Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Le téléchargement de votre SlideShare est en cours. ×

Universalisation of education in India

Chargement dans…3

Consultez-les par la suite

1 sur 39 Publicité

Plus De Contenu Connexe

Diaporamas pour vous (20)

Similaire à Universalisation of education in India (20)


Plus par Dr. Satish Kumar (17)

Plus récents (20)


Universalisation of education in India

  1. 1. Universalisation of Elementary Education in India by:- Dr. Satish Kumar Assistant Professor Lovely school of Education Lovely Professional University Phagwara, Punjab, India satishnurpur@gmail.com .
  2. 2. Universalisation of Elementary Education in India • Universalisation of Elementary Education (UEE) has been accepted as a national goal in India. Central and State governments are making strenuous efforts to achieve this goal. • The Article 45 in the Directive Principles of State Policy in the Constitution mandated the State to endeavour to provide free and compulsory education to all children up to age fourteen in a period of ten years.
  3. 3. Universalisation of Elementary Education in India • Universalisation of elementary education basically evolves three important things: - • Universalisation of provision, • Universalisation of enrollment and • Universalisation of retention.
  4. 4. Universalisation of Elementary Education in India • Universalisation of Provision means that school facilities should be provided to all the children between the age of 6 to 14. • Universalisation of Enrollment means that all the children between the age of 6 to 14 must be enrolled. • Universalisation of Retention reveals a child who joins primary school; he or she should remain there till he or she completes all their primary education.
  5. 5. Universalisation of Elementary Education in India • Efforts made by center and state governments • 1. All India Council for Elementary Education AICE 1957 • 2. Primary Education Acts • a. MP PEA 1950 • b. HP PEA 1953 • c. Punjab PEA 1960
  6. 6. Universalisation of Elementary Education in India • Efforts made by governments • 3. Kothari Commission 1964 • Lower and upper primary • 4. National Policy on Education 1986 • Accepted UEE as national goal • Facilities, quality, trained teachers, text books, provisions to remove inequalities of caste etc.
  7. 7. Universalisation of Elementary Education in India • 5. Lok Jumbish Programme 1992 • Started in Rajsthan • 6. District Primary Education Programme {DPEP} 1994 • Started for backward districts • Opening of new schools • Operation Black-board • Mass appointment of teachers
  8. 8. Universalisation of Elementary Education in India • 7. National Programme of Nutrition Support to Primary Education • Started in 15 August 1995 • Also known as Mid-day Meal scheme • 8. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan {SSA} • Approved in November 2000 • Enforcement in January 2001
  9. 9. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan  Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is the comprehensive and integrated programme of Government of India, to attain Universal Elementary Education (UEE) in the country whichn is implemented in January 2001.  Launched in partnership with the State governments and local self-governments, SSA aims to provide useful and relevant education to all children in the 6-14 age groups by 2010.  SSA is an initiative to universalise quality elementary education in a mission mode through district based, decentralized, context specific planning and implementation strategies.  It is a significant attempt to bridge social and gender gaps, with the active participation of the community in all aspects of planning and delivery of elementary education programmes.
  10. 10. Objectives of SSA • SSA was launched in 2001 with the objectives of- • (a) all children in school, Education Guarantee Centre, Alternative School, „Back-to-School‟ camp by 2003 • (b) all children complete five years of primary schooling by 2007; • (c) all children complete eight years of elementary schooling by 2010 • (d) focus on elementary education of satisfactory quality with emphasis on education for life • (e) bridge all gender and social category gaps at primary stage by 2007 • (f) universal retention by 2010.
  11. 11. Components of SSA (a) Preparatory activities for micro-planning, household surveys, studies, community mobilization, school-based activities, office equipment, training and orientation at all level. (b) Appointment of teachers, (c) Opening new primary and alternative schooling facility like EGS/AIE centers (Education Guarantee Scheme and Alternative and Innovative Education), (d) Opening of upper primary schools (e) Constructing additional classrooms, schools and other facilities (f) Free textbook to all girls/SC/ST children, (g) Maintenance and repair of school buildings (h) Teaching Learning Equipment for primary schools on up- gradation of EGS to regular schools or setting up of a new primary school
  12. 12. Contribution of SsA to UEE • Easy Access to Elementary Education • Improvement in Physical Facilities in the schools • Rapid increase in enrolment • Retention of students • Literacy rate increased up to age of 14 years • Quality education • Helpful for the weaker section of society • Availability of teachers and their professional growth
  13. 13. . . The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education, Act, 2009 RTE Act, 2009
