1. Emergence of Sociology
Sociology is a science of society /study of society’s organization and system.
Two reasons are responsible for emergence of SOCIOLOGY (in Europe)
(1) Social conditions
Father of Sociology AUGUSTE COMTE (France)
To study about society, he first used the term SOCIAL PHYSICS in 1838.
When the changes occurred in form of social conditions and ideas from 14th
century onwards in form of FRENCH REVOLUTION and INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION (Enlightment Period) became responsible for emergence of
Sociology in EUROPE.
Sociology became a distinguish science in 19th
Changes came in these forms-
A- The commercial Revolution: - opening up of trades 1450 to 1800 in
Portugal, Spain, England and Holland.
B- The Scientific Revolution: - Invention and Discoveries in 14-16 century A.D
Scientific Revolution brought changes in MATERIAL LIFE and PEOPLE’S
C –The Renaissance period: - Descriptions and critics in the field of Science as
Scientific knowledge was clear break from the past, as a challenge to old
C- Important post Renaissance Developments: - Many developments in
different fields led to new types of methods and perspectives in scientific
EXAMPLE: - Experimental methods in PHYSICS and MATHMATICS.
Experimental methods in BIOLOGY impact on social thoughts of August
Comte, Spencer and Durkheim.
2. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
(1789)—Mark of Human Struggle for Freedom and Equality
REASONS: -- (A) The French Society—
The First Estates (CLERGY -Cardinal, Arch Bishop, Bishops & Abbots)
The Second Estates (THE SWORD-feudal landlords &THE ROBE by Title)
The Third Estates (MIDDLE CLASS-Merchants, Artisans, Bankers,lawyers,
Manufactures, Peasants etc. lowest conditions and pay various taxes.)
(B) The Political Conditions—
Divine Rights of KING
Laws in hands of KING
BAURBON family ruled about 200 years made the
France Political and Economic week.
Different LAWS in different Regions.
Same income of King and States.
(C) The Economic Conditions —
LOUIS XIV fought costly wars.
LOUIS XV instead of recovery from ruin he
kept on borrowing money from Bankers.
LOUIS XVI week and Ineffective inherited the
ruin of a Bankrupt government and his wife
(Marie Antoinette) famous for her expensive
(D) Thoughts of Thinkers and Philosopher in 18th
2. John Locke
3. Works of SOCIAL THINKERS-
Montesquieu (1689-1755) “THE SPIRIT OF THE LAW” (BOOK)
Power should not concentration in one hand. It should separate into Executive,
Legislative and Juridical. He advocates the Theory of power separation and
John Locke (1632-1704) “INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS” (IDEA)
RIGHT to LIVE
RIGHT to PROPERTY
RIGHT to PERSONAL FREEDOM
It’s ruler’s duty to protect these Rights.
RELIGIOUS TOLERATION and Freedom of SPEECH and EXPRESSION.
Jean Jack Rousseau (1712-1778) “THE SOCIAL CONTRACT” (BOOK)
The people of a country have the right to choose their SOVEREIGN
IMPORTANT HISTORICAL EVENTS Responsible for FRENCH
1-ESTATE’S GENERAL (France Parliamentary Body) meeting boycotted by the
2-Formation of NATIONAL ASSEMBLY in 20th
JUNE 1789 AT VERAILLES
3- Storming of the Bastille in 14th
4-Contituent Assembly in 1789-1791declare the Rights of Man by the THIRD
5-Punishment and death of Louis XVI and queen in 1793.
6.France declared as a REPUBLIC.
4. 7-New legislative Assembly formed (1791-1792) by RADICAL groups (Girondin
8-Three years of Reign of Terror and punishment of GUILLOTINED.
9-Esablishment of the Directorate in 1795-1799 by NAPOLEAN BONAPARTE.
5. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
(1760) AD— England
FEATURES: -- (A) Changes in the Social and Economic life.
(B)Discoveries- Territories, Explorations growth of
TRADE & COMMERCE growth of TOWNS.
(C) Inventions of new Tools and Techniques- Flying shuttle,
Roller Spinning machine, Spinning Water Frame,
Spinning Jenney, The Mule, Power Loom etc.
(D)Change in Economy- Feudal to Capitalism.
Impact of the INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION on SOCIETY.
DEVELOPMENT OF 1. Banks
2. Insurance Companies
3. Finance Corporations
6. Urban Areas
7. Separation of work from Home.
LACK IN WAY OF 1. Wide disparities in Socio-Economic life.
2. Repetitive and boring work.
3. Factory workers lead Social Transformation.
4. Unhygienic living conditions.
THEMES of the INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION inspired SOCIAL THINKERS
Changing condition of Laboure shows SOCIAL POVERTY.
Laboure became subject of MORAL and ANALYTICAL CONCERN in 19th
Traditional property land change into MONEY and CAPITAL.
Change in PROPERTY SYSTEM and SOCIETY CHARACTER. It became symbol
of STATUS, POLITICAL POWER, ECONOMIC PRIVILAGES.
6. Urban and Industrial cities grew OLD CITIES FADE UP.
New cities grew as RESPOSITORIES of MISERY and INHUMANITY. Life in
cities with huge population brought changes.
Migration lead due to TECHNOLOGY and THE FACTORY SYSTEM.
Change in FAMILY RELATION.
FACTORY rule people’s life.
Life and work became DEPERSONALISED.
The INTELLACTUAL INFLUENCES for EMERGENCE of SOCIOLOGY
Forces of changes in 18th
centuries in Europe, which were
discussed again and again.
The thinkers of the Enlightment of the 18th
century use of Scientific
approach to the study of society. Thinkers use natural Sciences for the
study of human beings and their nature and society.
Study of social Institutions and their suitability for human nature.
Human beings are capable of attaining perfection by criticizing and
changing social institutions.
THREE Intellectual Influences worked for the post Enlightment period as-
1- The Philosophy of HISTORY: - In 19th
century basic assumption society
must have progressed through a series of steps, SIMPLE to COMPLEX-
given by Abbe Saint Pierre, Giambattista, Comte, Spencer and Karl Marx.
2- The Biological theories of EVOLUTION: - Identify and account for the
principal stages in social Evolution. Tended to be modeled on Biological
as is evident from the widely diffused concept of society as an
Organism- HERBERT SPENCER & EMILE DURKHIEM.
3- Survey of Social Conditions: - emerged due to 3 reasons-
(i) The growing conviction that the methods of the natural sciences
should and could be classified and measured to the study of
(ii) Concern with poverty related to social. It is a principle method of