Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Le téléchargement de votre SlideShare est en cours. ×


In fulfilment of the requirement
for the degree of
(SESSION 2008-10)
Submitted to: Submi...
One should always work with an objective in its mind. To accomplish
that objective efficient management of materia...
I am sincerely thankful to all those people who have been giving
me any kind of assistance in the making o...
Prochain SlideShare
Chargement dans…3

Consultez-les par la suite

1 sur 89 Publicité

Plus De Contenu Connexe

Diaporamas pour vous (20)

Les utilisateurs ont également aimé (20)


Similaire à project-report-on-total-quality-management (20)

Plus récents (20)



  1. 1. In fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (SESSION 2008-10) Submitted to: Submitted By: B.S. COMPUTERS HARDEEP SINGH LC CODE 445 B.S. COMPUTERS MALERKOTLA 1
  2. 2. PREFACE One should always work with an objective in its mind. To accomplish that objective efficient management of material, time and financial resources is very important. Above coordination is must that determines the degree of success. Awareness at each level of life is necessary for a human being keeping all this is in view this report on “TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT” is prepared by me. The rounded encouraging support by Mr. Sarabjit Singh towards this report has created in me confidence regarding the approval of the subject matter. The present report is well arranged in coherent manner. An attempt has been made to provide the general public the necessary information about the Private and Public Banks. The main intention behind this report is to compile the subject matter in such way that even a layman could get the knowledge. So I would like to say that this report is a result of an assignment, to improve and gain confidence. 2
  3. 3. Acknowledgement I am sincerely thankful to all those people who have been giving me any kind of assistance in the making of this project report. I express my gratitude to Mr. Jagpreet singh (Executive Director) (Officiating), who has through his vast experience and knowledge has been able to guide me, both ably and successfully towards the completion of the project. I express my gratitude to B.S. Computers I would hereby, make most of the opportunity by expressing my sincerest thanks to Mr. Sachin all my faculties whose teachings gave me conceptual understanding and clarity of comprehension, which ultimately made my job more easy. Last of all but not the least I would like to acknowledge my gratitude to the respondents without whom this survey would have been incomplete. I am also thankful to authority of VEER Enterprises (SEASON’Z ICE CREAM) providing me the information. Hardeep Singh 3
  4. 4. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that MR. HARDEEP SINGH has done the Major Research Project report entitled “TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT” under my supervision for the fulfillment of the degree of Master of Business Administration of Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar. The work done by him is a sole effort and has not been submitted as or its part for any other degree. Mr. ……………… Member of Faculty of Management QUEST INFOSYS LUDHIANA. Table of Contents Contents 4
  5. 5. Introduction of TQM Aspects of TQM What is Quality? Introduction about Enterprise Veer Enterprises SEASON’Z Ice Cream Practical Experience Types of Machinery Packing material Conceptualization Principles of TQM Four C’s of TQM Factors effecting the commitment of employees Operationalization of the concept Quality Management History of Quality Management Quality Improvement Process—Tools & Techniques TQM Improvement Methodology Objectives Research Methodology Limitations Conclusion Recommendations INTRODUCTION OF TQM 5
  6. 6. Total Quality Management is an approach to the art of management that originated in Japanese industry in the 1950's and has become steadily more popular in the West since the early 1980's. Total Quality is a description of the culture, attitude and organization of a company that aims to provide, and continue to provide, its customers with products and services that satisfy their needs. The culture requires quality in all aspects of the company's operations, with things being done right first time, and defects and waste eradicated from operations. TQM is the way of managing for the future, and is far wider in its application than just assuring product or service quality – it is a way of managing people and business processes to ensure complete customer satisfaction at every stage, internally and externally. TQM, combined with effective leadership, results in an organisation doing the right things right, first time. Many companies have difficulties in implementing TQM. Surveys by consulting firms have found that only 20-36% of companies that have undertaken TQM have achieved either significant or even tangible improvements in quality, productivity, competitiveness or financial return. As a result many people are sceptical about TQM. However, when you look at successful companies you find a much higher percentage of successful TQM implementation. 6
  7. 7. Some useful messages from results of TQM implementations: • if you want to be a first-rate company, don't focus on the second- rate companies who can't handle TQM, look at the world-class companies that have adopted it • the most effective way to spend TQM introduction funds is by training top management, people involved in new product development, and people involved with customers • it's much easier to introduce EDM/PDM in a company with a TQM culture than in one without TQM. People in companies that have implemented TQM are more likely to have the basic understanding necessary for implementing EDM/PDM. For example, they are more likely to view EDM/PDM as an information and workflow management system supporting the entire product life cycle then as a departmental solution for the management of CAD data ASPECTS OF TQM a) Customer-driven quality, b) Top management leadership and commitment, 7
  8. 8. c) Continuous improvement, d) Fast response, e) Actions based on facts, f) Employee participation, and g) A TQM culture. The core of TQM is the customer-supplier interfaces, both externally and internally, and at each interface lie a number of processes. This core must be surrounded by commitment to quality, communication of the quality message, and recognition of the need to change the culture of the organisation to create total quality. These are the foundations of TQM, and they are supported by the key management functions of people, processes and systems in the organisation.  Customer-driven quality TQM has a customer-first orientation. The customer, not internal activities and constraints, comes first. Customer satisfaction is seen as the company's highest priority. The company believes it will only be successful if customers are satisfied. The TQM company is sensitive to customer requirements and responds rapidly to them. In the TQM 8
  9. 9. context, `being sensitive to customer requirements' goes beyond defect and error reduction, and merely meeting specifications or reducing customer complaints. The concept of requirements is expanded to take in not only product and service attributes that meet basic requirements, but also those that enhance and differentiate them for competitive advantage. Each part of the company is involved in Total Quality, operating as a customer to some functions and as a supplier to others. The Engineering Department is a supplier to downstream functions such as Manufacturing and Field Service, and has to treat these internal customers with the same sensitivity and responsiveness as it would external customers.  TQM leadership from top management TQM is a way of life for a company. It has to be introduced and led by top management. This is a key point. Attempts to implement TQM often fail because top management doesn't lead and get committed - instead it delegates and pays lip service. Commitment and personal involvement is required from top management in creating and deploying clear quality values and goals consistent with the objectives of the company, and in creating and deploying 9
  10. 10. well defined systems, methods and performance measures for achieving those goals. These systems and methods guide all quality activities and encourage participation by all employees. The development and use of performance indicators is linked, directly or indirectly, to customer requirements and satisfaction, and to management and employee remuneration.  Continuous improvement Continuous improvement of all operations and activities is at the heart of TQM. Once it is recognized that customer satisfaction can only be obtained by providing a high-quality product, continuous improvement of the quality of the product is seen as the only way to maintain a high level of customer satisfaction. As well as recognizing the link between product quality and customer satisfaction, TQM also recognizes that product quality is the result of process quality. As a result, there is a focus on continuous improvement of the company's processes. This will lead to an improvement in process quality. In turn this will lead to an improvement in product quality, and to an increase in customer satisfaction. Improvement cycles are encouraged for all the company's activities such as product development, use of EDM/PDM, and the way customer relationships are managed. This 10
