words that are formed with verbs but act as nouns
very easy to spot
end in –ing no exception to this rule
can be used as:
object of preposition.
can be made negative by adding "not."
Not doing anything is worse than doing the wrong thing.
He enjoys not working.
The best thing for your health is not smoking.
Reading helps you learn English.
- reading is the SUBJECT of learn
- WHAT? + helps you learn English = SUBJECT
Swimming is a good exercise.
- swimming is the SUBJECT of be
Smokingcosts a lot of money .
- learning is the subject of cost
We can’t afford making the same mistake.
- making the same mistake is the direct object of the
- We + can’t afford +WHAT? = DIRECT OBJECT
She dislikes learning English grammar.
Have you ﬁnished working?
What I really like is travelling to other countries.
- after a linking verb e.g. TO BE
Knowledge is learning something everday.
My favourite occupation is reading books in
After waiting patiently for an hour I left the oﬃce.
- waiting patiently for an hour functions as theobject of the
Preposition+gerund phrase = OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION
I am looking forward to meeting you.
She managed to pass her exam by learning a lot.
Handouts must be taken before leaving the classroom.
The police arrested him for speeding.
generally descriptive and interesting
can tidy up a messy sentence
1) On Sunday afternoons I habitually do laundry.
Doing laundry on Sunday afternoon has become my habit.
2) On the weekend I clean my kitchen, which I enjoy.
On the weekend I enjoy cleaning my kitchen.
3) My greatest challenge in school is to focus while I read.
My greatest challenge in school is focusing on my reading.
Focusing on my reading is my greatest challenge in school.
the "to" form of the verb
e.g. the inﬁnitive form of:
demand ---- to demand
supply ---- to supply
He needs to buy a new mobile phone.
The teacher wants to explain the new lesson.
can be made negative by adding "not.“
I decided not to go.
The most important thing is not to give up.
9. 1) After certain verbs, adjectives and nouns.
a. Verb + inﬁnitive
They hope to reach the party on time.
I want to try the new ice-cream ﬂavour.
b. Adjective + inﬁnitive
I’m happy to hear you are well.
She’s delighted to see him.
c. Noun + inﬁnitive
I’ve got some homework to do.
It’s a high price to pay.
It’s time to take a break.
2) To express a purpose
I got up early to do homework.
I have some letters to write.
10. Some verbs (e.g.love, hate, start, prefer ) can take
gerund or inﬁnitive, with similar meanings
a) I loveto eat chocolates.
b)I loveeating chocolates.
a) I startedto polish the car, but then decided not to.
b) I startedpolishing the car, but then decided not to.
a) I hateto get up early.
b) I hategetting up early.
11. • A few verbs (such as ‘stop’, ‘remember’ and ‘forget’ )
can be followed by either the gerund or the inﬁnitivebut
the meanings are different.
They stopped having lunch at the restaurant.
(They don’t eat at the restaurant anymore)
They stopped to have lunch at the restaurant.
(They stopped another activity in order to have
lunch at the restaurant)
Remember to bring your portfolio to the class
(Don’t forget to bring your portfolio...)
I remember collecting marbles in our old
(Past memory: I remember that I collected
I regret to tell you that your application has been
(To apologise for something bad. To inform
something bad. This is used in moreformal
I regret not saying goodbye before leaving.
(To be sorry now for something we did in the past)
14. BE CAREFUL!
‘to’ can be part of the inﬁnitive or it can be a
use gerund after the preposition ‘to’
I look forward to hearing from you. (√)
I look forward to hear from you. (X)
15. After verbs that
like, love, enjoy
don't mind, can't stand
After verbs that refer to
a future event :
want, hope, intend
would like, promise
......... to do
16. After certain other
verbs, such as :
avoid keep (on)
After certain other
verbs, such as :
.............. to do
18. After prepositions :
interested in ...
instead of ...
good at ...
(ex : glad to know...)
(ex : pleased to meet you...)
(ex : disappointed to hear...)
19. 1. It's obvious he's only interested in (make)
2. Anne couldn't ﬁnd a taxi so I offered (drive)
________________ her to the station.
3. I managed (book) ________________ two seats
on the morning ﬂight.
4. I promise (send) _______________ you our new
brochure as soon as it's available.
5. Peter was delighted (meet) _______________ a
former colleague at the conference.
20. 6. I avoid (take) _______________ the car
whenever possible, especially in big cities.
7. We ﬁnished the job by (work)
_______________ 12 hours a day.
8. Bob sent a report to the Chairman instead
of (attend) _______________ the meeting.
9. A lot of people dislike (drive)
_______________ at night.
10. I intend (speak) _______________ to my
boss about your complaint.
21. 1. There’s a lot of work ______ (do) in the new building.
2. ‘What’s this for?’
‘It’s for _______ (cook) the vegetables.’
3. I really love _____ (play) with the children.
4. ______ (swim) is a good form of exercise.
5. I can’t stand _____ (do) the washing-up.
6.We managed ______ (pass) the exam by _____ (test)
each other every evening.
7. We were getting tired, so we stopped _____ (have)
8. I was surprised _______ (not hear) about the new baby.
I want _____ (ﬁnish) work early tonight.
I hate ______ (wait) for buses in the rain.
I’m going to the café _____ (meet) Anna.
Sam is really good at _____ (climb).
Thank you for ____ (be) so helpful.
I enjoy _____ (listen) to the radio while cooking.
Let’s go now. I’m worried about _____ (miss) the
He refused _____ (help) me.