Contenu connexe


The Berbice Rebellion, 1763 may26,2020 grade10History.pptx

  1. The Berbice Rebellion, 1763 Caribbean History Grade 11 Presenter: Ms Young
  2. Lesson Objectives At the end of this lesson students should be able to: 1. Define and differentiate among the concepts; revolt, rebellion, revolution, resistance, war. 2. Identify the leaders akin to the Berbice rebellion of 1763. 3. Outline accurately at least 3 of 4 causes of the Berbice rebellion. 4. Assess the reasons for the initial success of the Berbice rebellion. 5. Evaluate at least 5 of 10 reasons for the eventual failure of the rebellion. 6. Examine the role played by Cuffy as the outright leader of the rebellion.
  3. Definition of Terms • an attempt to end the authority of a person or body by rebelling __________ • an act of armed resistance to an established government or leader ____________ • A variety of ways to oppose or go against unjust actions or behaviour. ___________ • a forcible overthrow of a government or social order, in favour of a new system. ______ • a state of armed conflict between different countries or different groups within a country ______
  4. The Canje River
  5. Berbice Rebellion Leaders On February 23rd, 1763 the Berbice Rebellion started on a plantation on the Canje River. The Rebellion had initial quality leadership. •Cuffy, Akara and Atta They were unified and organised. Enslaved belonged to Akan, Congolese and Angolan tribes.
  6. Representations of the Rebellion
  7. Causes of Berbice Rebellion • The apathy of the whites: slaves under fed due to lack of food from provision grounds and planters not buying enough imported foods • Slaves wanted revenge due to years of ill-treatment and oppression. Many Dutch estates were owned by absentee planters who left overseers in charge. These overseers were often cruel and did little to enhance the well being of enslaved labour force • Enslaved people wanted lasting freedom • Enslaved were inspired and motivated by a Maroon revolt in Suriname the year prior
  8. Reasons for Initial Success • Many Amerindians which the whites were depending on for help had fled • Help from overseas was slow, only after 2 months after the start of the rebellion did 100 troops come from Suriname on British ships. • A dysentery epidemic (1756-1765) had severely affected whites, troops weakened by disease and lack of food. • The rebellion took the whites by surprise, no real contingency plans. • Whites not unified, some fled, would not help others, would not listen to orders from the Governor.
  9. Reasons for Initial Success • The rebelling slaves were able to seize more arms and ammunition from the abandoned estates. • The enslaved outnumbered the whites • Many of the rebelling enslaved were “fresh off the boat” and wanted to regain their free status. • Military strategy and discipline of enslaved were initially strong, hence they controlled most of the territory, pushing whites to malaria infested mouth of Canje River. • The whites forced the Governor, Von Hoogenheim, to agree to evacuate the territory.
  10. Why did the Berbice Rebellion fail? • Cuffy began to “play politics” with the Governor. Writing negotiation letters about sharing the colony. Governor tricked him buying time to get reinforcements • The troops had better weapons, training at warfare versus enslaved • Alliance of Amerindians and Dutch troops over powering on enslaved troops • Enslaved let down their guard too early and became indiscipline. Began looting and pleasure activities, less focused maintaining victory of the rebellion. • Lack of sufficient food supplies led to discontent among enslaved.
  11. Why did the Berbice Rebellion fail? • Some creole slaves surrendered to whites and crossed sides. • Division in leadership: Cuffy wanted to negotiate, Akara wanted to expel the whites. • Power struggle developed among the leadership: Atta and his rebels • In May, Cuffy killed his close followers and then committed suicide • Atta replaced Cuffy kept up the rebellion but was later betrayed and attacked by Akara. • December 1763 (2) large set of troops attacked the rebelling enslaved at the same time. Most enslaved ran away into forest and others were hunted down and killed. The rebellion ended.
  12. Cuffy’s Leadership • No other enslaved was acknowledged as leader during the revolt. • Enslaved and whites saw Cuffy as the brain power behind the revolt. • Cuffy sent other enslaved on missions to spread the revolt to other plantations around British Guiana in 1763. • It was Cuffy’s leadership that was challenged by one of his ‘deputies’ • Cuffy tried to secure constant food to feed the enslaved during the revolt by putting some Africans to work in the fields. • Cuffy was said to be the one who led other enslaved to capture plantations along the Canje river in February 1763.
  13. Walk Good …. Study for graded work tomorrow.!!