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Introduction to IPv6

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Introduction to IPv6.
 Why IPv6
 Ipv6 features .
 Ipv6 address Header.
 IPv6 address format.
 Ipv6 abbreviation.
 IPv6 Address Mode.
 IPv6 Address types.
 IPv4/IPv6 Difference.

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Introduction to IPv6

  1. 1. By Msc student Sara Qasim Abedulridha 2016/2017 Introduction To IpV6 College of InformationTechnology University of Babylon
  2. 2. Content  Introduction to IPv6.  Why IPv6  Ipv6 features.  Ipv6 address Header.  IPv6 address format.  Ipv6 abbreviation.  IPv6 Address Mode.  IPv6 Address types.  IPv4/IPv6 Difference.
  3. 3.  Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the latest revision of the Internet Protocol (IP), it IPv6 was developed by the Internet EngineeringTask Force (IETF) to overcome the limitations of the current standard IPv4 and to provide several advantages over current Internet ProtocolVersion 4 (or IPv4). Introduction To IPv6
  4. 4.  IPv4, defines a 32-bit address - 232 (4,294,967,296) IPv4 addresses available.  ~40% of the IPv4 address space is still unused which is different from unallocated  Internet has grown exponentially, IP is everywhere  Data, voice, audio and video integration is a reality Regional registries apply a strict allocation control  IPv4 on its own does provide week security features.  IPV4 Address configuration related issues.  In IPV4, Internet routing table very big. Why IPv6
  5. 5. What IP touching?
  6. 6.  Larger Address Space Ipv6 Address Feature
  7. 7.  Larger Address Space Ipv6 Address Feature
  8. 8.  Simplified Header  IPv6’s header has been simplified by moving all unnecessary information and options (which are present in IPv4 header) to the end of the IPv6 header.  End-to-end Connectivity  Every system now has unique IP. After IPv6 is fully implemented, every host can directly reach other hosts on the Internet, with some limitations involved like Firewall, organization policies, etc. Ipv6 Address Feature
  9. 9.  Auto-configuration  IPv6 supports both stateful and stateless auto configuration mode of its host devices. This way, absence of a DHCP server does not put a halt on inter segment communication.  Improved privacy and security IPsec  IPsec is the IETF standard for IP network security. IPsec is a set of Internet standards that uses cryptographic security services to provide Confidentiality, Authentication, Data integrity.  Available for both IPv4 and IPv6.  Although the functions are essentially identical in both environments, IPsec is mandatory in IPv6. IPv6 also has optional security headers. Ipv6 Address Feature
  10. 10.  Faster Forwarding/Routing  Simplified header puts all unnecessary information at the end of the header. The information contained in the first part of the header is adequate for a Router to take routing decisions, thus making routing decision as quickly as looking at the mandatory header.  No Broadcast  IPv6 does not have any broadcast support any more. It uses multicast to communicate with multiple hosts. Ipv6 Address Feature
  11. 11.  Anycast Support  This is another characteristic of IPv6. IPv6 has introduced Anycast mode of packet routing. In this mode, multiple interfaces over the Internet are assigned same Anycast IP address. Routers, while routing, send the packet to the nearest destination.  Flow labeling capability:  A new capability enables the labeling of packets belonging to particular traffic flows for which the sender requests special handling, such as non default quality of service (QoS) or real-time service Ipv6 Address Feature
  12. 12.  Mobility  IPv6 was designed keeping mobility in mind.This feature enables hosts (such as mobile phone) to roam around in different geographical area and remain connected with the same IP address.The mobility feature of IPv6 takes advantage of auto IP configuration and Extension headers.  Extensibility  One of the major advantages of IPv6 header is that it is extensible to add more information in the option part.  IPv4 provides only 40-bytes for options, whereas options in IPv6 can be as much as the size of IPv6 packet itself. Ipv6 Address Feature
  13. 13.  SmoothTransition  Large IP address scheme in IPv6 enables to allocate devices with globally unique IP addresses.This mechanism saves IP addresses and NAT is not required.  So devices can send/receive data among each other, for example,VoIP and/or any streaming media can be used much efficiently.  Site multihoming:  IPv6 allows hosts to have multiple IPv6 addresses and allows networks to have multiple IPv6 prefixes. Consequently, sites can have connections to multiple ISPs without breaking the global routing table. Ipv6 Address Feature
  14. 14. IPv6 Headers
  15. 15.  Version: this field contains the number 6 For IPv6.  Traffic class: 8 bits are used for Type of Service to let the Router know what services should be provided to this packet. And used for Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN).  Payload length: The 16 bit payload length field contains the length of the data field in octets/bits following the IPv6 packet header. the minimum value is 1280 and the maximum is 1500. IPv6 Header
  16. 16.  Flow label  The 20bit can be used by a source sender to requests special handling, such as non default (QoS) or real-time service to label a set of packets belonging to the same flow .  When routers receive the first packet of a new flow , they can process the information carried by the IPv6 header , Routing header , and HopbyHop extension headers, and store the result in the cache memory.  Router use the result in a cache memory to route all other packets belonging to the same flow (having the same source address and the same Flow Label), by using the data stored in the cache memory . IPv6 Header
  17. 17.  Next header: The 8-bit field determines the type of header immediately following the IPv6 header and located at the beginning of the data field (payload) of the IPv6 packet.  Hop limit: Is like toTTL in IPv4.  Source address:16 octets (128 bits) used to identifies the source of the packet.  Destination address: 16 octets (128 bits).used to identifies the destination of the packet. IPv6 Header
  18. 18. IPv6 Headers  In IPv6, the Fixed Header contains only that much information which is necessary, avoiding information which are either not required or is rarely used.  Each Extension Header is identified by a distinct value.  When Extension Headers are used, IPv6 Fixed Header’s Next Header field points to the first Extension Header.  Extension Headers are arranged one after another in a linked list manner. Normal IPv6TCP Packet IPv6TCP encapsulated in Routing FragmentationIPv6TCP packet Routing
  19. 19. IPv6 Headers  The following Extension Headers must be supported as per RFC 2460:
  20. 20. IPv6 Headers  The sequence of Extension Headers should be:  The order is Important.
