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  1. 1. Sarah Hilson ED 525 Spring 2011 Dysgraphia
  2. 2. Definitions <ul><li>There is not one set definition for dysgraphia </li></ul><ul><li>The word Dysgraphia is from Greek origin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dys- impaired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphia- letter form, hand or making letter forms by hand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>meaning impaired in letter writing skills </li></ul></ul>(Berninger, 2009)
  3. 3. Definition Cont. <ul><li>A disorder in learning to write clearly in spite of average to above average IQ and adequate teaching; this condition implies an underlying neurological condition (Connell, 2011) </li></ul><ul><li>Students may be unable to transfer the input of visual information to the output of fine motor movement (learner, Pg. 458) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Definitions Cont. <ul><li>Problems expressing thoughts in a written form (Crouch, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>A handwriting problem, specifically, a partial inability to remember how to make certain alphabet or arithmetic symbols (Crouch, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>A neurological disorder that impairs written expression; the brain can’t convert mental language into written images (Quillen, 2008). </li></ul>
  5. 5. Characteristics/ signs <ul><li>Writing skills that are significantly below normal for an individual's age, intellect and education </li></ul><ul><li>Illegible writing </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty sizing letters </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping letters on a line </li></ul><ul><li>Mixture of upper and lower case letters </li></ul><ul><li>Mixture of printed and cursive letters </li></ul><ul><li>Inconsistent letter formation and slant </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Awkward pencil grip, cramped fingers </li></ul><ul><li>Twisting of wrist, body, or paper uncomfortably </li></ul><ul><li>Heavily relies on vision to monitor what the hand is doing during writing </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme fatigue when writing or drawing </li></ul><ul><li>Rushing to get writing over with </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding activities where writing is involved </li></ul><ul><li>Inefficient speed in copying </li></ul>Characteristics/ signs Cont.
  7. 7. Examples <ul><li>Difficulty sizing letters and keeping letter on a line </li></ul>
  8. 8. Examples <ul><li>Illegible </li></ul><ul><li>Capital and lower case letter </li></ul>
  9. 9. Examples
  10. 10. Who Has Dysgraphia? <ul><li>Students with dysgraphia often have other diagnosis like </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ADHD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dyslexia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This is one reason the term dyslexia is not widely used in schools (Crouch, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Because of this experts do not have a clear understanding of how many people have dysgraphia but it is thought that 5 to 20 percent of people have some problem with handwriting (Pechman, 2010) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Things to Remember <ul><li>Letter formation is automatic for most students after initial skill attainment. When letter formation is automatic, students can concentrate on spelling, grammar, sentence structure, and other aspects of written language. However, for students with dysgraphia, letter formation is a cognitive task which leaves little mental capacity to devote to these other aspects (Crouch, 2009). </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Children with dysgraphia often experience frustration, anxiety and or low self esteem/poor self image </li></ul><ul><li>Children also have difficulties with other fine motor activities such as cutting and tying shoes (Pechman, 2010) </li></ul>Things to Remember Cont.
  13. 13. Accommodations / Modifications <ul><li>Two approaches to working with children with dyslexia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work to correct handwriting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bypass writing by using assistive technology </li></ul></ul>(Crouch, 2009)
  14. 14. <ul><li>Working on correcting handwriting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pencil grips/make sure student is using correct pencil grip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handwriting program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lined paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lined paper with raised lines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different students will need different widths </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different writing tools other than pencil (ex: markers or pens) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model appropriate handwriting for student to copy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graph paper for math </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create low stress activities to practice writing </li></ul></ul>Accommodations / Modifications
  15. 15. <ul><li>Bypass writing with assistive technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ALPH Smart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice to Text software </li></ul></ul>Accommodations / Modifications Student may require a typing program to become efficient users
  16. 16. The Best Accommodation: <ul><li>TIME! </li></ul>(Connell, 2011)
  17. 17. <ul><li>Handwriting without tears </li></ul><ul><li>Loops and other groups (cursive) </li></ul><ul><li>Make your own depending on your students needs </li></ul>Handwriting programs
  18. 18. Resources <ul><li>Berninger, V. W., & Wolf, B. (2009). Helping Students with Dyslexia and Dysgraphia Make Connections: Differentiated Instruction Lesson Plans in Reading and Writing. Brookes Publishing Company. </li></ul><ul><li>Crouch, A. L., & Jakubecy, J. J. (2007). Dysgraphia: How It Affects A Student's Performance and What Can Be Done About It. Teaching Exceptional Children Plus, 3(3), 1. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. </li></ul><ul><li>Pechman, R. (2010). D is for.. Scholastic Parent & Child, 18(2), 93-95. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. </li></ul><ul><li>Students with Learning Diabilities. (2011). Introduction to Learning Disabilities . (Febuary 2011). Nashua, NH: Dr. Diane Connell. </li></ul><ul><li>Quillen, T., & Gladstone, K. (2008). About dysgraphia. Nursing, 38(5), 26. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. </li></ul>