  11. 11. implies that all activities include measurement and monitoring of cycle time and responsiveness as a basis for seeking opportunities for improvement. Elimination of waste is a major component of the continuous improvement approach. There is also a strong emphasis on prevention rather than detection, and an emphasis on quality at the design stage. The customer-driven approach helps to prevent errors and achieve defect-free production. When problems do occur within the product development process, they are generally discovered and resolved before they can get to the next internal customer.  Fast response To achieve customer satisfaction, the company has to respond rapidly to customer needs. This implies short product and service introduction cycles. These can be achieved with customer-driven and process-oriented product development because the resulting simplicity and efficiency greatly reduce the time involved. Simplicity is gained through concurrent product and process development. Efficiencies are realized from the elimination of non- value-adding effort such as re-design. The result is a dramatic 11
  12. 12. improvement in the elapsed time from product concept to first shipment.  Actions based on facts The statistical analysis of engineering and manufacturing facts is an important part of TQM. Facts and analysis provide the basis for planning, review and performance tracking, improvement of operations, and comparison of performance with competitors. The TQM approach is based on the use of objective data, and provides a rational rather than an emotional basis for decision making. The statistical approach to process management in both engineering and manufacturing recognizes that most problems are system-related, and are not caused by particular employees. In practice, data is collected and put in the hands of the people who are in the best position to analyze it and then take the appropriate action to reduce costs and prevent non-conformance. Usually these people are not managers but workers in the process. If the right information is not available, then the analysis, whether it be of shop floor data, or engineering test results, can't take place, errors can't be identified, and so errors can't be corrected.  Employee participation 12
  13. 13. A successful TQM environment requires a committed and well- trained work force that participates fully in quality improvement activities. Such participation is reinforced by reward and recognition systems which emphasize the achievement of quality objectives. On-going education and training of all employees supports the drive for quality. Employees are encouraged to take more responsibility, communicate more effectively, act creatively, and innovate. As people behave the way they are measured and remunerated, TQM links remuneration to customer satisfaction metrics. A TQM culture It's not easy to introduce TQM. An open, cooperative culture has to be created by management. Employees have to be made to feel that they are responsible for customer satisfaction. They are not going to feel this if they are excluded from the development of visions, strategies, and plans. It's important they participate in these activities. They are unlikely to behave in a responsible way if they see management behaving irresponsibly - saying one thing and doing the opposite.  Product development in a TQM environment 13
  14. 14. Product development in a TQM environment is very different to product development in a non-TQM environment. Without a TQM approach, product development is usually carried on in a conflictual atmosphere where each department acts independently. Short-term results drive behavior so scrap, changes, work-arounds, waste, and rework are normal practice. Management focuses on supervising individuals, and fire-fighting is necessary and rewarded. Product development in a TQM environment is customer-driven and focused on quality. Teams are process-oriented, and interact with their internal customers to deliver the required results. Management's focus is on controlling the overall process, and rewarding teamwork.  Awards for Quality achievement The Deming Prize has been awarded annually since 1951 by the Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers in recognition of outstanding achievement in quality strategy, management and execution. Since 1988 a similar award (the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award) has been awarded in the US. Early winners of the Baldrige Award include AT&T (1992), IBM (1990), 14
  15. 15. Milliken (1989), Motorola (1988), Texas Instruments (1992Xerox. WHAT IS QUALITY? 15
  16. 16. A frequently used definition of quality is “Delighting the customer by fully meeting their needs and expectations”. These may include performance, appearance, availability, delivery, reliability, maintainability, cost effectiveness and price. It is, therefore, imperative that the organisation knows what these needs and expectations are. In addition, having identified them, the organisation must understand them, and measure its own ability to meet them. Quality starts with market research – to establish the true requirements for the product or service and the true needs of the customers. However, for an organisation to be really effective, quality must span all functions, all people, all departments and all activities and be a common language for improvement. The cooperation of everyone at every interface is necessary to achieve a total quality organisation, in the same way that the Japanese achieve this with company wide quality control. Customers and suppliers There exist in each department, each office, each home, a series of customers, suppliers and customer- supplier interfaces. These are “the quality chains”, and they can be broken at any point by one person or one piece of equipment not meeting the requirements of the customer, internal or external. The failure usually finds its way to the interface between the organisation and its external customer, or in the worst case, actually to the external customer. 16
  17. 17. Failure to meet the requirements in any part of a quality chain has a way of multiplying, and failure in one part of the system creates problems elsewhere, leading to yet more failure and problems, and so the situation is exacerbated. The ability to meet customers’ (external and internal) requirements is vital. To achieve quality throughout an organisation, every person in the quality chain must be trained to ask the following questions about every customer-supplier interface: Customers (internal and external) • Who are my customers? • What are their true needs and expectations? • How do, or can, I find out what these are? • How can I measure my ability to meet their needs and expectations? • Do I have the capability to meet their needs and expectations? (If not, what must I do to improve this capability?) • Do I continually meet their needs and expectations? (If not, what prevents this from happening when the capability exists?) • How do I monitor changes in their needs and expectations? Suppliers (internal and external) • Who are my internal suppliers? • What are my true needs and expectations? 17
  18. 18. • How do I communicate my needs and expectations to my suppliers? • Do my suppliers have the capability to measure and meet these needs and expectations? • How do I inform them of changes in my needs and expectations? As well as being fully aware of customers’ needs and expectations, each person must respect the needs and expectations of their suppliers. The ideal situation is an open partnership style relationship, where both parties share and benefit. Poor practices To be able to become a total quality organisation, some of the bad practices must be recognised and corrected. These may include: • Leaders not giving clear direction • Not understanding, or ignoring competitive positioning • Each department working only for itself • Trying to control people through systems • Confusing quality with grade • Accepting that a level of defects or errors is inevitable • Fire fighting, reactive behaviour • The “It’s not my problem” attitude 18
  19. 19. The essential components of TQM – commitment & leadership TQM is an approach to improving the competitiveness, effectiveness and flexibility of an organisation for the benefit of all stakeholders. It is a way of planning, organising and understanding each activity, and of removing all the wasted effort and energy that is routinely spent in organisations. It ensures the leaders adopt a strategic overview of quality and focus on prevention not detection of problems. Whilst it must involve everyone, to be successful, it must start at the top with the leaders of the organisation. All senior managers must demonstrate their seriousness and commitment to quality, and middle managers must, as well as demonstrating their commitment, ensure they communicate the principles, strategies and benefits to the people for whom they have responsibility. Only then will the right attitudes spread throughout the organisation. A fundamental requirement is a sound quality policy, supported by plans and facilities to implement it. Leaders must take responsibility for preparing, reviewing and monitoring the policy, plus take part in regular improvements of it and ensure it is understood at all levels of the organisation. Effective leadership starts with the development of a mission statement, followed by a strategy, which is translated into action plans down through 19
