival – Man • Has never ending competition to win. – Survival 02/10/17 02:42 AM 7 Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
  8. 8. Sociological Pioneers • Herbert Spencer – Natural Selection • Male – Handsome – Strong/ Muscular/ Tall/ Physic – Financially Stable • Female – Beautiful – Sexy – Caring and Neat 02/10/17 02:42 AM 8 Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
  9. 9. Sociological Pioneers • Emile Durkheim – Studied on Suicide – Most suicide • Protestants • Wealthy • Males • Disgusted – Less suicide • Catholics • Poor • Females • Contented – Suicide • Product of Social Factors 02/10/17 02:42 AM 9 Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
  10. 10. Sociological Pioneers • Emile Durkheim – Kinds of Suicide • Egoistic Suicide – Little Social Interaction • Altruistic Suicide – Self-sacrifice for others • Anomic Suicide – Unable to fulfill the needs 02/10/17 02:42 AM 10 Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
  11. 11. Sociological Pioneers • Emile Durkheim – Kinds of Anomic Suicide • Acute Economic Anomie – Unreligious • Chronic Economic Anomie – Wealthy but unhappy • Acute Domestic Anomie – Inability to adapt » Widowhood • Chronic Domestic Anomie – Bachelor tended suicide than married. 02/10/17 02:42 AM 11 Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
  12. 12. Sociological Pioneers • Max Weber – Protestantism • Embraces change – Wealthy – Catholism • Conservative – Poor 02/10/17 02:42 AM 12 Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
  13. 13. Social Development • Charles Cooley • George Mead • Jean Piaget • Sigmund Freud 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 13
  14. 14. Social Development • Charles Cooley – Influenced by Theory of Evolution of Charles Darwin – Derived his idea of Self from the Social Self of William James – Influenced by the Organic View of Society of Herbert Spencer – Influenced by Types of Social Group of William Sumner 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 14
  15. 15. Social Development • Charles Cooley – The Looking Glass Self • Imagination of our appearance to the other person • Imagination of their judgment of that appearance • Resulting self-feeling, such as pride or mortification 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 15
  16. 16. Social Development • Robert Merton – Macro-sociology • Large-scale civilization – Stereotypes on Black People, Asians and Muslims – Micro-sociology • Small groups – Divorced people 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 16
  17. 17. Social Development • George Mead – Generalized Others • Person has of the common expectations that others have about actions and thoughts within a particular society – Children's’ Stages • Imitation – Mimic • Play – Role taking • Games – Simultaneous with the role of others 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 17
  18. 18. Social Development • Jean Piaget – Stages of Human Development • Assimilation – using an existing schema to deal with a new object • Accommodation – Happens when the existing schema does not work • Equilibrium – Cognitive development did not progress at a steady rate, but rather it leaps and bounds • Pre-operational – Developing ability to use symbols – Socialization Timeline 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 18
  19. 19. Social Development • Infancy (Age 0-1) – Feeding and Trust • Toddler (Age 2-3) – Play Stage, Autonomy, Shame & Doubt • Early Childhood (Age 4-5) – Obedience and Explorations • Middle Childhood (Age 6-8) – Basic Socializations and Initiative • Late Childhood (Age 9-12) – School Age and Industry • Early Adolescence (Age 13-14) – Identity and Confusion • Middle Adolescence (Age 15-17) – Social Relationships and Sexual Explorations • Late Adolescence (Age 18-19) – Skills Explorations and Intimate Relationships • Young Adulthood (Age 20-39) – Serious Relationships, Work and Generativity • Middle Adulthood (Age 40-64) – Parenthood and Role Conflict • Late Adulthood (Age 65 and Older) – Integrity, Despair, Reflections and Death 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 19
  20. 20. Social Development • Sigmund Freud – Psychoanalysis • People could be cured by making conscious their unconscious thoughts and motivations • Therapy is to release repressed emotions and experiences and is commonly used to treat depression and anxiety disorders 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 20
  21. 21. Social Development • Sigmund Freud – Personality Perspective – Levels of the Mind – Iceberg Theory • Id – Pleasure Principal – Unconscious Mind » Reservoir of Thoughts • Ego – Reality Principal – Conscious Mind » Aware of • Super-ego – Values and Morals – Preconscious Mind » Ordinary Memory 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 21
  22. 22. Sociological Perspectives • Michel Foucault – Power/ Knowledge – Sexuality and Madness • Jurgen Habermas – Communicative Action 02/10/17 02:42 AM 22 Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
  23. 23. Sociological Perspectives • Symbolic Interactionism – People seeking meaning – Self-conscious being • Functional Analysis – Societal parts • Conflict Theory – People competing for scarce resources • Feminism – Organizing Factor 02/10/17 02:42 AM 23 Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
