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  1. 1. Chapter 8 Groups, Bureaucracy and Formal Organizations (The Evolution of Social Groups and the Transformation of Bureaucratic Society)
  2. 2. Group
  3. 3.  people use this term to describe any collection of individual  Sociologist define group in many ways. In a broad sense, it means people who have some sort of relationship that they are thought of together.
  4. 4. Michael Olmsted and Paul Hare
  5. 5. pointed out, “an essential feature of a group is that its members have something in common and they believe what they have in common makes a difference.” Plurality of persons who have a common, at least some feeling of unity, and certain goals and shared norms.  Direct or indirect communication among its members, standardized patterns of interaction based on a system of inter-related roles, and degree of interdependence among members. Is more develop type of collectivity with a distinct sense of identity Range in size and degree of intimacy from a family to a society.
  6. 6. Structure of Social Group
  7. 7.  Frederick Bates outlines two conditions to provide a means for identifying a group and delineating one group from another: 1. “there be at least two individuals who interact with each other as the occupants of the two position, each of which contains at least one role reciprocal to a role in the other position”. This condition makes it simple to determine when and how a group comes into existence. 2. “a groups is composed of all individuals who occupy positions reciprocal to all other positions in the group structure and includes no individual who do not meet this condition.” The application of the second condition enables one to distinguish between BONA FIDE social systems and other types of human groupings.  The structure of a group maybe visualized as being made up of varying number of status – positions, each of which contains one or more roles which are composed of a set/s of norms.
  8. 8. Basic Type of Social Group
  9. 9. The study of group has become a viral part of sociological investigation because it plays a key role in transmission of culture. Sociologists have made a number useful distinction between types of groups. It have been classified according to size, pattern, permanence, on the basis whether or not membership is voluntary or involuntary, in terms of the number of social bonds and other bases.
  10. 10. A. Primary vs. Secondary Group  Charles Horton Cooley  in his book Social Organization, coined the term primary group to refer in small group characterized by intimate, face-to-face association and cooperation.  Primary group can be recognized by an individual, personalities are fused with one another, that the group manifests a common total life and purpose to a large extent. He never used the term secondary group.  Other scholars introduced the term secondary group to refer to group relationships which much larger than primary groups and they are always more formal in nature. The members of this group usually share certain common values, or basic standards of behavior, and do not share as many values as do members of a primary group.
  11. 11. B. Formal vs. Informal Group  An informal group is recognized as one which evolves without clear design and which is not specifically organized to attain a given end. In contrast, a formal group is one which usually has a definite purpose, clear procedures and which is characterized by divisions of labor which is highly specialized. Agreement in formal groups normally would be written and decisions are handed down from those authority positions through a chain of command.  Informal groups are usually small groups in size, and can exist within the structure of formal groups; in fact when a group increases in size; it is likely to become formal in nature.  A primary group is more permanent than informal groups. An informal group is without formally stated group rules, goals or leaders.  Most writers consider secondary group as formal group. Formal group is a social group whose structure and activities have been rationally organized and standardized with definitely prescribed group rules, goals, and leaders.
  12. 12. FIGURE 8-1 COMPARISON BETWEEN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY GROUPS Primary Group Secondary Group Generally small Usually large Relatively long period of time Short duration, temporary Intimate, face-to-face Little social intimacy Some emotional depth in relationship Relationship is superficial Cooperative, friendly, less formal More formal RIMARY AND SECONDARY GROUPS
  13. 13. C. Gemeinschaft vs. Gesellschaft Ferdinand Tonnies termed a “Social Order” (social group) which was in relationships were personal, or traditional or both. Charles Loomis, in his book “Social System”, points out that in the work teams, families, communities, societies and other collectivities which are gemeinschaft like human relations are ends in themselves, intimacy and sentiments are expected among the actors; norms are traditional.  On the other hand, gesellschaft society is not one in which neither personal association nor customary rights and duties are important. Relationships are specialized and formal rather than general and informal in nature. Said another way, the term gemeinschaft is used to refer to those group relationships which develop unconsciously while gelleschaft refers to group relationship which are entered into deliberately for the achievement of recognized ends
  14. 14. Ferdinand Tonnies Charles Loomis
  15. 15. Other Types of Groups 1. In-group vs. Out-group  Sociologist identify these “WE” and “THEY” feelings by using two terms first employed by William Graham Sumner: In-group and Out-group.  An In-Group can be defined as any group of category to which people feel they belong. Simply put, it comprises anyone who is regarded as “WE” or “US”. The In-group maybe as narrow as one’s family or as broad as an entire society. An Out-Group viewed as “THEY” or “THEM”. More formally, an Out-Group is a group of category to which people feel they do not belong. 2. Reference Group  Both In-Groups and primary groups can dramatically influence the way an individual thinks and behaves. Sociology uses the term reference group when speaking of any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves and their own behavior.