  20. 20. the organisation. These, combined with a TQM approach, should result in a quality organisation, with satisfied customers and good business results. The 5 requirements for effective leadership are: • Developing and publishing corporate beliefs, values and objectives, often as a mission statement • Personal involvement and acting as role models for a culture of total quality • Developing clear and effective strategies and supporting plans for achieving the mission and objectives • Reviewing and improving the management system • Communicating, motivating and supporting people and encouraging effective employee participation The task of implementing TQM can be daunting. The following is a list of points that leaders should consider; they are a distillation of the various beliefs of some of the quality gurus: • The organisation needs a long-term commitment to continuous improvement. • Adopt the philosophy of zero errors/defects to change the culture to right first time • Train people to understand the customer/supplier relationships • Do not buy products or services on price alone – look at the 20
  21. 21. total cost • Recognise that improvement of the systems must be managed • Adopt modern methods of supervising and training – eliminate fear • Eliminate barriers between departments by managing the process – improve communications and teamwork • Eliminate goals without methods, standards based only on numbers, barriers to pride of workmanship and fiction – get facts by studying processes • Constantly educate and retrain – develop experts in the organisation • Develop a systematic approach to manage the implementation of TQM Culture change The failure to address the culture of an organisation is frequently the reason for many management initiatives either having limited success or failing altogether. Understanding the culture of an organisation, and using that knowledge to successfully map the steps needed to accomplish a successful change, is an important part of the quality journey. The culture in any organisation is formed by the beliefs, behaviours, norms, dominant values, rules and the “climate”. A culture change, e.g, 21
  22. 22. from one of acceptance of a certain level of errors or defects to one of right first time, every time, needs two key elements: • Commitment from the leaders • Involvement of all of the organisation’s people There is widespread recognition that major change initiatives will not be successful without a culture of good teamwork and cooperation at all levels in an organisation, as discussed in the section on People. The building blocks of TQM: processes, people, management systems and performance measurement Everything we do is a Process, which is the transformation of a set of inputs, which can include action, methods and operations, into the desired outputs, which satisfy the customers’ needs and expectations. In each area or function within an organisation there will be many processes taking place, and each can be analysed by an examination of the inputs and outputs to determine the action necessary to improve quality. In every organisation there are some very large processes, which are groups of smaller processes, called key or core business processes. These must be carried out well if an organisation is to achieve its mission and objectives. The section on Processes discusses processes and how to improve them, and Implementation covers how to prioritise and select the right process for improvement. 22
  23. 23. The only point at which true responsibility for performance and quality can lie is with the People who actually do the job or carry out the process, each of which has one or several suppliers and customers. An efficient and effective way to tackle process or quality improvement is through teamwork. However, people will not engage in improvement activities without commitment and recognition from the organisation’s leaders, a climate for improvement and a strategy that is implemented thoughtfully and effectively. The section on People expands on these issues, covering roles within teams, team selection and development and models for successful teamwork. An appropriate documented Quality Management System will help an organisation not only achieve the objectives set out in its policy and strategy, but also, and equally importantly, sustain and build upon them. It is imperative that the leaders take responsibility for the adoption and documentation of an appropriate management system in their organisation if they are serious about the quality journey. The Systems section discusses the benefits of having such a system, how to set one up and successfully implement it. Once the strategic direction for the organisation’s quality journey has been set, it needs Performance Measures to monitor and control the journey, and to ensure the desired level of performance is being achieved and sustained. They can, and should be, established at all levels in the 23
  24. 24. organisation, ideally being cascaded down and most effectively undertaken as team activities and this is discussed in the section on Performance. ABOUT THE ENTERPRISE 24
  26. 26. After the discussion of TQM in detail now we will discuss about TQM in a particular manufacturing plant. Here we will discuss that due to production which problems can be decrease the quality of product. We will discuss that how we can be maintain the quality. Every production procedure is differ than another. Every product is shifted from one to next department where quality is the main thing to produce a product. Now we will discuss about the particular product which is produced in manufacturing plant that is ICE CREAM, it is called also frozen desert. Ice cream is food product which demand much care about quality. In ice cream production quality is the main thing every point of production depend upon quality. Without quality we cannot spread our product in the market. Quality is main cause to increase the business. Due to ice cream production we need much consistency of quality. Quality increase the taste of ice cream. Now we will discuss about a firm of ice cream manufacturing. The firm name is VEER ENTERPRISES and the brand name is SEASON’z ice cream. • Firm Name :- Veer Enterprises • Brand Name :- Season’z Ice cream 26
  27. 27. • Place :- Ludhiana • Prop. :- Hardeep Singh PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE 27
  28. 28. Myself Hardeep Singh. I am the owner of the plant of ice cream. I have the practical knowledge about the quality of ice cream. I am running this factory from last three years. When I established this plant, the one thing was in my mind that was a quality maintenance. I kept one thing in my mind that I will never compromise with quality in any situation. I did not compromise with quality thus I earn less profit. Now we will discuss every point where quality exist from bottom to top. Purchasing of raw material :- The quality of every product is depend on the quality of raw material. So the raw material should be purchased from the good dealer and good distributor and should be branded company. In ice cream manufacturing raw material is very important thing. Raw material is the base of taste. The material which is used for making ice cream is that :- • Milk • Milk Powder • Sugar 28
  29. 29. • G.M.S. • Stab • Custard Powder • Cream • Essence • Sticks • Water 1. Milk:- Milk is the main thing for making ice creams. Milk should be pure and full of fat. The minimum fat of milk should be 6 and the maximum 7.5 to making ice cream. Milk should be pure quality and should be fresh. If it is not fresh we can not improve the quality. When, we purchase milk then milk should be checked by the fat machine and it should be pure and fresh. 2. Milk powder :- Milk powder is also making from milk. It is also called dry milk. In making of ice cream milk powder is 29
  30. 30. used for increase the gravity of milk. Many companies are available in the market of dry milk. But the better one should be purchased like Uttam etc. 3. Sugar :- Sugar is basic part of taste. Sugar should be carefully put in the mixture. It should be neither much nor less. 4. G.M.S. :- GMS is ingredient which is used for smoothness and to make ice cream fluffy. 5. Stab :- It is also ingredient, which is used for making mixture thicker and light. 6. Custard powder:- Custard powder is mainly used in “ Stick Kulfi” 7. Cream :- Cream should be pure and fresh, because it is very important to increase the quality. Cream is very helpful in becoming material soft and tasteful. 8. Essence :- Essence are available in many flavors. In ice cream different types of flavors are used. In market many companies are available of essence. But according to me FBI (Bush) is the best one in this category. FBI(Bush) is best quality product. 30
  31. 31. But every essence should be used till the expiry date. The expiry date is mentioned by the company on every bottle. 9. Sticks :- Sticks are mainly used in ice candy. Sticks should be in perfect size and every stick should be in same size. Stick should be in smooth stuff and very clean. 10.Water :- The water is used for making ice candy must should be filtered. Quality of Mixture To make the mixture every ingredient should be put in the selected ratio because much quantity or less quantity of ingredient and become the cause of bad quality Every ingredients like GMS, Stab, Milk Powder, Sugar, Essence should be put in the milk accordingly to the quantity of the milk and this mixture should be cooked on the gas burner or the boiler till the giving time according to recipe. If it is done accordingly to the selected ratio of ingredients we can get the best quality and delicious taste. Skilled Staff :- the staff should be skilled because the quality of product is in the hand of staff. 31