  24. 24. Socialization • The basic social process through which an individual becomes integrated into a social group by learning the group’s culture and his role in the group. • Lifelong process 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 24
  25. 25. Socialization • Types of Socialization – Primary • Child learns attitudes • Home – Secondary • Teenager learning from peers • Elementary – Developmental • Institutional Social Skills • High School – Anticipatory • Rehearses Occupational Socialization • College – Re-socialization • Discarding old and Accepting new – Organization • Employee learning company role 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 25
  26. 26. Socialization • Agents of Socialization – Family • Basic environment – Schools • Values and customs of macro society – Religion • Influences morality, dress, speech & manners – Peer Group • Common interest – Mass Media & Technology • Impact attitude e.g. violence – Workplace • Matching attitude & Values 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 26
  27. 27. Socialization • Re-socialization – Voluntary re- socialization • Learning something contrary to prior experiences e.g. entering a new job – Involuntary re- socialization • Forced re-socialization to prison, rehabilitation center, etc. 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 27
  28. 28. Group • Types of Group – Gemeinschaft • Informal/ Primary Group • Always in contact – Eg. Family, Fraternity, etc. – Gesellschaft • Formal/ Secondary Group • Casual in contact – Eg. Work groups 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 28
  29. 29. Group • Functions of Group – Social Attraction • Goals can be achieved as a team rather than alone – Social Comparison • Meet emotional need of each other such as being in- existent – Morale Booster • Maximum self-esteem – Social Climate • Warm and accepted 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 29
  30. 30. Group • Kinds of Group – Involuntary • Family • Neighborhood • Barangay • Municipality – Voluntary • Playmates • Peer • Workmates • Schoolmates/ Classmates • Church Family • Purposive associations 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 30
  31. 31. Group • Group Size – Dyad • 2 People e.g. President and Vice-president – Triad • 3 People e.g. Basic Family – Coalition • 4 or More e.g. Senators 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 31
  32. 32. Group • Group Decision Making – Collecting Information • Analyzing facts – Evaluating Information • Express opinions and reacts to the opinion of others – Reaching a decision • Emotional tension may rise from disagreeing individuals – Decision is made • Restoring the harmony of group by joking and frivolity assuring the solidarity of the group 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 32
  33. 33. Group • Power – Coercive • Physical force – Remunerative • Material rewards – Normative • Persuasion • Involvement – Alienative • No support – Calculative • Moderate support – Moral involvement • Strongly support 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 33
  34. 34. Group • Types of Leadership – Authoritarian Leadership • Gives orders frequently – Employees are either aggressive or apathetic – Democratic Leadership • Gains consensus – Employees worked personally and are friendly – Laissez-faire Leadership • Passive – Lack of achievement 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 34
  35. 35. Group • Leaders – Types of Leaders • Instrumental – Task-oriented » Accomplishment minded • Expressive – Socio-emotional » Morale focused 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 35
  36. 36. Group • Structure of Multi- group System – Organization • Has subsystem with specialized functions – Community/ Society • Held together by social relationships 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 36
  37. 37. Group • Human Associations – Statistical Aggregates • Sociologists groupings – e.g. Income, Nutrition etc. – Societal Classes • Age, Sex, Ethnic, etc. – Congregations/ Assemblies • Crowds and audiences 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 37
  38. 38. Organization • Types of Organization – Formal Organization • Highly organized group, having explicit objectives, formally stated rules and clearly designated rights and duties. – e.g. Government, Schools – Bureaucracy • Hierarchical ranking are used to achieved efficiency. 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 38
  39. 39. Organization • Essential Characteristics of Bureaucracies – Hierarchical assignment flowing downward and Accountability flowing upward • Clear-cut levels – Division of Labor • Field of specialty – Written Rules • Procedures and limits – Written Communication and Records • Transparency of activities – Impersonality • Office is important not the person. 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 39
  40. 40. Organization • Oligarchy – Assumption that the members cannot be counted thus power must remain in the few elitist – Self-perpetuating elites dominate the power and the members remain passive. – Problematic since members are the main beneficiary of the structure. – Applies even in Democracy 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 40
  41. 41. Collective Behavior • Forms of Collective Behavior – Unstructured • Rumor/ Gossip • Mass Hysteria/ Panic • Fads/ Fashion • Public Opinion – Structured • Crowd – Casual – Conventional – Expressive – Acting » Mob » Riot » Orgy 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 41