  16. 16. 3. Uni-bonded Group vs. Multi-bonded Group  Pitirim Sorokin in his book “Society, Culture, and Personality” introduced the terms Uni-bonded and Multi-bonded.  Unibonded Group is a group whose members are united by only one common interest or purpose. A small part of each member’s life and personality is involved, and relationships among the members are characterized by a limited range of rights and obligations.  Multibonded Group is a group whose members are united by more than one tie. The more ties there are binding together, the more it is relationship to one another will be diffuse, that is, involving a wide range of rights and obligations. 4. Social Networks  They provide their members with valuable information, for example, a person needing a job is likely to use social networks such as friends in order to find that job. They likewise provide socio-emotional support, self-esteem, and even the courage to face the rigors of everyday. 5. Voluntary Associations  They are specialized, formally organized groups, established on the basis of common interest; in which membership is based on a deliberate choice or even pay to participate, or may resign.
  17. 17. William Abraham Sumner Pitirim Sorokin
  18. 18. Group Dynamics Sociologist use the phrase “small group analysis” Refers to the study of psychological aspects of behavior in small group. Some thinkers define it as an applied discipline dealing with such concerns as effective leadership, communication, and decision process in industry and business.
  19. 19. Group Size The size of the group is significant on its dynamics:  Small Group is one that is small enough for everyone in it to interact directly with all of the other members.  Sociologist Georg Simmel noted the significance of group size.  Dyad is a social group containing two members in interaction. It is the smallest and most fragile of all human groupings.  Triad is a group of three persons. It is basically stronger than dyads, but still extremely unstable. It is not uncommon for the bonds between two members to seem stronger, with the third person feeling hurt and excluded  Coalition is a development as the size of triads become larger. It can be temporary or permanent alliance toward a common goal. In any political, organizational or small group setting, there are numerous ways in which coalition can be created.
  20. 20. As more members are added to a group, there are more linkages between more people within the group. The groups develop a formal structure to accomplish their goals, for instance by having a president or a leader. Two types of group leaders: 1. Instrumental (task-oriented) those who try to keep the groups moving toward its goals, reminding the members of what they are trying to accomplish. 2. (socio-emotional) those who are less likely to be recognized as leaders but help with group’s morale. These leaders, whether instrumental or expressive, employ certain leadership styles: 1. Authoritarian leaders – give orders and frequently do not explain why they praise or condemn a person’s work. 2. Democratic leaders – try to gain consensus by explaining proposed actions, suggesting alternative approaches, and giving “facts” as the basis for the member’s work. 3. Laissez-faire leaders – very passive ad give almost total freedom to do as it wishes. Psychologist Ronald Lippit and Ralph White discover that leadership styles produced different results. Those with authoritarian styles became either aggressive or apathetic: those with democratic styles were personal and friendly; while those with laissez-faire style made fewer decisions and were notable for their lack of achievement.
  21. 21. Georg Simmel
  22. 22. Structure of Multigroup System Multigroups are of several types. Two types are commonly identified: 1. Organizations or Complex Organizations – consist of number of subgroup or subsystem with specialized functions, linked together through bilateral and reflexive role reciprocity, but which are devoted to a common goal. (Roles are bilaterally reciprocal when two different actors occupy the status positions they link; they are reflexivewhen the same actor occupies two positions.) 2. Communities and Societies – multigroup structures linked or held together by social relationships that are not necessarily directed toward common endeavors. In communities and societies, roles are played by various actors in other groups, but in each instance the other actor is pursuing a different end.
  23. 23. Human Association that are not Social Systems Statistical Aggregates  Statistical groups may be sociologically significant, but they fulfill none of the conditions for a social system. They are not characterized by social interactions between their members, and there is no other aspect of social organization. Societal classes  These similarities may be biological, such as age, sex, or ethnic group; they may come from national heritage, as Filipinos or Indians; they may be adherents of a particular school of thought, fashion or creed; or they may be members of an occupational group such as teachers or philosopher. As long as these similar persons do not band together in some type of formal organizations, they represent a societal classes. Congregations or Assemblies  A third type of human groupings is called congregation or assembly because its members congregate or assemble together at one time or another. Such as groups have many forms. They include crowds, audiences, casual play groups, church congregations, spectators at a sporting event, passengers on a ship airplane, and other similar groups.