  32. 32. The person who is appointed to make the ice cream should be skilled. He should have the knowledge about every ingredient. He should have the ability to produce the ice cream in any flavor. He should have the ability to give the shape to ice cream clearly. The other staff should be also skilled. Helper, who helps the ice cream maker should be knowledgeable about his work. The all staff should have the efficiency to do work continues. The hands of every staff member should be covered with gloves and head with cloth or cap. The head of the department should be able to produce the quality in product and he should be able to operate the all machines properly. Quality of machinery The machineries which are used to produce ice cream should be good quality and should be purchased from well know company. The machine should be purchased from branded company. TYPES OF MACHINES 32
  33. 33. Machine is the main processor to produce the quality. Different types of machines are used to produce ice cream. There are four types of machines which are mainly used in this process that are:- 1. Boiler 2. Homonizer 3. Chiller 4. Charner A Indian branded company which is manufacturing machines that is “SIGMA”. SIGMA is a branded company which is famous in all over India for ice cream machines. My own factory I purchased all machines from this company. Because the accuracy of this machine is better than local company machines. 33
  34. 34. 1. Boiler :- Boiler should be purchased from branded company the mixture should be Boiled 15-20 mins. Gauge should be accurate of the boiler. 34
  35. 35. 2. Homonizer :- After making the mixture, the mixture is passed into the homonizer. The mixture put in the bowl and it reaches in the piston. Where mixture is pressed by the piston for getting the smoothness and better quality and then mixture is come out from a pipe. 35
  36. 36. 3. Charner :- Here mixture is reached in final process. The normal charner have ten liter capacity to produce ice cream in one time. The charner takes twenty minute to ready one lot. Every gauge of charner should have accuracy. All gauges should be in running condition. 36
  37. 37. The blades of charner should be sharped. Before using the charner, it washes with water and after complete the work it washes again with water. Packing Packing is the last stage which keep maintain the quality. Every packing wrapper and brick boxes should be made by better quality poly and better paper or card sheets. Every packing material should be food grade. Which is approved by health department. The ice cream should be packed properly in the wrapper and brick boxes. The both sides of every brick box should be laminated. The inner and outer side should be laminated. The expiry date should be mentioned on every packing material and manufacturing date also should be mentioned. The main thing is that ice cream should be packed properly and sealed properly in the wrapper and brick box. 37
  39. 39. 39
  40. 40. Storage The packed ice cream should be stored in the freezer. Ice cream should be stored in rows and columns so that it remain safe and in original shape. The temperature of the freezer should be in minus (-) degree. It should be near about of minus -20 to -26. The door of the freezer should be properly closed and the freezer should be switched on continues 24 hours. And generator should be available in the factory. Cleanliness Cleanliness is the main cause to increase the quality .the all side of factory should be clean the floor of the factory should be washed daily. Garbage of the factory should placed in separate place. cleanliness is must to produce the better quality. Every thing which is used to produce ice cream like steel bucket, steel jar, tubs etc should be washed before and after using. Every tub and jar in which material is kept should be covered with net. Do not keep the material without cover. There should be proper ventilation in the factory. Cleanliness is must for the customer’s specially for children health even it is must quality maintenance. Cleanliness is also checked by the health department. It is must for getting quality. 40
  41. 41. CONCEPTUALIZATION This is Total Quality Management Project Report. Human resource is the most important factor for any organization and success of any Organization is depending upon its resource .If human resource of organization is not happy with the organization. It will adversely affect the organization. The higher degree of commitment toward work will improve productivity and will decrease rejection cause due to human factor. So to make the people happy is the responsibility of the organization. So this study is helpful to measure the level of commitment toward work and to know the factor affecting the commitment level. QUALITY:- 1. Quality means fitness for use. 2. Quality means productivity, competitive cost, and timely delivery, total customer satisfaction. 3. Quality means conformance to specification and standard. 41
  42. 42. 4. Conformance to requirements. 5. Quality is what the customer says 6. Quality means getting every one to do what they have agreed to do and to do it right the first time and every time. TOTAL QUALITY:- It means all the people of the organization are committed to product quality by doing right things right, first time, every time by employing organization resource to provide value to customer. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT: - It is the process designed to focus external/internal customer expectation preventing problems building, commitment to quality in the workforce and promoting to open decision making. TOTAL: Every one associated with the company is involved in continuous improvement, in all functional area, at all level. QUALITY: Customer express and implied requirement is met fully. 42
  43. 43. MANAGEMENT: Decision in a planned way. To maintain existing lever of quality. To improve existing lever of quality. Effective utilization of resource. 43
  44. 44. PRINCIPLES OF TQM 1. Delight the customer 2. Management by fact 3. People based management 4. Continuous improvement 5. Strong leadership 6. Quality system measure& record 7. Team work, Team accountable, correct problem 8. People oriented technology, speed. FOUR C’S OF TQM 1. Commitment 2. Competence 3. Communication 44
  45. 45. 4. Continuous improvement FACTOR AFFECTED THE COMMITMENT OF THE EMPLOYEES General worker attitude toward the company. General worker attitude toward the supervisor. Lever of satisfaction toward job standard. The lever of consideration the supervisor shows to his subordination. The workload & work pressure level. The treatment of individual by the management The lever of worker’s satisfaction with the salaries The level of worker pride in the company and its activity Worker reaction to the formal communication network in the organization. 45
  46. 46. Intrinsic job satisfaction level of the worker. Worker attitude toward the fellow worker. 46
  47. 47. OPERATIONALISATION OF THE CONCEPT I have studied on impact of employee’s commitment toward. I have explained earlier. In the company, they already have implemented TQM so through this study, I measured the degree of implementation in the organization and what are the factor that are affected the commitment lever and to check how much they are satisfaction with the TQM implement. For this purpose, I have made the questionnaire which consisting of multiple-choice questions. I have collected the data from them and after that I have tabulated them and interpreted them and give the recommendation. Focus of the problem: The main emphasis will be on to find out quality employee’s commitment toward their work as a result total quality implementation. Review of Existing literature: 47
  48. 48. Many people have work on this topic. They sum up various finding. They found that apply TQM has directly increased their morale; increase the satisfaction lever and commitment toward their work. These are the finding of various researchers. Several articles have been published in different journals, magazines and newspaper such as HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW, THE ECONOMIC TIMES, VIKALPA etc. But the effect of TQM on employees commitment in the company has so far not undertaken. This project has been done first time in the company. 48
  49. 49. TQ(S)M Squared In May's issue of Focus, Paul Varga of Service Graphics wrote an article entitled TQ(S)M= Total Quality (Sales) Management. While many total quality management programs have fallen into disfavor, TQ(S)M is a critical issue for sales and executive management. Paul's comments about the value of TQ(S)M struck a chord based on some tough experiences over past years. Quality in the sales and marketing process first became a critical issue to me about six years ago. While the basic tenets of quality have always been appealing, imagine my plight as a sales executive for a high technology company faced with the following scenarios: Many of our Department of Defense Subcontractors (at the time about 40% of our business) were imposing their vendor quality programs on us. Our salespeople found themselves being measured against yardsticks they didn't understand. We were found non-compliant by some customers and not allowed to compete. Our "bid" prices were uplifted by others to reflect the cost of non-compliance. Each customer had their own program, all of which were bad news if you did not comply. The sales teams were not equipped to deal with any of these programs. 49