  21. 21. IPv6 Headers features  No option field: Replaced by extension header. Result in a fixed length, 40-byte IP header.  No header checksum: Result in fast processing.  No fragmentation at intermediate nodes: Result in fast IP forwarding.  Routers don’t fragment packets with IPv6  Fragmentation is being done by host.  If a packet is too big for next hop:  “Packet too big” error message .  This is an ICMPv6 message
  22. 22. Address Format  An IPv6 address is 128 bits long.  Represented in hexadecimal format (32 hexadecimal characters):  Each hexadecimal character is the equivalent of 4 bits (4 x 32 = 128).  Uses CIDR principles: prefix/prefix length  IPv6 address long is 8 hextets , separated by colons (:).  x:x:x:x:x:x:x:x, where x is a 16-bit hex field  The last 64 bits are used for the interface ID  A non-abbreviated IPv6 host address is shown here: 2001:0DB8:0001:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001
  23. 23.  In this part, we will study and review rules for IPv6 address abbreviation to correctly compress and decompress IPv6 addresses.  Rule 1: (abbreviated with single zeros)  In an IPv6 address, a string of four zeros (0s) in a hextet can be abbreviated as a single zero. 2001:0404:0001:1000:0000:0000:0EF0:BC00 2001:0404:0001:1000:0:0:0EF0:BC00 Ipv6 abbreviation
  24. 24.  Rule 2: (abbreviated with leading zeros omitted)  In an IPv6 address, the leading zeros in each hextet can be omitted, trailing zeros cannot be omitted. 2001:0404:0001:1000:0000:0000:0EF0:BC00 2001:404:1:1000:0:0:EF0:BC00 Ipv6 abbreviation
  25. 25.  Rule 3: In an IPv6 address, a single continuous string of four or more zeros can be abbreviated as a double colon (::).  The double colon abbreviation can only be used one time in an IP address. 2001:0404:0000:0000:0001:0000:0000:BC00 2001 : 404 :: 1 : 0 : 0 : BC00 2001 : 404 : 0 : 0 : 1 :: BC00 2001 : 404 :: 1 :: BC00 (abbreviated with leading zeroes omitted and continuous zeros replaced with a double colon) Ipv6 abbreviation
  26. 26.  The image below illustrates these rules of IPv6 address abbreviation: Ipv6 abbreviation
  27. 27. Network and Host IDs in IPv6 • The network ID is administratively assigned, and the host ID can be configured manually or auto-configured by any of the following methods: • Using a randomly generated number • Using DHCPv6 • Using the Extended Unique Identifier (EUI-64) format “Where are you connected to” “Who are you”
  28. 28.  IPv6 has three different types of UnicastAddress scheme.The last 64 bits is always used for Interface ID.  This format expands the 48 bit MAC address to 64 bits by inserting FFFE into Mac address.  Cisco commonly uses the EUI-64 host ID format for Cisco IP Phones, gateways, routers, and so forth.  To make sure that the chosen address is from a unique Ethernet MAC address, the universal/local (“u” bit) is set to 1 for global scope and 0 for local scope. Extended Unique Identifier (EUI-64) format
  29. 29.  Unicast  Multicast  Anycast  No more broadcast addresses Address Modes
  30. 30.  Unicast  Address of a single interface. One-to-one delivery to single interface  Unicast: one-to-one (global, link local, unique local, compatible). Address Modes
  31. 31.  Multicast  Address of a group of interfaces. One-to-many delivery to all interfaces in the group . Address Modes
  32. 32.  Anycast  An IPv6 Anycast address is a new type of address that is assigned to a set of interfaces on different device shared a uniform service.  Anycast is One To Nearest of many.  closest to the Sender in terms of Routing cost.  allocated from Unicast  Anycast addresses must not be used as the source address of an IPv6 packet. Address Modes
  33. 33.  Change from IPv4 mode:  Interface “expected” to have multiple addresses.  Unicast Addresses have scope: o Global Unicast Address o Unique-LocalAddress o Link-LocalAddress Address Types ( Scope of IPv6 Unicast Addresses) Global UnicastAddress Unicast LocalAddress Link local Address Link local scope Organization/Site Scope Global Scope