  42. 42. Deviance • Deviance – Violation of rules/ norms, regardless of seriousness – Not the act itself is the deviant rather on how the society reacts on it. 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 42
  43. 43. Deviance • Reaction to Deviants – Sanctions • Capital Punishment – Labeling • Gossip – Degradation Ceremonies • Rituals in stripping identity as outsider – Imprisonment • Retribution – Restoring moral balance upset by the offense • Deterrence – Creating fear to others • Rehabilitation – Reforming to better citizens • Incapacitation – Removing offenders from circulation 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 43
  44. 44. Deviance • Reaction by Deviants – Denial of Responsibility • “I did not do it.” – Denial of Injury • “Nobody got hurt.” – Denial of Victim • “She deserve it.” – Argumentum ad hominem • “Who are you to talk.” – Appeal to Higher Loyalty • “The mayor is my brother.” 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 44
  45. 45. Society • Society – Group of people with common territory, interaction and culture – Large social group sharing the same geography and political authority 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 45
  46. 46. Society • Components of Society – Territory • Recognition of ownership of land – Interaction • Contact of members of the group – Culture • Shared language and belief 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 46
  47. 47. Society • Types of Society – Preindustrial Society • Hunting-Gathering Society – Earliest but Hardest • Horticultural Society – Crop Farming • Pastoral Society – Herding Animals • Agricultural Society – Crop Farming • Feudal Society – Lords and Vassals – Industrial Society – Mechanized food production – Postindustrial Society – Goods, services, banking and information – Does not concentrate on food production 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 47
  48. 48. Society • Social Structure – Refers to statuses and roles found in a society making social relations. 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 48
  49. 49. Society • Elements of Social Structure – Status • Position in the society. – Ascribed status » Ethnicity, Gender, Age – Achieved status » Lawyer, Doctor – Master status » Respected Professor – Status inconsistency » Old dating Young 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 49
  50. 50. Society • Elements of Social Structure – Social Roles • Counterfeit Role – Divorced pretends Widow • Internalized Role – Eldest child as head of family • Perceived Role – Teacher - Professional • Prescribed Role – Cultural Standard e.g. Chinese cannot marry non- chinese • Representative Role – Representative of a Group 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 50
  51. 51. Society • Elements of Social Structure – Social Roles • Role Conflict – Married Priest, a bestfriend who wants to scape friendzone • Multiple Roles – Doctor and a Father, a boyfriend yet a bestfriend • Reciprocal Role – Husband and Wife, Teacher and Student 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 51
  52. 52. Society • Elements of Social Structure – Groups • Number of people with several norms who regularly interact • Establishment of friendships • Vital part in the structure of society 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 52
  53. 53. Society • Elements of Social Structure – Social Institutions • System of social roles and norms organized for a certain function • Concepts: – Norm » Behavior expectation – Role » Function of Status – Status Position » Multiple Roles – Situs » Leader 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 53
  54. 54. Society • Elements of Social Structure – Social Institutions • Family • Education • Religion • Economic • Political Institutions 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 54
  55. 55. Society • Elements of Social Structure – Social Institutions • Characteristics – Purposive » Goal towards the satisfaction of social needs – Permanent » Traditional – Structured » Band together and reinforce one another – Unified » Function as a unit – Value-laden » Uniformities become codes of conduct 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 55
  56. 56. Society • Social Transformation – Result change in culture • Social Cohesion – United by shared values • Mechanical Solidarity – Collective consciousness by performing the same task • Organic Solidarity – Interdependence brought by division of labor 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 56
  57. 57. Society • Social Interaction – Social process in communication. • Language • Symbols • Gestures 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 57
  58. 58. Society • Social Interaction – Stereotypes in everyday Life • First impression – Sex, Race, Age, Physical Appearance • Assumptions • Behavior – Personal Space • Intimate Space – 18 Inches and Closer » Lovemaking, Wrestling, Comforting and Protecting • Personal Distance – 18 Inches to 4 Feet » Friends acquaintances • Social Distance – 4 Feet to 12 Feet » Formal conversations • Public Space – 12 Feet Beyond » General Public 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 58
  59. 59. Society • Social Interaction – Forms • Exchange – Action for something in- return – E.g. voting, male effort • Cooperation – Bayanihan • Competition – Interest on the same goal • Conflict – Distressful Relationship 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 59