  50. 50. At the same time, many of our commercial customers were implementing their own quality programs. At the time, Motorola was telling us that we would be required to compete for the Baldrige award. Other customers were beginning to look at ISO 9000, and others were applying Six Sigma measurement criteria, while others had their unique programs. The sales organization wanted to comply with our customers' needs and continue to be recognized as a quality business partner, but did not know where to begin. We had several challenges: • The first was getting our own company to recognize that quality is defined by the customer. Like our customers, our corporation had defined and implemented an aggressive quality program. However, no one had spoken with the salespeople or with the customers. Many of the tough goals the corporation had set for itself were non-compliant when compared to those goals our customers were setting for their suppliers (us!!). • Second was finding a quality training program that focused on the needs of salespeople. The quality professionals seemed to focus on the "hard" sides of business--manufacturing, development and administration. None had programs targeted to the sales and marketing functions. I visited some of the Baldrige award winners to discover how they had trained their sales organizations. Most 50
  51. 51. had developed their own programs with minimal help from quality professionals. • Finally, we had to learn how to take a close look at ourselves and clean up our own house. We had to recognize that sales and marketing are definable processes, just as the other functions in an organization. We had to define our process, define how to measure ourselves and then seek to improve our processes (the Japanese and quality guru's call it Kaizen.). It took a lot of work, but it meant our survival, both as a corporation and as sales professionals--after all, each failure hit the salesperson in the wallet!! The first step was relatively easy. We mapped the 44 customer driven quality programs and compliance requirements against our corporate quality goals. (These 44 customers represented a significant amount of business.) Frankly, the job became fairly easy at that point. I had the opportunity to present our customers' quality requirements to our corporate quality council. It helps when the Chairman of the Board chairs that council. Once it became obvious that meeting our internal quality goals would not meet our customers' quality requirements and that we faced losing business, we caught the attention of our chairman and the 51
  52. 52. rest of the corporation. It was one step in becoming customer focused. Then we undertook developing our own quality programs. First, we began introducing our people to the basic concepts of quality and customer satisfaction. Then we sponsored a number of projects to understand where we were and to make small improvements. Rather than just tracking revenue, expenses and a few other things, we started becoming attentive to a number of other factors---returns, delivery, the number of telephone rings in our offices and telemarketing centers and other measurements. Each of these projects started establishing awareness in different parts of the organization. On second thought, maybe they established better awareness with the executive management staff. In hindsight, I remember countless individuals talking about small problems impacting our customers that we needed to fix, but taken separately they didn't catch our attention. I think our people always knew we could and should do better, but could not capture the attention of management. Now we were paying attention. Finally we began to undertake the big task. We started to examine the process of selling. How did we define our process from the overall management of the business down to the daily activities of the salespeople? How could we do this without creating a bureaucracy which 52
  53. 53. diverted our focus--satisfying our customers' requirements and profitably growing our business? Benchmarking some leading sales organizations helped us tremendously. We opted for simplicity. We realized that we could adopt a simple process and apply that, with discipline, to everything that we did--from business management, to territory management, to improving the effectiveness and productivity of each salesperson, to coaching and developing everyone in the organization. Only upon implementing this process were we able to see the PHENOMENAL results it produced! We started to see the following: • We had a common language and process to manage the business. Our forecast integrity improved tremendously. • Our process forced us to focus on the way the world was, not the way we wanted it to be. We drove a fact base approach to managing the organization, the selling process and each sales situation. • In each selling situation, we began to focus on the customer need to buy, not our need to sell. Customers would call me and ask "What have you done? Your salespeople are asking me questions I have never been asked before. They are really interested in my business and my problems!" 53
  54. 54. Our results were tremendous. We were no longer "blacklisted" as non- compliant by our customers. Our customers started looking at us as a valued business partner. Our company was becoming much more customer focused. The productivity of the sales organization was improving, cost per order dollar was declining. We were growing. TQ(S)M makes sense! In the greater Cleveland area, specifically, examine the factors driving all of us to improve the quality and effectiveness of our sales organizations. The automotive industry has adopted a standard by which it will measure all suppliers--QS9000. Many companies in this area need to train their salespeople in partnering with their automotive customers in implementing the QS9000 programs. ISO9000 is driving other companies. Supplier participation is an important factor in this standard--our salespeople stand at the forefront of working with customers in assuring that we comply with the needs of our customers. If those reasons are not important enough, consider the results other companies have achieved by introducing a quality and process orientation to sales. One organization adopting a process similar to that I described reduced its sales cycle by an average of 40%. Organizations I have managed have reduced cost per order dollar by over 20%. One 54
  55. 55. organization implementing this process orientation has enabled itself to become the strategic vendor of choice to many of its customers--purely because of the ability of the sales organization to focus on its customers' problems. TQ(S)M makes business sense! As Paul's article pointed out, creating customer focused partnerships which drive growth and profitability is key to all sales executives. Whether you call it total quality or not, it makes the sales organization more effective and productive. It provides the competitive edge. 55
  56. 56. QUALITY MANAGEMENT Quality Management history, gurus, TQM theories, process improvement, and organisational commitment The history of quality management, from mere 'inspection' to Total Quality Management, and its modern 'branded interpretations such as 'Six Sigma', has led to the development of essential processes, ideas, theories and tools that are central to organizational development, change management, and the performance improvements that are generally desired for individuals, teams and organizations. These free resources, materials and tools are an excellent guide to the quality management area, for practical application in organizations, for study and learning, and for teaching and training others. These free pdf materials are provided by permission of the UK Department of Industry - now the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform - which is gratefully acknowledged. The materials listed and linked from this page are subject to Crown Copyright. Please note that since the replacement of the UK Department of Industry by the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform, the 56
  57. 57. branding on the materials is now obsolete. Nevertheless, since the Quality Management technical and historical content is unaffected by the DTI branding the materials remain relevant for training, learning and reference. It is appropriate to note the passing a little while back now, of Joseph Juran, a seminal figure in the history of quality management, who died 28 February 2008, age 103. Juran did more than teach the Japanese about quality management. He was also arguably the first quality expert to emphasise that no quality management system works unless people are empowered and committed to take responsibility for quality - as an ongoing process - effectively for quality to become part of part of people's behaviour and attitudes - an ethos. The section below on Kaizen explains the connections between the true ethos of quality management, and the positive ethical management of people. 57
