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Interventions in counseling

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Interventions in counseling

  1. 1. Interventions in Counseling By Dr. Satish Raj Assistant Professor School of Education Lovely Professional University Jalandhar, Punjab, India Email:- satishnurpur@gmail.com +91 7589110552
  2. 2. Counseling techniques • Person centered and group centered • Person Centered counselling technique formerly referred to as Clint-centered counselling and Rogerian approach • Developed by Carl R. Rogers • Stresses client’s responsibility and capability to identify and cope with the reality • It is related to an unique problem faced by the individual
  3. 3. Counseling techniques There are six conditions account for personality change in the client advocated by Rogers 1. Two people are in psychological contact 2. The client is experiencing a state of anxiety, distress 3. The therapist is genuine in relating the client 4. The therapist feels or exhibits unconditional positive regard for the client 5. The therapist exhibits empathetic understanding of the client’s conditions 6. The therapist succeeds to minimum degree in communication
  4. 4. Counseling techniques Rogerian theory is optimistic in its view to humankind. Clients are seen as good and possessing the capability of self-understanding, insight, problem solving, decision making, change and growth. Counsellor’s role is of facilitator and reflector.
  5. 5. Counseling techniques Group centered counselling techniques Basic assumption for this is that humans are group centered. People are meant to live in groups and respect each other in group settings. Groups are most influenced by how a person grows, learns, develop behavioural patterns, coping styles, values, career potentials and adjustment techniques.
  6. 6. Counseling techniques Assumptions of group centered techniques Understanding of the influences and dynamics of the groups can be improved by understanding the individuals. Understanding of the organization and utilisation of the groups can help in teaching and guiding others Group counselling can be more effective in some situations  Special groups can benefit more by providing counselling that is specially designed for their unique needs
  7. 7. Counseling techniques Group counselling refers to the group activities for providing adjustment or developmental experiences delivered in group settings. Group counselling focus on assisting counselees to cope with their day to day adjustment and developmental concerns. Behavioural modification, developing personal relationship skills, values etc which concerned with the group life.
  8. 8. Cognitive interventions Cognitions are thoughts, beliefs, and internal images that people have about events in their life. Cognitive counselling theories focus on mental processes and their influences on mental health and behaviour. Cognitive Therapy aims to change our thought patterns, the beliefs we may or may not know we hold, our attitudes, and ultimately our behavior in order to help us face our difficulties and more effectively strive towards our goals.
  9. 9. Cognitive interventions Characteristics of the clients to make cognitive theories successful 1. Clients are average to above average in intelligence. 2. They have moderate to high levels of functional distress 3. They are able to identify thoughts and feelings 4. They are not disabled by present problems 5. They are able to willing to complete the tasks given by the counsellors 6. They can process the information on visual and auditory level.
  10. 10. Cognitive interventions • The founder of Cognitive Therapy is a psychiatrist named Aaron Beck • He realized how strong the link between thoughts and feelings can be. He altered the therapy he practiced in order to help his clients identify, understand, and deal with the automatic, emotion-filled thoughts that arise throughout the day.
  11. 11. Cognitive interventions • CT is a process of teaching, coaching, and reinforcing positive behaviors. CT helps people to identify cognitive patterns or thoughts and emotions that are linked with behaviors.” • Thinking: Different people can think differently about the same event. The way in which we think about an event influences how we feel and how we act. • A classic example is that when looking at a glass of water filled halfway, one person will see it half empty and feel discouraged and the other sees it half full and feels optimistic.
  12. 12. Cognitive interventions • Cognitive distortions • Arbitrary Inference: refers to making conclusions without supporting and relevant evidence. • Selective abstraction: consists of forming conclusions based on an isolation detail of an event. • Overgeneralization • Personalization • Labeling and Mislabeling: involve portraying one’s identity on the basis of imperfections and mistakes made in the past. • Polarized Thinking: involve thinking and interpreting in all-or nothing terms, or categorizing experiences in extremes.
  13. 13. Cognitive interventions • Techniques of cognitive therapy • Techniques are an interesting set of exercises that help modify a person's behavioral patterns. The behavioral patterns are modified in order to bring about positive changes in the personality.
  14. 14. Cognitive interventions 1. Cognitive Rehearsals • In this technique, the patient is asked to recall a problematic situation of the past. • The therapist and patient both work together to find out a solution for the problem or a way in which the difficult situation, if it occurs in the future can be sorted out. • The therapist asks the patient to rehearse positive thoughts cognitively in order to make appropriate changes to the latter's thought processes. • Power of imagination proves to be of great use in such exercises.