  60. 60. Society • Social Control – Positive Social Control • Promise of rewards ranging from tangible to social approval – Negative Social Control • Fear of consequences 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 60
  61. 61. Social Stratification • Social Stratification – Involves inequality of power and resources 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 61
  62. 62. Social Stratification • Bases of Social Stratification – Wealth • Marxist – Power • Influential – Prestige • Respected 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 62
  63. 63. Social Stratification • System of Social Stratification – Slavery • Some people own others • Basing on debt, punishment or defeat in battle – Caste System • Determined by birth – E.g. Brahmins (Priest or Scholars), Kshatriyas (Nobles and Warriors), Vaisyas (Merchants and skilled artisans), Shudras (Common Laborers) and Hartijans (The outcastes.) – Class System • Economic Position – Estate System/ Feudalism/ Monarchy • Peasants work on leased land in exchange of military protection and other services. – Gender • Male is superior to Female 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 63
  64. 64. Occupational Stratification • Government Executive • Lawyer/ Cabinet Secretary • Doctor • Clergy/ Nun/ Administrator • Professor • TV Personality • Professional Athlete • Architect/ Engineer • Military Official/ Pilot/ Captain • Accountant/ Manager • Businessman/ Chef • Grade/ High School Teacher • Office Worker/ Bank Teller • Police/ Army • Nurse/ Social Worker • Receptionist/ Stewardess • Bartender/ Waiter • Security Guard/ Bodyguard • Driver/ Mailman/ Barber • Helper/ Janitor/ Portman • Newspaper boy/ Car washer • Vendor/ Shoe shiner 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 64
  65. 65. Culture • Culture – Knowledge, Beliefs, Arts, Morals, Laws, Customs and Habits acquired as a member of society and constitutes their way of life – Complex system of meaning and behavior which defines the way of life 02/10/17 02:42 AM 65 Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
  66. 66. Culture • Forms of Culture – Material Culture • Jewelry • Art • Buildings • Weapons • Machines • Clothing • Hairstyles – Non-material culture • Myths • Traditions • Beliefs • Values • Language • Gestures 02/10/17 02:42 AM 66 Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
  67. 67. Culture • Components of Culture – Norms • Mores – Core values • Folkways – Everyday – Gestures • Shaking of hand, bowing of head, etc. 02/10/17 02:42 AM 67 Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
  68. 68. Culture • Characteristics of Culture – Learned – Relative – Shared – Cumulative – Dynamic – Diverse – Symbolic 02/10/17 02:42 AM 68 Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
  69. 69. Culture • Elements of Culture – Language • Communication – Symbol • Gesture, sound, color, design – Values • Goodness and beauty – Beliefs • Shared ideas – Norms • Rules and expectations – Rituals • Rites and Public ceremony 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 69
  70. 70. Culture • Attitudes toward culture – Ethnocentrism and Xenocentrism – Cultural Relativism and Culture Shock – High Culture and Popular Culture – Culture Variation and Cultural Integration – Subculture and Counterculture 02/10/17 02:42 AM 70 Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
  71. 71. Culture • Cultural Change – Cultural Assimilation • Function to a large group but remain the identity – Structural Assimilation • Newcomer to larger society – Colonization • Change of governance – Marital Assimilation • Subculture intermarry with larger society 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 71
  72. 72. Filipino System • Filipino Value – Close family ties – Hospitality – Po at opo – Utang na Loob – Pakikisama – Hiya – Delicadeza – Bayanihan – Fiesta Celebration – Tibay ng Loob – Pagkamahinhin • Filipino Disvalue – Bahala na – Inggitan – Tsismisan – Palakasan – Sipsipan – Padulas – Lagay – Ningas-cogon – Patigasan – Sakop – Maňana Habit – Crab Mentality – Kanya-kanya 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 72
  73. 73. Filipino System • Filipino Superstitious Beliefs on: – Death – Misfortune – Good Luck – Illness – Coming of Visitors – Ghost – Relationships – Future – Disaster 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 73
  74. 74. Filipino System • Activity – Maxim • Ang hindi marunong lumingon sa pinanggalingan ay hindi makakarating sa paroroonan 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 74
  75. 75. Family • Courtship – Interlude for deeper knowing • Stages of Relationship – Sightseeing – Courtship – Dating – Lovers – Steady – Engagement – Marriage 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 75
  76. 76. Family • Filipino Way of Courtship – Kundiman • Song of Love – Harana • Serenade of a young man to a young woman right in front of her window and is done during full moon 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 76
  77. 77. Family • Pamanhikan – Groom’s parents will formally give their consent to their son in asking for the hand of the bride for marriage. • Ambagan – Both parents of Bride and Groom set foot on the expenses on marriage. • Dowry – Islamic practice of Bigay Kaya given by the Groom to the Family of the Bride. 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 77