  58. 58. HISTORY OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT The roots of Total Quality Management can be traced to early 1920's production quality control ideas, and notably the concepts developed in Japan beginning in the late 1940's and 1950's, pioneered there by Americans Feigenbum, Juran and Deming.. QUALITY MANAGEMENT GURUS AND THEORIES Quality Management resulted mainly from the work of the quality gurus and their theories: the American gurus featured in the 1950's Japan: Joseph Juran, W Edwards Deming, and Armand Feigenbum; the Japanese quality gurus who developed and extended the early American quality ideas and models: Kaoru Ishikawa, Genichi Taguchi, and Shigeo Shingo; and the 1970-80's American Western gurus, notably Philip Crosby and Tom Peters, who further extended the Quality Management concepts after the Japanese successes... More about the Quality Management gurus and their theories, including the development and/or use of the Plan, Do, Check, Act (PDCA) cycle, Pareto analysis, cause and effect diagrams, stratification, check-sheets, histograms, scatter-charts, process control charts, system design, parameter design, tolerance design ('Taguchi 58
  59. 59. methodology'), Quality Improvement Teams (QIT), Just In Time (JIT), Management By Walking About (MBWA), McKinsey 7-S Framework, etc. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) Total Quality Management features centrally the customer-supplier interfaces, (external and internal customers and suppliers). A number of processes sit at each interface. Central also is an organizational commitment to quality, and the importance of communicating this quality commitment, together with the acknowledgement that the right organizational culture is essential for effective Total Quality Management.... More about the fundamentals and structures of the TQM model, including the people, processes and systems in the organization. PROCESSES - UNDERSTANDING PROCESSES AND METHODS FOR PROCESS IMPROVEMENT Understanding processes is essential before attempt is made to improve them. This is a central aspect to Total Quality Management, and also to more modern quality and process improvement interpretations and models such as Six Sigma.... More about Total Quality Management process and process improvement methods. 59
  60. 60. QUALITY PROCESS 8IMPROVEMENT TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES A wide range of tools and techniques is used for identifying, measuring, prioritising and improving processes which are critical to quality. Again these ideas and methods feature prominently in modern interpretations of Total Quality Management methodology, such as Six Sigma. These process improvement tools and techniques include: DRIVE (Define, Review, Identify, Verify, Execute), process mapping, flow-charting, force field analysis, cause and effect, brainstorming, Pareto analysis, Statistical Process Control (SPC), Control charts, bar charts, 'dot plot' and tally charts, check-sheets, scatter diagrams, matrix analysis, histograms.. A summary of quality tools is below Developing people and teams People are a fundamental component within any successfully developing organization. Take away the people and the organization is nothing. Take away the people's motivation, commitment and ability to work together in well-organised teams, and again, the organization is nothing. Conversely, inspire the people to work well, creatively, productively, and the 60
  61. 61. organization can fly. Logically therefore, the development and proper utilization of people are vital to the success of all quality management initiatives. There are a wide range of models that are used in selecting, assessing, training and developing and motivating people, among which are classical models such as Belbin, Myers Briggs Type Indicator (see the personality models section), Bruce Tuckman's 'Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing' model, John Adair's Action Centred Leadership model. QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS A 'Total Quality organization' generally benefits from having an effective Quality Management System (QMS). A Quality Management System is typically defined as: "A set of co-ordinated activities to direct and control an organization in order to continually improve the effectiveness and efficiency of its performance." Customer expectations inevitably drive and define 'performance' criteria and standards. Therefore Quality Management Systems focus on customer expectations and ongoing review and improvement. PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT AND MANAGEMENT There are many ways to measure organizational performance other than financial output or profit. Modern measurement focuses on the essential 61
  62. 62. activities, resources and other factors - many less intangible than traditional indictors - that impact on final outputs. These include modern methods such as Balanced Scorecard. EXCELLENCE AND THE EUROPEAN QUALITY MANAGEMENT MODEL The European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) Excellence Model® is a useful framework for developing quality and excellence within an organization. TQM SELF-ASSESSMENT AND AWARDS USING THE EFQM® MODEL Any organization can assess itself provided it has the commitment to so so, and a framework for the self-assessment... Here are some ideas, and a process for quality and excellence self-assessment. TQM BENCHMARKING AND QUESTIONNAIRE (READINESS FOR BENCHMARKING) Benchmarking is a widely used term within the field of organizational measurement and management .... Here is an explanation of benchmarking, and a questionnaire by which an organization (or a department or process team) can assess its readiness for benchmarking. 62
  63. 63. TQM IMPLEMENTATION FRAMEWORK AND BLUEPRINT Here is a framework and 'blueprint' for the implementation of a quality improvement or 'excellence' initiative. It includes the following elements: • TQM Processes • Tools and techniques • People and teamwork • Quality management system • Performance measurement • EFQM Excellence Model® • Self-assessment This blueprint for achieving organizational excellence is based on many years of research, education and advisory work in the European Centre for Business Excellence (ECforBE), and the research and education division of Oakland Consulting plc. It is, along with the other resources in this section, information and advice initially from the UK Department of Industry, now replaced by the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform. KAIZEN Kaizen is a very significant concept within quality management and deserves specific explanation: 63
  64. 64. Kaizen (usually pronounced 'kyzan' or 'kyzen' in the western world) is a Japanese word, commonly translated to mean 'continuous improvement'. Kaizen is a core principle of quality management generally, and specifically within the methods of Total Quality Management and 'Lean Manufacturing'. Originally developed and applied by Japanese industry and manufacturing in the 1950s and 60s, Kaizen continues to be a successful philosophical and practical aspect of some of the best known Japanese corporations, and has for many years since been interpreted and adopted by 'western' organizations all over the world. Kaizen is a way of thinking, working and behaving, embedded in the philosophy and values of the organization. Kaizen should be 'lived' rather than imposed or tolerated, at all levels. The aims of a Kaizen organization are typically defined as: • To be profitable, stable, sustainable and innovative. • To eliminate waste of time, money, materials, resources and effort and increase productivity. • To make incremental improvements to systems, processes and activities before problems arise rather than correcting them after the event. 64
  65. 65. • To create a harmonious and dynamic organization where every employee participates and is valued. Key concepts of Kaizen: • Every is a key word in Kaizen: improving everything that everyone does in every aspect of the organization in every department, every minute of every day. • Evolution rather than revolution: continually making small, 1% improvements to 100 things is more effective, less disruptive and more sustainable than improving one thing by 100% when the need becomes unavoidable. • Everyone involved in a process or activity, however apparently insignificant, has valuable knowledge and participates in a working team or Kaizen group (see also Quality Circles below). • Everyone is expected to participate, analysing, providing feedback and suggesting improvements to their area of work. • Every employee is empowered to participate fully in the improvement process: taking responsibility, checking and co-ordinating their own activities. Management practice enables and facilitates this. • Every employee is involved in the running of the company, and is trained and informed about the company. This encourages commitment and interest, leading to fulfilment and job satisfaction. 65