  24. 24. The Rationalization of Society  Max Weber trace the rationalization of society to Protestantism, while Karl Marx attributed to capitalism. Rationality (acceptance of rules, efficiency, and practical results) is a characteristic of industrial societies.  Weber distinguished the Roman Catholics from the protestants in the following way: Roman Catholic doctrine emphasized the acceptance of present arrangements, not change:  “God wants you where you are. You owe primary allegiance to the Church, to your family, to your community and country. Accept your lot in life and remain rooted.”  But Protestant theology was quite different, Weber argued, especially Calvinism, a religion he was intimately familiar with from his mother.  Calvinists (followers of the teachings of John Calvin) believed that before birth people are destined to go either to heaven or to hell – and they would not know their destiny until after they died.  Weber believed that this doctrine filled Calvinist with an anxiety that pervaded their entire lives.  Salvation became their chief concern in life, they wanted to know where they were going after death. (1904)
  25. 25. Karl Marx Max Weber John Calvin
  26. 26.  According to Karl Marx, rationalization resulted from capitalism. Capitalism caused people to change their way of thinking; the new form of production destroyed traditional relationships; since capitalism was efficient, people change their ideas; rationality thus resulted from economics, not from Protestantism.  According to Weber, the traditional wisdom presumed that the past was the best guide for the present; however this stood in the way of industrialization. Weber’s “The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism” asserts that people wanted to show they were among the chosen of God; success in life was a sign of God’s approval, but spending money on oneself was sinful; thus, capitalism allowed the investment of excess money, and the profits from those investments showed more approval from God. Worldly success, then, became transformed into spiritual virtue, and other branches of Protestantism, although less extreme, adopted the creed of thrift and hard work. Consequently, said Weber, Protestant countries embraced capitalism.
  27. 27. Formal Organizations and Bureaucracies  A Formal Organization is highly organized group having explicit objectives, formally stated rules and regulations, and a system of specifically defined rules, each with clearly designated rights and duties. Formal organizations include schools, hospitals, voluntary associations, corporations, government agencies, etc.  A Bureaucracies is a component of formal organization in which rules and hierarchical ranking are used to achieve efficiency.  Bureaucracy is a large scale, formal organization that is highly differentiated and efficiently organized by means of formal rules and departments of bureaus of highly trained experts whose activities are coordinated by a hierarchical chain of command. This type of organization is characterized by a centralization of authority, and emphasis on discipline, rationality, technical knowledge, and impersonal procedures.  Max Weber introduced the concept of bureaucracy but tended to emphasize its positive aspects.
  28. 28. The Essential Characteristics of Bureaucracies  Max Weber enumerated the essential characteristics of a bureaucracy as follows: 1. A Hierarchy with Assignments Flowing Downward and Accountability Flowing Upward 2. A Division of Labor 3. Written Rules 4. Written Communications and Records 5. Impersonality  These five characteristics not only help bureaucracies reach their goals but also allow them to grow and endure. If the head of bureaucracy dies, retires, or resigns, the organization continues. The functioning of each unit and each person in this units does not depend on the individual who heads the organization.
  29. 29. Dysfunctions of Bureaucracies Although no other form of social organization has been found to be more efficient in the long run, Weber recognized his model accounts for only part of the characteristics of bureaucracies. They also have dark side, or dysfunctions: 1. Bureaucratic alienation (feeling powerless/normless; cut off from product of won labor) leaves individual needs unfulfilled. Workers want to feel respected and worthwhile; to resist alienation; they form primary groups within larger organization. Alienated bureaucrats feel trapped in the job, do not take initiative, do nothing that is only strictly required, and use rules of justify doing as little as possible. 2. Trained incapacity (thinking in terms of one’s own activity and unit and failing to grasp larger goals) impedes organizational goals.
  30. 30. 3. Goal conflict occurs when the goals of a unit conflict with those of the organization. 4. Goal displacement occurs when an organization adopts new goals after the original goals have been achieved. 5. Bureaucratic engorgement is the tendency of an organization to keep on growing. 6. Bureaucratic incompetence: the Peter Principle (introduced by Laurence J. Peter) asserts that each employee is promoted to his or her level of incompetence; in fact, bureaucracies do have difficulty dealing with exceptional cases.  In a survey conducted by Political and Economic Risk Consultancy (PERC), Philippines was ranked third as the most inefficient. Ranking 12 key countries and territories on a scale from one to 10, with 10 as the worst possible score, the business executives in the survey rated India as having the region’s most inefficient bureaucracy.