  78. 78. Family • Marriage – Union between a man and a woman who is legally contracted and socially and culturally recognized by society whose rights and obligations between them, their children and their in- laws are established – Method in which cultural tradition is passed on to the children – Implies permitted sexual access – Reason are love and procreation 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 78
  79. 79. Family • Mate Selection Patterns – Endogamy • People must marry a mate within their own group i.e. race, tribe and social status. – Exogamy • Marriage between two individuals who do not belong to the same group. 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 79
  80. 80. Family • Forms of Marriage – Monogamy • 1 Husband + 1 Wife – Polygamy • Multiple marriage – Polygyny » 1 Husband + Multiple Wives – Polyandry » 1 Wife + Multiple Husbands » Tibet in Nepal and Northern Nigeria and Cameroon – Cenogamy • Many Males + Many Females 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 80
  81. 81. Family • Family – Group of people who are united by ties of marriage, blood or adoption, constituting a single household and as having the responsibility for rearing. – Basic unit of society. 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 81
  82. 82. Family • Family Structure – Conjugal • Nuclear – Protons, Neutrons and Electrons • Husband + Wife + Children – Consanguine • Extended • Nuclear + Grandparents + Uncles & Aunts + Cousins 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 82
  83. 83. Family • Family Origin – Orientation • Being a child to parents – Procreation • Being a parent to children 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 83
  84. 84. Family • Family Descent – Patrilineal • Relationship traced on Father side – Matrilineal • Relationship traced on Mother side – Bilateral • Relationship traced on Both sides 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 84
  85. 85. Family • Family Power/ Authority/ Dominance – Patriarchal • Authority is vested on Father – Matriarchal • Authority is vested on Mother – Egalitarian • Authority is vested on both Father and Mother 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 85
  86. 86. Family • Family Residence – Neo-local • Couple resides in new place independent of their parents – Patrilocal • Couple reside in the house of the parents of the husband – Matrilocal • Couple reside in the house of the parents of the wife – Bilocal • Couple resides in their convenience considering the place of work, school of children, social status, etc. 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 86
  87. 87. Family • Family Function/ Purpose – Sexual Regulation • Sex only with spouse – Social Order – Reproduction • Replacing of adults • Uganda – Marriage is dissolved if wife is barren – Socialization – Care and Protection – Economic Cooperation • Sociological Economic unit – Status Placement • Sense of place in society – Emotional Security • Shaping personalities 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 87
  88. 88. Family • Dimensions of Parental Behavior – Control – Affection – Involvement – Marital Relation 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 88
  89. 89. Family • Parenting Patterns – Democratic • Caring and warm – Authoritative • Power assertion – Lenient • Responsive to the needs • Complete Trust on the child thus not strict – Neglecting • Unresponsive to the needs, feelings and activities of the child 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 89
  90. 90. Family • Types of Parents – Insecure • Believes influences child’s destiny – Intimidated • Shows lack of authority – Over-Interpreted • Analytical to every child’s actions – Secure • Confident on every move – Victimize • Feels unappreciated by children – Pathological • Mental Illness 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 90
  91. 91. Filipino Family • Filipino Family – Close family ties • Every celebration, each family member is counted before the ceremony begin • Reason why Filipinos abroad come home for Christmas at all cost. • An attack to any member of the family is an attack to the whole clan. (Resbak practice) 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 91
  92. 92. Filipino Family • The Filipino Family – Activity • Maxim – “Mas malapot ang dugo kaysa tubig.” 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 92
  93. 93. Filipino Family • Father – Head of the Family – Implicitly obeyed by wife and children – Duty is to meet the financial needs of the family. – Hands his income intact to his wife – Excused of housekeeping – Allotted for strenuous jobs – In charge on decision making for family • Mother – Takes care of budgeting of family funds and bargains to save some peso. – Takes care of daily menu and every living and loving home details. – Makes sure the husband has rested well and neatly dressed for work and children well fed, clothed and ready for school • Children – Pampered and not rushed to adulthood – Prolonged childhood builds up clannish feeling resulting to standing up for family against all adversaries. 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 93
  94. 94. Filipino Family • Rights and Duties of Parents – To keep children in their company, to support, educate, and instruct them by right precept and good example, and to provide for their upbringing in keeping with their means 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 94