  66. 66. Kaizen teams use analytical tools and techniques to review systems and look for ways to improve (see Quality Tools below). At its best, Kaizen is a carefully nurtured philosophy that works smoothly and steadily, and which helps to align 'hard' organizational inputs and aims (especially in process-driven environments), with 'soft' management issues such as motivation and empowerment. Like any methodology however, poor interpretation and implementation can limit the usefulness of Kaizen practices, or worse cause them to be counter-productive. Kaizen is unsuccessful typically where: • Kaizen methods are added to an existing failing structure, without fixing the basic structure and philosophy. • Kaizen is poorly integrated with processes and people's thinking. • Training is inadequate. • Executive/leadership doesn't understand or support Kaizen. • Employees and managers regard Kaizen as some form of imposed procedure, lacking meaningful purpose. Kaizen works best when it is 'owned' by people, who see the concept as both empowering of individuals and teams, and a truly practical way to improve quality and performance, and thereby job satisfaction and 66
  67. 67. reward. As ever, such initatives depend heavily on commitment from above, critically: • to encourage and support Kaizen, and • to ensure improvements produce not only better productivity and profit for the organization, but also better recognition and reward and other positive benefits for employees, whose involvement drives the change and improvement in the first place. Interestingly, the spirit of Kaizen, which is distinctly Japanese in origin - notably its significant emphasis upon individual and worker empowerment in organizations - is reflected in many 'western' concepts of management and motivation, for example the Y-Theory principles described by Douglas McGregor; Herzberg's Motivational Theory, Maslow's Needs Hierarchy and related thinking; Adams' Equity Theory; and Charles Handy's motivational theories. Fascinatingly, we can now see that actually very close connections exist between: • the fundamental principles of Quality Management - which might be regarded as cold and detached and focused on 'things' not people, and 67
  68. 68. • progressive 'humanist' ideas about motivating and managing people - which might be regarded as too compassionate and caring to have a significant place in the optimization of organizational productivity and profit. The point is that in all effective organizations a very strong mutual dependence exists between: • systems, processes, tools, productivity, profit - the 'hard' inputs and outputs (some say 'left-side brain'), and • people, motivation, teamwork, communication, recognition and reward - the 'soft' inputs and outputs ('right-side brain') Kaizen helps to align these factors, and keep them aligned. Quality tools 'Quality Tools' refers to tools and techniques used in support of Kaizen and other quality improvement or quality management programmes and philosophies. Based mainly on statistical and manufacturing process tools, Quality Tools are used at all levels of an organization - typically in 'quality circles' or Kaizen work teams to analyse and review activities and uncover inefficiencies. 68
  69. 69. The main Quality Tools are: • The '5 Whys' - asking 'Why?' at least five times to uncover root cause of a problem. • Flowcharts - boxes and arrows method of examining activities, potentially used in brainstorming, also found in business process modelling. • Fishbone/Ishikawa Diagrams - fishbone-structured diagram for identifying cause/effect patterns, in which primary categories are generally pre-determined according to context. See fishbone diagram and usage examples for project management. • Run Charts - a graph which plots data/change along a timeline. • Pareto Charts - a line and bar graph displaying cause/effect ratios, especially biggest relative cause, based on Pareto theory. • Histograms - a bar graph displaying data in simple categories which together account for a total. • Checklists/Checksheets - pre-formatted lists for noting incidence, frequency, etc., according to known useful criteria • Control/Shewhart Charts - a standard pattern of performance/time for a given process, often in Run Chart format, which acts as a template to check conformance and deviation. 69
  70. 70. • Scatter Diagram/Scatterplot - a graph which plots points (typically very many individual instances) according to two variables, which produces a useful visual indication of the relationship between the two variables. Some quality tools, like flowcharts and checklists, have become part of mainstream management. Others tools such as the Fishbone diagram have stayed quite specific to the engineering and manufacturing disciplines, which traditionally have a strong focus and expertise in Kaizen, 'Lean' management and other quality management methodologies. QUALITY CIRCLES Quality circles, similar to Kaizen teams, are a key part of any continuous improvement programme. In this context the word 'circle' refers to a team of people. Teams or small groups (the circles) meet to analyse, and review working practices with a view to making suggestions for improvement in their work and the systems. 70
  71. 71. As with many Quality Tools, the specific use of Quality Circles is chiefly concentrated among manufacturing and engineering organizations or in technical departments of this sort. The term Quality Circles may be found in more general use outside of these traditional areas, in which case the name tends to imply or symbolise that teams are working in an empowered, cooperative way, especially focused on problem-solving and improvements, rather than a strict adherence to technical Total Quality Management or related processes. This article contains a summary of implementation of TQM improvement projects in the Manufacturing and Service Sectors over the last 5 years. It highlights difficulties encountered in using specific improvement tools as well as handling of the team members. 71
  72. 72. TQM IMPROVEMNT METHODOLOGY Throughout these TQM improvement projects, a common methodology was used as a systematic way to 7 QC tools are widely employed within this methodology 1. The DEFINE phase In this phase, team members are required to identify improvement projects. Some tools commonly used to help members to select improvement projects are as follows:- a) Brain Storming b) Multi Voting c) Selection Grid d) Problem Statement 72
  73. 73. Upon completion of using the tools, team members will be able to select and agreed to a project which may be an opportunity for improvement or problem. A Problem Statement is used as a summary of this phase to state the nature of the project, boundaries of the process to be improved, goal and target, resource required and potential constraints While this is a simple phase to accomplish, often team members are faced with difficulties for some valid reasons. Some of the common difficulties encountered are as follows:- a) Team leader cannot decide whether to use the above tools to select project even though project is already assigned by the management b) Team leader lack experience in directing team members c) Lack of initial data to support decision making d) Team members are not well verse with the subject matter e) Lack understanding of the improvement tools 2. The ANALYSE phase This is a critical phase where the current state of the subject matter as well as root causes will be analysed in detail. This analysis is done systematically and logically as follows:- 73
  74. 74. a) The scope of the subject matter b) Current performance (problematic) trend c) Identify possible causes of the opportunity or problem d) Detail diagnostic to the root cause of the confirmed true causes Certainly, these steps are performed using common improvement tools include 7-QC tools such as Brainstorming; Data collection; Trend Charting; Fish-Bone Diagram and why-Why Analysis. Team members use these tools selectively to dissect the problem into smaller junks and look at them critically. As expected, team members do not seems to able to grasp the use of these tools effectively. Often than not, team members make conclusion to the "root cause" too soon without factual data to support. The reasons for this are several, some of them are as follows:- a) Team leader dominate in team discussion b) Some team members used past experience to make conclusion c) Data collection is tedious d) Lack data analytical skill e) Lack focus during brainstorming on possible causes 74
  75. 75. f) Did not spend enough time to validate the possible causes g) Too judgmental on the causes h) Root cause analysis is often skip after possible causes is identified 3. The IMPROVE phase There are two steps in this phase, namely; plan the improvement and Implement the improvement plan. Upon completed the Analyse phase, the team members would have some ideas what are some of the causes of the problem. And to some extend, the root causes of the problem is identified. Based on these causes, planning to improve them is the key objective of this IMPROVE Phase. There are several tools involve in doing so, namely:- a) Brainstorming of action / solution b) Selection Grid c) Benchmarking d) Cost-Benefit Analysis e) Control lot and testing f) Pilot the action / solution 75
  76. 76. g) Force-Field Analysis h) Prevention Planner Traditionally, when an action / solution is identified, often than not, they are implemented without considering the risk involved. Sometime when they are implemented, these action / solution cause different set of problem. During my consulting projects, team leaders failed to stay control of the "excitement of success" when action / solution is identified. Risk analysis was not enough or lacking before they are implemented. Some of the difficulties encountered by the team members during this IMPROVE phase are as follows:- a) Action / solution taken causes other problem (Jump into the action without further evaluation of the risk) b) Action / solution does not yield long term result (Member got over exited about the action / solution and forgot about the root causes. c) Line workers refuse to abide to the new action / solution (Focus too much on technical aspect of the action / solution, forgot about the human factor. New action / solution involve change. Managing the change is often neglected) d) Some action / solution are not carried out as expected 76