  31. 31. Bureaucratization as a Process  Bureaucratization is the process in which formal organization increasingly takes on the characteristics of a bureaucracy. A central aspect of this process is the formalization of rules and regulations.  Bureaucratization also takes place within small group settings.  In addition to varying from society to society, bureaucratization also serves as an independent variable affecting social change. Conflict theorists have argued that bureaucratic organizations tend to inhibit change because of their emphasis on regulations and security for office holders.  Max Weber introduced the concept of bureaucracy but tended to emphasize its positive aspects. More recently, social scientists have described the negative consequences of bureaucracy both for the individual within the organization and for the bureaucracy itself.
  32. 32. FIGURE 8-3 THE POSITIVE CONSEQUENCES OF BUREAUCRACY Characteristics Positive Consequences Negative Consequences For the Individual For the Organiza tion Division of Labor Produces efficiency in large scale corporation Produces trained incapacity Produces a narrow perspective Hierarchy of Authority Clarifies who is in command Deprives employees of a voice in decision making Permits concealment of mistakes Written Rules and Regulations Let workers know what is expected of them Stifle initiative and imagination Lead to goal displacement Impersonality Reduces bias Contributes to feelings of alienation Discourages loyalty to company Employment Based on Technical Qualifications Discourage favoritism and reduces petty rivalries Discourages ambition to improve oneself Allows Peter principle to operate
  33. 33. Organization Change  Just as individual and relationship change, so too do organizations, both formal and involuntary. These changes often relate to other social institutions, particularly the government. A. Goal Multiplication  Goal multiplication takes place when an organization expands its purposes. Generally, this is the result of changing social or economic conditions which threaten the organizations’ survival.  [Illustrative example]  Some exclusive colleges for boys (like Letran) and for the girls (like Marian) have changed their traditional goal of being an exclusive school, instead, they have opened their doors both for girls and boys. B Goal Succession  Goal succession occurs when a group or organization has either realized or been denied its goal. It must then identify an entirely new objective that can adjust its existence.  Sociologists Peter Blau, who coined the term succession of goals, noted that organizations do not necessarily behave in a rigid manner when their goals are achieved or become irrelevant. Rather, they may shift toward new objectives.  Ironically, some organizations may have a stake in avoiding goal succession. Sociologist James Rooney has shown that program failure is necessary for the maintenance of certain bureaucracies.
  34. 34. Peter Blau James Rooney
  35. 35. Voluntary Associations  Voluntary associations are specialized, formally organized groups, established on the basis of common interest; in which membership is based on a deliberate choice or even pay to participate, or may resign.  Voluntary associations represent no single interest or purpose. In spite of the diversity of voluntary associations, however, a thread does run through them all. That thread is mutual interest. Although the particular interest varies from group to group, shared interest in some view or activity is the tie that binds their members together.  Although a group’s members are united by mutual interests, the specific motivations for joining a group differ from one individual to another. Some join because of their conviction concerning the stated purpose of the organization, but others become members for quite different reasons, such as the chance to make contacts that will help them politically or professionally, or even to be closer to some special persons.
  36. 36. With motivations for joining voluntary associations and commitments to their goals so varied, these organizations typically have a high turnover. Some people move in and out of groups almost as fast as they change clothes. Within each organization, however, is an inner core of individuals who stand firmly behind the group’s goals, or at least are firmly committed to maintaining the organization itself. If this inner core loses commitment, the group is likely to fold. Functions of Voluntary Associations Note: the first two functions are applicable to all forms of voluntary associations. In general sense, so does the third function. Although, not all organizations focused on politics and the social order, taken together, voluntary associations help to incorporate individuals into the general society, and by allowing the expression of the desire and dissent, voluntary associations help to prevent anomie
  37. 37. The Iron Law of Oligarchy By Robert Michels refers to the tendency of self-perpetuating elites to dominate formal organizations. The majority of the members become passive, and an elite inner group keeps itself in power by passing the leading positions from one clique member to another. What is problematic in the iron law of oligarchy is that it applies even to organizations that strongly uphold the principles of democracy. The iron law of oligarchy is not without limitations, of course. Members of the inner group must remain attuned to the opinions of the other members, regardless of their personal feelings. If the oligarchy gets too far out of lines, its members run the risk of a grassroots rebellion that would throw them out of office. It is this threat that often softens the iron law of oligarchy by making the leadership responsive to the membership.
  38. 38. Robert Michels