  15. 15. Cognitive interventions 2. Validity Testing • In this techniques the therapist tests validity of beliefs/thoughts of the patient. • The patient is allowed to defend his viewpoint by means of objective evidence. • The faulty nature or invalidity of the beliefs of the patient is exposed if he/she is unable to produce any kind of objective evidence
  16. 16. Cognitive interventions 3. Guided Discovery • The objective or purpose behind using this technique is that of helping patients by enabling them to understand their cognitive distortions. • Patients are made aware of and assisted by therapists in understanding how they process information.
  17. 17. Cognitive interventions 4. Modeling • It is one of the cognitive therapy techniques in which therapists perform role-playing exercises aimed at responding in a way that is helpful to overcome difficult situations. • The patient makes use of this behavior of the therapist as a model in order to solve problems he/she comes across.
  18. 18. Cognitive interventions 5. Reinforcement • The systematic positive reinforcement is one of the techniques of CBT therapy in which certain (positive) behavior of a person are rewarded with positive reinforcement. • A reinforcement system is established for the of certain positive behavior.
  19. 19. Cognitive interventions 6. Self-instructional coping methods • The therapist attempts not to completely change the way you think, but rather teaches coping methods that equip you to handle harmful thought processes. One such therapeutic process is stress inoculation training.
  20. 20. Behavioral interventions • Behavioral theory is based on the belief that behavior is learned. Classic conditioning is one type of behavioral therapy that stems from early theorist Ivan Pavlov’s research. Pavlov executed a famous study using dogs, which focused on the effects of a learned response (e.g., a dog salivating when hearing a bell) through a stimulus (e.g., pairing the sound of a bell with food).
  21. 21. Behavioral interventions • B. F. Skinner developed another behavioral therapy approach, called operant conditioning. He believed in the power of rewards to increase the likelihood of a behavior and punishments to decrease the occurrence of a behavior. Behavioral therapists work on changing unwanted and destructive behaviors through behavior modification techniques such as positive or negative reinforcement.
  22. 22. Behavioral interventions • What is behavioral therapy? • Behavioral therapy is an umbrella term for types of therapy that treat mental health disorders. • This form of therapy seeks to identify and help change potentially self-destructive or unhealthy behaviors. • It functions on the idea that all behaviors are learned and that unhealthy behaviors can be changed. The focus of treatment is often on current problems and how to change them.
  23. 23. Behavioral interventions • Who can benefit from behavioral therapy? • Behavioral therapy can benefit people with a wide range of disorders. • People most commonly seek behavioral therapy to treat: • Depression • Anxiety • Panic disorders • Anger issues • Eating disorders • Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) • Bipolar disorder • Phobias, including social phobias • Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) • Self-harm • Substance abuse
  24. 24. Behavioral interventions • Types of behavioral therapy • There are a number of different types of behavioral therapy: • Cognitive behavioral therapy • Cognitive behavioral therapy is extremely popular. It combines behavioral therapy with cognitive therapy. • Treatment is centered around how someone’s thoughts and beliefs influence their actions and moods. It often focuses on a person’s current problems and how to solve them. The long-term goal is to change a person’s thinking and behavioral patterns to healthier ones.
  25. 25. Behavioral interventions • Play therapy • Play therapy is commonly used with children. By watching children play, therapists are able to gain insight into what a child is uncomfortable expressing or unable to express. Children may be able to choose their own toys and play freely. They might be asked to draw a picture or use toys to create scenes in a sandbox. Therapists may teach parents how to use play to improve communication with their children.
  26. 26. Behavioral interventions • System desensitization • System desensitization relies heavily on classical conditioning. It’s often used to treat phobias. People are taught to replace a fear response to a phobia with relaxation responses. A person is first taught relaxation and breathing techniques. Once mastered, the therapist will slowly expose them to their fear in heightened doses while they practice these techniques.
  27. 27. Behavioral interventions • Aversion therapy • Aversion therapy is often used to treat problems such as substance abuse and alcoholism. It works by teaching people to associate a stimulus that’s desirable but unhealthy with an extremely unpleasant stimulus. The unpleasant stimulus may be something that causes discomfort. For example, a therapist may teach you to associate alcohol with an unpleasant memory.
  28. 28. Systematic Intervention Strategies • Systems theory, also called systems science, is the multidisciplinary study of systems to investigate phenomena from a holistic approach. Systems, which can be natural or man-made and living or nonliving, are found in many aspects of human life. • People who adhere to systems thinking, or the systemic perspective, believe it is impossible to truly understand a phenomenon by breaking it up into its basic components. • They believe, rather, that a global perspective is necessary for comprehending the entire phenomenon.