  77. 77. 4. The CONTROL phase This is the most neglected but critical phase to ensure action / solution put in placed are permanently yield expected results. It cannot be over emphasized the importance of CONTROL. Not only team need to control the improvement result but equally important the action / solution. These are the critical components of the whole Improvement Projects to ensure sustainability of the improvement. However, members tends to keep track of the result without realizing it is the action / solution that bring about the improvement of the results. Besides tracking and monitoring, it is important that new action / solution are standardized across the company with simple yet effective work instructions and Standard Operating Procedures. And they are periodically audited for compliance. That Management team has included these items in their operation review meeting until such a time they feel it is sustainable. They are some basic tools used in this phase, namely:- a) Trend Charting b) Control Chart c) Documentation d) Audit 77
  78. 78. e) On-job training f) Re-certification During this phase, least difficulties were encountered by team members. Perhaps it was due to the fact that most action / solution are taken placed in the work area they are in charge. However, there are cases where teams are set up for a cross-function project in which action / solution to be taken are in work areas not the responsibility of the team members. In which case, team members faced with the following difficulties:- a) Action and solution are not carried out consistently b) Some of the line workers are not aware of the changes c) Tracking is focus on results but did not extend to the action / solution The above article is a compilation of issues in several TQM projects facilitated by the author in various manufacturing and service sectors from year 2001 to 2006. These projects are categorized as:- Sales Improvement Projects such as:- a) Customer & Market Analysis b) Reduction in Customer Complaints 78
  79. 79. c) Production Uptime d) Delivery Cycle Time e) Loan Processing And Cost Reduction Projects such as:- a) Quality Improvement b) Process Optimization c) Increase Boiler Efficiency d) Reduce Material Losses e) Reduce Electricity Consumption f) Reduce Machine Downtime g) Reduce Repair & Maintenance h) Reconcile Insurance Policy Premium etc This article deals with some common difficulties encountered during the implementation of improvement projects with regards to the use of tools, implementing action and solutions, sustaining the effort and so on. 79
  80. 80. However, other aspects not included in this article are management commitment, sustainability and Reward & Recognition. In summary, the above projects were completed and their duration varied depending on project complexity. Also, the cost of project, improvement and its related cost saving varied too. As an indication, the project saving ranged from few thousand to a million Malaysian Ringgit. Besides these tangible benefits, there are several intangible benefits too. To name a few; team member work well together as a team than before, gaining extra understanding to the processes, gain analytical and project improvement skill etc 80
  81. 81. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY The objectives of this study are: 1. To find the degree of TQM implemented in the organization. 2. To study the level of commitment of employees toward their work. 3. To find out factor influencing the commitment. 81
  82. 82. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research methodology is a way to solve the research problem in a systematic manner. It may understand as a science of studying how the research is done significantly. The methodology may differ from problem to problem, yet the basic approach towards the research remains the same. The sequence or steps followed have been explained as under: UNIVERSE AND SURVEY POPULATION The universe is the employee working at mill. I have selected 100 employees 40 FROM THE STAFF, 60 FROM THE WORKER for the survey. RESEARCH DESIGN This research is of EXPLORATARY RESEARCH DESIGN.I have used the questionnaire method for collecting the data. ANALYSIS PATTERN 82
  83. 83. Data collection: This data is primary data, which I have been collected with the help of questionnaire. I have prepared a questionnaire on the basis of the factors responsible for employee’s commitment in the organization MACRO ANALYSIS (Inferences &Interpretation) The detailed analyses of the results are explained below: MOST OF EMPLOYEES FEELS THAT: Most of the staff member and worker feel that organization is quality conscious toward the employees. This also increases their commitment toward the work and toward the organization. Some of the employee’s feel that thy have proper information about the policies, practices followed in the organization. But some of employees feel that there is no proper communication. Most of the facts related with the organization are hided by the management from the employees. Most of the employees feel that they don’t get rewarded for their good performance. 83
  84. 84. Most of the staff’s member feels that their performance is properly measured in the organization. LIMITATIONS 1. Employees of the organization may hide the fact. 2. The management did not agree to disclose all the confidential data. 3. Numbers of respondents are very less, so clear conclusion can’t be drawn. 84
  85. 85. CONCLUSION After of the discussion about quality in the particular manufacturing plant we can say that the over all product is depend on quality. Without quality we can not spread our product in the market and our brand name can not be get famous without quality. Ice cream is a food product where existence of quality is must. The food product business like ice cream can be survive only upon quality and originality. Quality can raise popularity of our product on region, national as well as international level. In the nutshell we can say that all over business depends upon the better quality. If the product quality is better then people would like our product. 85
  86. 86. RECOMMENDATIONS The suggestions I have given for the betterment are explained below: ü It is very important to provide the opportunity to the employees of the organization to express their ideas or whatever they want to express. ü Management should clear their vision mission and goals towards the employees in the organization. ü Management should involve the workers representatives in managerial activities so that the transparency could be maintained and through this they can win the confidence of the employees. 86
  87. 87. ü Management should give due importance to mental relaxation &social cultural development of an employees who strives hard for the company. ü Reward or Praise/appreciation works as magic for an individual and motivates them for work. ü Role clarity of each position should be defined and based on that individuals can plan their work accordingly. Self-potential system should be encouraged. ü There are regular review and comparison of current & past performance to detect gradual deterioration in the strategy. ü Proper cooperation should be necessary in the company. We believe that people need small moments of pleasure in their lives. Our passion is inspired by our love for simple ingredients like milk, fruit and chocolate, which make our products the best “Pleasure Food” there is. In a world of stress, denial, restraint and 'less is more', providing moments of daily pleasure is still really important for our customers and their families. Moreover, we take great pride in believing that we are, in a way responsible for putting that smile on the consumer's face. 87
  88. 88. Taste the fun side of life Mention ice cream and most people think of the Heartbrand. The brand with the big red heart logo is behind many much-loved ice cream classics - from indulgent treats like Magnum and Cornetto, to the refreshing fruit tastes of Solero and family favourites like Viennetta. Making you happy Few foods are guaranteed to put a smile on people's faces like ice cream. But while ice cream should always be fun, we've an ever-growing range of lower fat, lower sugar products. Heartbrand now provides lighter versions for those watching the calories and smaller sizes for smaller appetites, as well old favourites - there's something for everyone. Ice Cream makes you happy - its official! A study carried out using FMRI brain scanners showed that eating Wall's had an immediate effect on the part of the brain that is activated when someone is really enjoying themselves - The pleasure areas . So we now have scientific evidence to prove what we all already knew, that ice cream really does make you happy! We believe that little pleasures in life, at some point, add up to make a huge difference. Pleasure is not a sin. It is actually oxygen for the soul. 88
  89. 89. We say that because it is a scientifically proven fact that happy people live longer. 89