  95. 95. Filipino Family • Rights and Duties of Parents – To give them love and affection, advice and counsel, companionship and understanding 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 95
  96. 96. Filipino Family • Rights and Duties of Parents – To provide them with moral and spiritual guidance, inculcate in them honesty, integrity, self-discipline, self- reliance, industry and thrift, stimulate their interest in civic affairs, and inspire in them compliance with the duties of citizenship 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 96
  97. 97. Filipino Family • Rights and Duties of Parents – To enhance, protect, preserve and maintain their physical and mental health at all times 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 97
  98. 98. Filipino Family • Rights and Duties of Parents – To furnish them with good and wholesome education, educational materials, supervise their activities, recreation and association with others, protect them from bad company and prevent them from acquiring habits detrimental to their health, studies and morals 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 98
  99. 99. Filipino Family • Rights and Duties of Parents – To represent them in all matters affecting their interests 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 99
  100. 100. Filipino Family • Rights and Duties of Parents – To demand from them respect and obedience 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 100
  101. 101. Filipino Family • Rights and Duties of Parents – To impose discipline on them as may be required under circumstances 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 101
  102. 102. Filipino Family • Rights and Duties of Parents – To perform such other duties as are imposed by law upon parents and guardians 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 102
  103. 103. Filipino Family • Duties of Children – Children must love, revere and obey their parents – They must obey all lawful commands of the parents – They must submit to their parents’ authority and decisions – They must honor their parents at all times, must not speak ill or evil of them – They must never harm their parents physically or morally – They must consult and seek the advice of their parents in their activities – They must help and support their parents in times of need, such as sickness and weakness of old age 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 103
  104. 104. Filipino Family • Modern Issues – Dual-Career Marriages • Husband and Wife on Work – Change in Gender Role • Women on work and husband on chores – Child rearing Dilemma • Women on abroad – Extra-marital Sexual Relationship • Querida to maintain the macho image of husband and expected total loyalty of wife • Concubinage for men • Adultery for women 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 104
  105. 105. Filipino Family • Modern Issues – Single-parenthood • Offshoot of pre-marital sex – Stepfamilies • Offshoot of remarriage – Battered and Marital Rape • Battered women syndrome – Incest • Exist since the whole family sleep together and the mother is on work. 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 105
  106. 106. Filipino Family • Contemporary Issues – Homosexuality • Offshoot of distorted influences from rearing, environment to media – Cohabitation • Live-in – Single Motherhood • Left by boyfriend upon discovery of pregnancy – Single-blessedness • 10% of Filipinos aged 40s up – Gay couples • Made easy by sperm bank and artificial insimination 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 106
  107. 107. Filipino Family • Contemporary Issues – Legal Separation • Separated but no right for remarriage since marriage is still at force. – Annulment • Void ab initio – Void from the beginning • Status is changed from Married to Single • Capable for marriage – Divorce • Dissolving marriage contract and grants the right to remarry. 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 107
  108. 108. Population • Demography – Number of people occupying a definite portion of territory. 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 108
  109. 109. Population • Factors Affecting Population – Fertility Rate • Number of children that an average woman bears – Mortality • Number of death per 1000 population – Migration • Movement of people from one place to another – Internal Migration » Within Country – External Migration » Outside Country 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 109
  110. 110. Urbanization • Rural Community – Produced their own food – Small Population – Daytime activities only – Simple recreation – Residents know each other – Bayanihan – Poor transportation and communication • Urban Community – Depends on others for food supply. – Big Population – Daytime and Nighttime activities – Strangers – Individual existence – Massive transportation and communication 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 110
  111. 111. Consumatum Est • It • Is • Finished! 02/10/17 02:42 AM 111 Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
  112. 112. 10-112 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Published in the Republic of the Philippines. 02/10/17 02:42 AM Sociology: Society and Culture Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.

×