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Getting to the Root Cause: Defining the
3 M's of Lean for Process Improvement
Highlights and Q&A - NYBPP Meetup 1/24/18
SA...
Agenda
● Getting to the Root Cause: Defining the 3 M's of Lean for Process Improvement
■ The Three Layers and the Three M’...
The Three Layers and the Three M’s
Waste can only be seen in the workflow
layer (like everything physical). Mura
and Muri ...
Muda
This literally means “waste” and refers to any
activity that consumes energy without
creating value. This is the simp...
Muri
This means “overburden,” and refers to the type of
waste that occurs when over utilizing resources -
in the business ...
Mura
This means “Unevenness” or the waste
associated with variation in processes.
Variation can refer to any process eleme...
Identifying Muri and Mura as
Muda Complexes
Because muda is the only thing observable, muri and
mura can be confusing to “...
Pattern Definition: Getting to the Root Cause
Waste (muda) can only be seen in the
workflow layer (like everything
physica...
Summary
● Muda is the only waste that can be observed in the workflow layer, Muri and Mura are
measured only in the theore...
Q&A
SAM CHIN | CAVI CONSULTING
Answering questions from the meetup
Question 1:
What’s the relationship between each layer in a
process?
All three layers exist simultaneously in a process. T...
Question 2:
How does HR measure the cost of Muri, i.e.,
quantify risk due to overburdening?
Calculating the cost of a risk...
Question 3:
In an effort to minimize MURA, i.e., diminish
uncontrolled variance, how do organizations
tackle ‘customized e...
Question 4:
Do you follow a particular pattern to identify
the root cause of MUDA in an organization
(eg. 5 whys)?
There i...
Question 5:
Does the Lean methodology follow through
with Agile and Waterfall methodologies?
Selectively, depending on the...
Thanks for coming!
● NYBPP Meetup:
○ Please leave us a positive review!
● You can view all of our past slides over
on Slid...
Prochain SlideShare
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Getting to the root cause defining the 3 m's of lean for process improvement (NYBPP Meetup)

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If you are familiar with Lean, you may have heard of Muda, or The 8 Wastes of Lean. These types of waste are often underpinned by other root causes: Muri (overburden) or Mura (unevenness). Instead of fixing the symptoms, we looked at the underlying problems. In this session, we spoke about what Muri and Mura are and why knowing about them is important in the context of process improvement.

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Getting to the root cause defining the 3 m's of lean for process improvement (NYBPP Meetup)

