Motivation is a Latin word, which means to
Motivation refers to the forces either within or
external to a person that arouse enthusiasm and
persistence to peruse a certain course of action.
Performance = Ability x Motivation
3. Nature / characteristics of motivation:
1. Unending process: human wants keep changing & increasing.
2. A psychological concept: deals with the human mind.
3. Whole individual is motivated: as it is based on psychology of the
4. Motivation may be financial or non-financial: Financial includes
increasing wages, allowance, bonus, perquisites etc.
5. Motivation can be positive or negative: positive motivation means
use of incentives - financial or non-financial. Eg. of positive
motivation: confirmation, pay rise, praise etc. Negative motivation
means emphasizing penalties. It is based on force of fear. Eg.
7. Financial Motivation : Payment methods that are used by
businesses to motivate their workforce.
Non-financial motivation: All other forms, such as praise,
recognition and team work.
Intrinsic Motivation: Intrinsic motivation can be understood
as a feeling of joy, a sense of achievement
or accomplishment that guides a person towards action.
Extrinsic Motivation: extrinsic motivation is a feeling that
originates from outside of the self.
11. His basic assumptions were:
1.All human needs cannot be satisfied, because, if one need
is satisfied, another arises.
2.A satisfied need does not motivate behaviour. eg. need for
food motivates only till one gets food.
3.Some needs are innate (natural / inherent) eg. the need
for food & water; while some are acquired from social
experiences eg. need for social esteem.
4.Human beings attempt to satisfy their needs in a specific
order, based on hierarchy.
13. Maslow explained each level of hierarchy as follows:
1. Physiological needs:
These are necessary to sustain life. They include food, water, clothing, shelter.
These needs have the highest potency for motivation.
A person who lacks these will be motivated by these.
2. Safety needs:
When physiological needs are reasonably satisfied, safety needs begin to
These needs include protection from physical dangers, such as fire or accident.
Economic security, security of income against contingencies such as sickness,
injury, non-hostile working atmosphere are also safety needs.
3. Social needs:
When physiological & safety needs are reasonably satisfied, social needs
become important motivators.
Man is a social being & wants to receive & give acceptance, friendship &
He feels the need for belonging, for being an accepted member of a formal or
an informal group.
14. 4. Esteem needs:
When the first three needs are essentially satisfied, esteem needs become
The person must feel important & must also receive recognition from others, as
that recognition supports the feelings of personal worth.
Thus feelings of self-esteem, self-confidence, prestige & power are produced
which are related to enhancing competence, knowledge & achievement.
5. Self actualization needs:
At the summit of the hierarchy is the need to realize one’s
potentialities so as to satisfy what Maslow referred to as ‘the
desire to become everything that one is capable of becoming.’
Thus the person becomes interested in self-fulfillment, self-
development, & creativity in the broadest sense of the term.
15. Criticisms of Maslow’s theory:
1. Hierarchy cannot be regarded as rigid. For some people, the levels
may not be clear cut & may tend to overlap.
2. Some individuals may lack ambition & may remain at the primary
levels of the hierarchy concerned only with physiological & safety
3. The order suggested by Maslow may not be applicable to everybody.
4. A single need cannot motivate an individual. There may be several &
that too in combinations, existing.
Hence the theory may not have universal validity.
16. Herzberg's two-factor theory:
factors responsible for job satisfaction are quite different from those responsible for
Certain factors give job satisfaction, but absence of these does not mean job
dissatisfaction. It only means no job satisfaction.
Similarly, certain factors cause job dissatisfaction, but absence of these does not
mean job satisfaction. It only means no job dissatisfaction.
According to Herzberg, motivational factors are responsible for job
satisfaction; and Hygiene or Maintenance factors are responsible
for job dissatisfaction.
17. Motivational factors:
The presence of these factors motivates workers & at the same
time, absence of these does not cause dissatisfaction.
Hygiene or Maintenance factors:
The presence of these factors maintains motivation at zero level,
but absence of these factors causes serious dissatisfaction.
In other words, presence of these factors prevents dissatisfaction.
Maintaining motivation at zero level thus prevents negative
motivation, hence they are called maintenance factors.
18. Motivators Hygiene factors
Achievement Co. policy & admn.
Work itself Interpersonal relations
Advancement Job security
Possibility of growth Status
19. Limitation and criticism:
Critics consider Herzberg's two factor theory to be
simplistic - what motivates me may be a dis-satisfier for
Its for individuals, not as a homogeneous group with one
set of wants and needs
Some factors may be within your control, some may not
23. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory:
Victor H. Vroom, developed the expectancy theory in 1964, producing a
systematic explanatory theory of workplace motivation. Theory asserts that the
motivation to behave in a particular way is determined by an individual’s
expectation that behavior will lead to a particular outcome, multiplied by the
preference or valence that person has for that outcome.
Three components of Expectancy theory are:
1. Expectancy: The belief of the person that her/his effort (E) will result in
attainment of desired performance (P) goals.
2. Instrumentality: The belief of the person that she/he will receive a reward
(R) if the performance (P) expectation is met.
3. Valence: The value of the reward according to the person. (e.g. Is the reward
attractive to the person?)
25. Managerial Implications of
Determine the outcomes employees value.
Identify good performance so appropriate behaviors can be
Make sure employees can achieve targeted performance levels.
Link desired outcomes to targeted levels of performance.
Make sure changes in outcomes are large enough to motivate
Monitor the reward system for inequities.
26. Organizational Implications of
Reward people for desired performance, and do not keep pay decisions
Design challenging jobs.
Tie some rewards to group accomplishments to build teamwork and
Reward managers for creating, monitoring, and maintaining
expectancies, instrumentalities, and oucomes that lead to high effort
and goal attainment.
Monitor employee motivation through interviews or anonymous
Accommodate individual differences by building flexibility into the