  29. 29. Systematic Intervention Strategies • DEVELOPMENT OF SYSTEMS THEORY • Systems theory finds some of its roots within the biological sciences, as some of the founders of its core concepts, including Ludwig Bertalanffy and Humberto Maturana, were biologists. • One of the main perspectives of systems theory is viewing an individual or group as its own ecosystem with many moving parts that affect each other. Principles of systems theory have been applied to the field of psychology to explore and explain behavioral patterns. • This approach was recommended by Gregory Bateson, Murray Bowen, Anatol Rapoport, W. Ross Ashby, and many more.
  30. 30. Systematic Intervention Strategies • CONCEPTS OF SYSTEMS THEORY • A system is characterized by a group of parts that interact to form a coherent whole. • Changes in one component of a system will affect other components as well as the overall entity. This dynamic makes it possible to predict what might happen when a system experiences a known change.
  31. 31. Systematic Intervention Strategies • Systems theory has been applied in the field of psychology, where it is called systems psychology. People who view psychology through the lens of systems theory see individuals as seeking homeostasis (the tendency towards a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements, especially as maintained by physiological processes) within their systems or groups. • To create a system that works for all members, the expectations, needs, desires, and behaviour of each person within it must be considered. When issues arise, these are attributed to breakdowns in systemic interactions rather than deficiency of one person.
  32. 32. Systematic Intervention Strategies • SYSTEMS THEORY & FAMILY SYSTEMS THERAPY • In the late 1960s, Dr. Murray Bowen applied systems thinking to the family unit and developed family systems theory. This theory views the family as an emotional unit and assumes individuals cannot be fully understood in isolation. Bowen’s concept later developed into an effective and widely popular form of treatment, called family systems therapy. • In family systems therapy, familial relationships, patterns, communication, and behaviors are examined within and beyond the therapy session, allowing the therapist and other family members to observe how certain behaviors could be impacting the family. Once these behaviors are recognized and understood, family members can learn new behaviors that have benefits for themselves and the rest of their family.
  33. 33. Systematic Intervention Strategies • SYSTEMS THEORY AND SYSTEMIC PSYCHOTHERAPY • The efficacy of family systems therapy has motivated researchers and mental health experts to apply its primary principles to other groups of people. This new approach, called systemic psychotherapy or systemic therapy, helps groups gain insight into how each member’s role within a group may affect its functionality. It can be applied to organizations, communities, or businesses. Systemic psychotherapy has expanded into a nondirective, multifaceted treatment method currently applied in a variety of circumstances. Systemic psychotherapy has been found effective in addressing issues including: • Anxiety • Body image issues • Eating issues • Depression • Substance abuse • Relationship issues
  34. 34. Systematic Intervention Strategies • SYSTEMIC PSYCHOTHERAPY INTERVENTIONS • Adaptation • Members of an organization are directly involved in their own therapy to resolve an issue • Individual participants can begin transforming their own behaviors to be more productive • Effective & productive communication among the members of group • Dialogue is constructed to build understanding of each unit of group • Develop healthy self-concept • Enhanced interactions • Construction of multigenerational genogram (family diagram) • Questions based on one’s family • Go home again • Focus on Detriangulation- being in contact but emotionally separate. 2 ways one is to resolve anxiety of family situation and not to project feelings onto others, and second is to avoid becoming a target for others.
  35. 35. Geogram • .
  36. 36. Qualities of an Effective Counsellor  Positive regard or respect for people.  Open, non judgmental and high level of acceptance.  Caring and empathetic.  Self‐aware and self‐disciplined.  Knowledgeable/informed about subject and awareness of resources available within the community.  Culturally sensitive.  Patient and a good listener.  Ability to maintain confidentiality.  Objective and having clarity.
  37. 37. Professional Ethics Ethics are generally defined as a philosophical discipline that is concerned with human conduct and moral decision making. Professional ethics are beliefs about behaviour and conduct that guide professional practices such as those between counselor and client. It is related with good, bad, right, wrong, should be etc.
  38. 38. Professional Ethics • Enhancing human development throughout the life span. • Honoring diversity and embracing a multicultural approach in support of the worth, dignity, potential, and uniqueness of people within their social and cultural contexts. • Promoting social justice • Safeguarding the integrity of the counselor-client relationship. • Practicing in a competent and ethical manner.
  39. 39. Professional Ethics • Work hard to create and sustain a relationship with their clients based on trust. • Obtain informed consent from clients entering a counseling relationship. • Respect a client’s confidentiality and privacy. • Be conscious of client’s culture, values, and beliefs • Participate in associations that help improve the profession • Evaluation, Assessment, and Interpretation of formal and informal assessments to guide treatment plans and intervention selection.