  34. 34. IPv6 Prefix Allocation Hierarchy and Policy Example We must review IPv6 Hierarchy Before Describe each type of IPv6
  35. 35. Another IPv6 Prefix Allocation Hierarchy and Policy Example
  36. 36.  Link-Local Addresses Used for:  MandatoryAddress for Communication between two IPv6 devices on the same link.  These addresses are not routable, so a Router never forwards these addresses outside the link.  Automatically assigned by device .  Assigned when DHCP server is unavailable.  Same as 169.254.x.x in IPV4.  Starts with FE80::/10  used in the neighbor discovery protocol and the dynamic address assignment process.  Example of a link local unicast address: FE80:0000:0000:0000:0987:65FF:FE01:2345 Link-Local Addresses
  37. 37.  Unique-Local Addresses Used for:  Unique LocalAddress globally unique, but it should be used in local communication.  Not routable on the Internet, limiting their scope to an organization’s boundary.  Inter-siteVPNs  Starts with FD00::/7 or FC00::/7.  The Host or Interface ID has the same meaning for all unicast addresses. It is 64 bits long and is typically created by using the EUI-64 format.  Example of a unique local unicast address: FD00:aaaa:bbbb:CCCC:0987:65FF:FE01:2345 Unique Local Unicast Address
  38. 38. Global unicast address used for:  This address type is equivalent to IPv4’s public address, is given By IANA.  Routable and reachable across the Internet  The global routing prefix is assigned to a service provider by the (IANA).  The site level aggregator (SLA), or subnet ID, is assigned to a customer by their service provider.  The Host or Interface ID has the same meaning for all unicast addresses. It is 64 bits long and is typically created by using the EUI-64 format.  Unique.  Starts with 2000::/3  Example of a global unicast address: 2001:0DB8:BBBB:CCCC:0987:65FF:FE01:2345 Global unicast address
  39. 39. Global unicast address Defines site Defines subnet Defines interface
  40. 40. IPv4 EquivalentDesignation and Explanation Prefix There is no equivalentIPv4-Mapped::ffff/96 Example: ::ffff: There is no equivalentIPv4 Compatible::/96 Example: Are converted to hexes decimal ::C00B:0103 Special Addresses
  41. 41.  IPv6 multicast address has a prefix FF00::/8 (1111 1111).  Multicast addresses are always destination addresses.  Multicast addresses are used for router advertisements (RA), DHCPv6, multicast applications, and so forth. Multicast IPv6 Addresses
  42. 42. Multicast IPv6 Addresses  Common MulticastAddresses  Note that 02 means that this is a permanent address and has link scope.
  43. 43. IPv6 Addresses • Summery ofAddressType Prefixes
  44. 44. IPv6 Address Answer 2001:0DB8:1:ACAD::FE55:6789:B210 b ::1 a FC00:22:A:2::CD4:23E4:76FA d 2033:DB8:1:1:22:A33D:259A:21FE b FE80::3201:CC01:65B1 c FF00:: e FF00::DB7:4322:A231:67C e FF02::2 e • Answer Choices A. LoopbackAddress B. Global Unicast Address C. Link-localAddress D. Unique-localAddress E. MulticastAddress Match the IPv6 address to its type
  45. 45. Ipv4/Ipv6 Difference
  46. 46. Reference  DianeTeare,Authorized Self-Study Guide Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions (DESGN), Second Edition, ISBN-13: 978-1-58705-272-9.  (2010), Deploying IPv6 in Unified Communications Networks with Cisco Unified Communications Manager 8.0(x), Cisco Systems, Inc., San Jose, CA 95134-1706 ,USA,http://www.cisco.com  Learn IPv6, www.tutorialspoint.com/ipv6/ipv6_overview.html  IPv6 Header Deconstructed, www.ipv6.com  Advanced IPv6,Training Course, November2016  Introduction to IPv6, 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc.
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Introduction to IPv6.  Why IPv6  Ipv6 features .  Ipv6 address Header.  IPv6 address format.  Ipv6 abbreviation.  IPv6 Address Mode.  IPv6 Address types.  IPv4/IPv6 Difference.


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