  1. 1. Getting to the Root Cause: Defining the 3 M's of Lean for Process Improvement Highlights and Q&A - NYBPP Meetup 1/24/18 SAM CHIN | CAVI CONSULTING
  2. 2. Agenda ● Getting to the Root Cause: Defining the 3 M's of Lean for Process Improvement ■ The Three Layers and the Three M’s ■ Muda ■ Muri ■ Mura ■ Identifying Muri and Mura as Muda Complexes ■ Pattern Recognition: Getting to the Root Cause ■ Summary ● Q&A ■ What’s the relationship between each layer in a process? ■ How does HR measure the cost of MURI, i.e., quantify risk due to overburdening? ■ In an effort to minimize MURA, i.e., diminish uncontrolled variance, how do organizations tackle ‘customized evenness’ for clients? ■ Do you follow a particular pattern to identify the root cause of MUDA in an organization (eg. 5 whys)? ■ Does the Lean methodology follow through with Agile and Waterfall methodologies?
  3. 3. The Three Layers and the Three M’s Waste can only be seen in the workflow layer (like everything physical). Mura and Muri represent design level waste concepts that manifest themselves as complicated combinations of muda in the workflow layer.
  4. 4. Muda This literally means “waste” and refers to any activity that consumes energy without creating value. This is the simplest type of waste to learn. There are 8 types, summarized in the table pictured to the right. Muda is the easiest to understand because it is the type of waste present in the workflow layer and “visible” to the naked eye. Simple muda can be removed by identifying it and physically changing the 1:1 behavior causing it. T Transportation I Inventory M Motion W Waiting O Overproduction O Over-Processing D Defects S Staff-Utilization Waste
  5. 5. Muri This means “overburden,” and refers to the type of waste that occurs when over utilizing resources - in the business context (meaning machines or people). This type of risk can’t be seen or observed, but can be measured in the design layer. The actual waste here could take many forms, but conceptually it is the cost of realizing a process risk where the chance of occurrence is increased due to resources being used in excess of their ideal operating state (“ideal” being the perfect balance of benefits production against cost consumption, based on the physical configuration of a given resource).
  6. 6. Mura This means “Unevenness” or the waste associated with variation in processes. Variation can refer to any process element (e.g. process inputs or outputs) that shows uncontrolled value changes over time. Variation can sometimes lead to increased muda, or sometimes not. It, like muri, is a root cause for complex muda in some cases, and must be qualified as such.
  7. 7. Identifying Muri and Mura as Muda Complexes Because muda is the only thing observable, muri and mura can be confusing to “remove” from a process. In reality, muri and mura typically form the root causes for large associated complexes of muda, such that identifying and removing the source of muri or mura, will remove large amounts of muda at the same time. In order to be efficient in waste identification and removal, it is necessary to identify mura and muri waste complexes and remove them in bulk, versus addressing the muda one by one.
  8. 8. Pattern Definition: Getting to the Root Cause Waste (muda) can only be seen in the workflow layer (like everything physical). Mura and Muri represent design level waste concepts that manifest themselves as complicated combinations of muda in the workflow layer. Recognizing patterns of muda that indicate underlying muri or mura will facilitate the removal of muda complexes in an efficient manner. In the example here, an experienced professional could see unevenness (mura) as a result of the complex series of role handoffs embedded in the process. Instead of addressing the muda at the process step level, reorganizing the distribution of work could alleviate all the muda in one action.
  9. 9. Summary ● Muda is the only waste that can be observed in the workflow layer, Muri and Mura are measured only in the theoretical design layer of process ● Muda is activity that doesn’t lead to value creation. There are 8 types that encompass all kinds of physical waste that can occur ● Muri represents that waste created when ignoring risk and overburdening resources ● Mura represents the waste created when there is variation , or unevenness, within variables used to describe a process. Example process variables, such as unit inputs/time, or expected product specs or quality expectations, are some of many instances where unevenness could result in process waste ● Muri and Mura typically manifest themselves in processes as groupings of associated muda ● Identifying muda and process patterns will help target mura and muri in a way to streamline and make process improvement more effective
  10. 10. Q&A SAM CHIN | CAVI CONSULTING Answering questions from the meetup
  11. 11. Question 1: What’s the relationship between each layer in a process? All three layers exist simultaneously in a process. The workflow layer is the visible layer that suggests the current obstacles or inefficiencies in a process. Behind every workflow is an underlying theoretical design layer. The design layer depicts the process map that kicks off the workflow. Lastly, the value chain layer sheds light on the actual value creation for customers - It’s the driving force that synchronizes the workflow and design layers. Summarizing the above, from a consulting standpoint, the value chain layer highlights a need in the market that stimulates the creation of the design layer and consequently, an eventual ‘efficient’ workflow layer.
  12. 12. Question 2: How does HR measure the cost of Muri, i.e., quantify risk due to overburdening? Calculating the cost of a risk profile is challenging especially when dealing with intangible risk factors. However, the cost of attrition via data analysis on retention, is a valuable indicator of the cost of Muri. This heavily relies on appropriate historical data collection and translates into factors affecting profitability in the long run.
  13. 13. Question 3: In an effort to minimize MURA, i.e., diminish uncontrolled variance, how do organizations tackle ‘customized evenness’ for clients? Custom configuration of standard units. For example, Lego - Lego creates standardized building blocks that can be used to build thousands of customized products. Similarly, organizations should take an approach to create products/services that can be used as is, or tailored with minimal intervention.
  14. 14. Question 4: Do you follow a particular pattern to identify the root cause of MUDA in an organization (eg. 5 whys)? There is no definitive pattern, however, the most commonly used pattern by a CAVI process consultant is summarized below. The objective is to identify the current inefficiencies and create a process that eliminates such inefficiencies, and generates maximum value. A CAVI process consultant assesses the current workflow and design (As-Is), derives the underlying value chain and builds up (design) to the desired (To-Be) workflow. When assessing the current workflow, the consultant is capturing ‘MUDA’, or ‘waste’ due to process inefficiencies. MUDA is further broken down into MURI (overburden) and MURA (unevenness). Once outlined, he/she asks the ‘5 whys’ to determine the root cause, i.e., the flaw(s) in the As-Is design. The next step is deriving the optimal value, based on market demand. Lastly, the consultant maps out the To-Be state, and derives the deltas (variations) between the As-Is and To-Be states. These variations help build the eventual design to kick off the To-Be workflow.
  15. 15. Question 5: Does the Lean methodology follow through with Agile and Waterfall methodologies? Selectively, depending on the scope. Agile follows a system of smaller projects for rapid application development, and Waterfall makes use of a larger, more sequential design for larger projects. Lean could be applied in any project, keeping in mind the optimal value generation.
  16. 16. Thanks for coming! ● NYBPP Meetup: ○ Please leave us a positive review! ● You can view all of our past slides over on Slideshare.net: ○ Slide Decks from Past Meetups ● Also, join our Facebook Group! ○ https://NYBPP Meetup Facebook Group ● Finally, check out more process insights at: ○ www.caviconsulting.com

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