  14. 14. Background • The Constitution‟s 86th Amendment Act, 2002 inserted Article 21-A in the Constitution of India to provide free and compulsory education of all children in the age group of six to fourteen years as a Fundamental Right • The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009, which represents Article 21-A, means that every child has a right to full time elementary education of satisfactory and equitable quality in a formal school which satisfies certain essential norms and standards.
  15. 15. Details • Article 21-A and the RTE Act came into effect on 1 April 2010. The title of the RTE Act incorporates the words „free and compulsory. • „Free education‟ means child does not require to pay any fee for his or her education. • „Compulsory education‟ casts an obligation on the appropriate Government and local authorities to ensure admission, attendance and completion of elementary education by all children in the 6-14 age group.
  16. 16. Main Provisions of RTE Act 2009 • Apart from the clause on Free and Compulsory Education, it specifies the duties and responsibilities of appropriate Governments, local authority and parents in providing free and compulsory education, and sharing of financial and other responsibilities between the Central and State Governments. • It lays down the norms and standards relating to Pupil Teacher Ratios (PTRs), buildings and infrastructure, school-working days, teacher- working hours.
  17. 17. Main Provisions of RTE Act 2009 • It provides for rational deployment of teachers by ensuring that the specified pupil teacher ratio is maintained for each school, rather than just as an average for the State or District or Block, thus ensuring that there is no urban-rural imbalance in teacher postings. • It also provides for prohibition of deployment of teachers for non-educational work, other than census, elections to local authority, state legislatures and parliament, and disaster relief.
  18. 18. Main Provisions of RTE Act 2009 • The Act provides for appointment of appropriately trained teachers, i.e. teachers with the requisite entry and academic qualifications. • It prohibits (a) Physical punishment and mental harassment; (b) Screening procedures for admission of children; (c) Fee; (d) Private tuition by teachers and (e) Running of schools without recognition,
  19. 19. Main Provisions of RTE Act 2009 • The RTE Act provides for development of curriculum in accordance with the values enshrined in the Constitution, and which would ensure the all-round development of the child, building on the child‟s knowledge, potentiality and talent and making the child free of fear, trauma and anxiety through a system of child friendly and child centred learning.
  20. 20. Main Provisions of RTE Act 2009 • Norms and standards specified for all schools • Infrastructure and related facilities • Community participation in schools ensured through • SMC comprising elected representatives, teachers and parents. • Members from among parents of children in the school; 50% women • Proportionate representation to weaker and deprived sections • SMC to plan, manage and monitor – in collaboration with the local authority
  21. 21. Main Provisions of RTE Act 2009 • All aided schools to provide free education to at least 25% children. • Special category schools and unaided schools to admit in Class I at least 25% children belonging to weaker section and disadvantaged group, from the neighbourhood, and provide free and compulsory elementary education. • No Board examinations till completion of elementary education
  22. 22. Universalization of secondary education • .
  23. 23. Universalization of secondary education • Secondary education is the education provided to the students of age group 14-18 years. • High power Committee of CABE on “Universalisation of Secondary Education” (Set-up by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India) in September 06, 2004. • The Central Advisory Board of Education, the oldest and the most important advisory body of the Government of India in education was first established in 1920 and it was revived in 1935 and has been in existence ever since.
  24. 24. Universalization of secondary education • Shri Ghanshyam Tiwari, Minister of Education, Government of Rajasthan, was appointed as Chairman of this committee. • The aim of the committee was to prepare a blueprint for the universalisation of secondary education consequent upon the attainment of universalisation of elementary education. The Committee shall be provided secretarial assistance by NCERT. • The Committee shall give its recommendations within six months from the date of its constitution.
  25. 25. Universalization of secondary education • The four guiding principles, namely • Universal access, • Equality and social justice, • Relevance and development, • Structural and curricular aspects • impact at the level of access, socio-cultural character, developmental objectives and structural-cum-curricular provisions of secondary education - all at the same time and throughout the nation. • The relevant questions in this context are: • 1. What kind of future citizens does India want to build up? • 2. What is the nature of secondary education that can lead to the development of the defined citizenship attributes?
