3. What is Intelligence?
Intelligence is an umbrella term used to describe a property of the
mind that encompasses many related abilities, such as the
Intelligence may be judged by
4. Features of Intelligence
Intelligence is the ability to learn about, learn from,
understand, and interact with the environment.
It may encompassed of the following specific
Adaptability to a new environment or to changes in the
Capacity for knowledge and the ability to acquire it
Capacity for reason and abstract thought
Ability to comprehend relationships
Ability to evaluate and judge
Capacity for original and productive thought
5. Intelligence of Computer
According to the British computer scientist Alan
Turing's test in (1950):
“a computer would deserves to be called intelligent if it
could deceive a human into believing that it was human.”
The users remain unaware of computer existence
and the system can automatically performed the
activities according to the prescribed specifications.
6. What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)?
“A branch of a computer science which studies the
development of software and hardware which
simulates human intelligence” (Dr. Ghassan Issa)
“AI is the study of how to make computer do things
at which, at the moment, people are better” (Rich
7. What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)?
“AI is study of idea that enable computers to be
intelligent” (Patrick H. Winston)
Thus, AI is the study of programmed systems that can
simulate, to some extent, human activities such as
perceiving, thinking, learning and acting.
8. Academic Disciplines relevant to AI
Logic, methods of reasoning, mind as physical system,
foundations of learning, language, rationality.
Formal representation and proof, algorithms,
computation, (un)decidability, (in)tractability
modeling uncertainty, learning from data
utility, decision theory, rational economic agents
neurons as information processing units.
Psychology/ Cognitive how do people behave, perceive, process cognitive
information, represent knowledge.
Computer Engineering building fast computers
design systems that maximize an objective function
knowledge representation, grammars
10. Human Intelligence VS
Creativity, Beliefs etc
The ability to
and Critical thinking
Ability to simulate
human behavior and
Capture and preserve
Fast Response. The
ability to comprehend
large amounts of data
11. Human Intelligence VS
• Humans are fallible
• They have limited
• Information processing of
serial nature proceed
very slowly in the brain as
compared to computers
Humans are unable to
retain large amounts of
data in memory.
No “common sense”
Cannot readily deal with
May have high
Raise legal and ethical
12. Human Intelligence VS
We achieve more than we know. We know more than we
understand. We understand more than we can explain
(Claude Bernard, 19th C French scientific philosopher)
13. Human Intelligence VS
AI software uses the
techniques of search
and pattern matching
Programmers design AI
software to give the
computer only the
problem, not the steps
necessary to solve it
software follow a logical
series of steps to reach
accomplished tasks by
Intelligence is what we use when we don’t know what to do.People can recognize intelligence in other people and animals.from "Mainstream Science on Intelligence" (1994), an editorial statement by fifty-two researchers: A very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly (conceptually), comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience. (Gottfredson, L.S., 1997). from "Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns" (1995), a report published by the Board of Scientific Affairs of the American Psychological Association: Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought. (Neisser, 1997) and (Perloff, 1996)
Intelligence requires an ability toPerform complex tasksRecognize complex patternsSolve unseen problemsLearn from experienceLearn from instructionUse Natural Language: English , French, Dutch, etc.Be aware of self (consciousness)Use toolsAbility to interact with the real worldto perceive, understand, and acte.g., speech recognition and understanding and synthesise.g., image understandinge.g., ability to take actions, have an effectReasoning and Planningmodeling the external world, given inputsolving new problems, planning, and making decisionsability to deal with unexpected problems, uncertaintiesLearning and Adaptationwe are continuously learning and adaptingour internal models are always being “updated”e.g., a baby learning to categorize and recognize animals
Artificial Intelligence is a branch of Science which deals with helping machines in a human-like fashion. In short it can be described as:Simple things turn out to be the hardest to automate: *Recognizing a face.*Navigating a busy street.*Understanding what someone says
The important aspects of human intelligence seem to following the use of intuition, common sense, judgment, creativity, goal directedness, plausible reasoning, knowledge and beliefs.Meaning of intelligence is not human brain’s information processing ability but the ability of humans to demonstrate their intelligence by communicating effectively.