  26. 26. Universalization of secondary education • Vision • Provide high quality secondary education to all Indian adolescent girls and boys up to the age of 16 by 2015, and up to the age of 18 by 2020. • In Populated Area: S.E School- 5 K.M And H.S School 7-10 K.M • In The End of 12th Planning (2017)- 100% • Universal Access In 2020: Assured Universal Retention
  27. 27. • International Commission on Education for the 21st Century also mentioned human beings live in four planes namely physical, intellectual, mental and spiritual. • Accordingly, future citizens of India should be physically strong and sound, intellectually competent, mentally/emotionally matured and intelligent, and spiritually intelligent and enriched to be creative, innovative and exploring. • Physical qualities will include internally sound and disease free long life, physical skills at work and play, etc. • Intellectual skills should display multiple intelligence at the best of the potentials. • Emotional qualities are the emotional intelligence that makes significant contribution to corporate and social life and „learning to live together‟. • Spiritual skills would be woven around the, linking oneself to larger social, national, global and goals. .
  28. 28. • Problem of Access • Problems of Equity • Gender Inequality • Problem of Quality • Poverty • Early Marriage • Lack of Suitable Laws and Publicity PROBLEMS
  29. 29. • Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan • National Mission for Secondary Education • Centrally sponsored scheme of the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, for the development of secondary education in public schools throughout India. It was launched in March 2009. • The scheme includes a multidimensional research, technical consulting, various implementations and funding support to secondary education. RMSA
  30. 30. • The principal objectives are to enhance quality of secondary education and increase the total enrollment rate from 52% (as of 2005–2006) to 75% in five years, i.e. from 2009–2014. • It aims to provide universal education for all children between 15–16 years of age. • To improve quality of education imparted at secondary level • To remove gender, socio-economic and disability barriers. • Universal access to secondary level education by 2017. • Universal retention of students by 2020. Objectives of RMSA
  31. 31. • RMSA is planned to promote secondary education by establishing in every target school the following infrastructure: • Additional class rooms • Laboratories • Libraries • Art and crafts room • Toilet blocks • Drinking water provisions • Residential hostels for teachers in remote areas • SMC in each school Action Plans of RMSA
  32. 32. • In addition it aims to provide additional teachers to reduce student teacher to 30:1, • Focus on science, mathematics and English education, • In-service training of teachers, • Science laboratories, • ICT-enabled education, • Curriculum reforms, and • Teaching learning reforms. Action Plans of RMSA
  33. 33. • Quality Improvement • In school, there was promotion of the science laboratories, environmental education, promotion of yoga, as well as centrally sponsored schemes of population education project, international mathematics and science olympiads. The state governments provide in-service training for the teachers and provide infrastructure and research inputs. Four major heads
  34. 34. • Information communication technologies (ICT) • ICT comprises the centrally sponsored schemes like computer education and literacy in schools (CLASS) and educational technology (ET) which familiarizes the student with Information technology (IT). • a. funding support towards computer education plan • b. strengthening and reorientation of the staffs of SIETs – state institutes of education and training • c. there should be is digitalization of SIETs audio and video cassettes with the partnership of NGOs • d. management of internet-based education by SIETs. Four major heads
  35. 35. • Access and equity • RMSA not only emphasizes on providing secondary education for the special focus groups that include scheduled tribe and scheduled caste groups, minority girls, but it also give importance on removing the existing disparities in socio-economic and gender background in the secondary level of education. Four major heads
  36. 36. • Integrated education for disabled children(IEDC) • Inclusive education have been highlighted to bring about expansion in terms of meeting to the needs of the mentally and physically disadvantaged children. This schemes continues to be a separate centrally sponsored scheme. Four major heads
  37. 37. • The Ministry of Human Resource Development directly provides funds to the state governments. Each state government then release the funds to the approved implementing agencies or institutions. During the XI Five Year Plan the central government provided 75% of the total fund for each state, while 25% was borne by the state as matching share. Funds for RMSA
  38. 38. • Achievements of RMSA listed in its 2015-2016; • 11,577 new secondary schools approved. • 52,750 additional classrooms approved. • 25,948 science laboratories approved. • 21,864 computer rooms approved. • 27,428 libraries approved. • 31,453 art and craft rooms approved. • 12,327 drinking water facilities approved. • 5,408 teachers' quarters approved. • 2,975 major repairs approved. Achievements of RMSA