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1. Table of Contents
Abstract................................................................................................
BMLS5103 – Leadership Styles Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim
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Abstract
This paper presents an evaluation of three different lead...
BMLS5103 – Leadership Styles Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim
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According to Hollander (1978), leadership process can be examined ...
BMLS5103 – Leadership Styles Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim
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the account that she was familiar with during the early days of he...
BMLS5103 – Leadership Styles Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim
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2.2.1.2 Protective
Another example of how Miss X maintains her rel...
BMLS5103 – Leadership Styles Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim
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environment she lives in. As cited by Issue, Held and Reaiche (201...
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This style is part of the six Emotional Leadership style identifie...
BMLS5103 – Leadership Styles Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim
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Preston, Moon, Simon et al (2015), conclude that while this leader...
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His current role is interfacing with Shell OIL, internal XYZ servi...
BMLS5103 – Leadership Styles Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim
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English which makes him easy to communicate the objectives of the...
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badly. MR XX is reachable via many ways, from mobile phone, email...
BMLS5103 – Leadership Styles Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim
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According to Preston et al (2015), a democratic leader provides i...
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4. Mr X – Senior Operations Manager, Network Support
4.1 Backgrou...
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tickets are being assessed, process, execute and close within the...
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goes to him until it gets resolved. Though the issue is not withi...
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and many others (including me) were not happy and he took a step ...
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pacesetter leader if the morale is low and lack of motivation wil...
BMLS5103 – Leadership Styles Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim
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Bolden, R., Gosling, J., Marturano, A. and Dennison, P. (2003). A...
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Leadership - leader, followers, situational

Leadership - leader, followers, situational

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Leadership - leader, followers, situational

  1. 1. 1. Table of Contents Abstract.........................................................................................................2 1. Introduction............................................................................................2 2. Miss X – Manager, Centralized Lifecycle Management.........................3 2.1 Background and Current Role.......................................................................................... 3 2.2 Evaluation of Leadership Style ........................................................................................ 4 2.2.1 Personal Values......................................................................................................... 4 2.2.2 Flexibility.................................................................................................................. 5 2.3 Identification of Leadership Style – The Affiliative Leader............................................ 6 2.3.1 Critique...................................................................................................................... 6 3. Mr XX – Service Manager, Global Secure Access..................................8 3.1 Background and Current Role.......................................................................................... 8 3.2 Evaluation of Leadership Style ........................................................................................ 9 3.2.1 Team Leadership via Project Delivery...................................................................... 9 3.2.2 Managing his own team.......................................................................................... 10 3.3 Identification of Leadership Style – The Democratic Leader........................................ 11 3.3.1 Critique.................................................................................................................... 11 3.3.2 Approach for his own Team.................................................................................... 12 4. Mr X – Senior Operations Manager, Network Support.......................13 4.1 Background and Current Role........................................................................................ 13 4.2 Evaluation of Leadership Style ...................................................................................... 14 4.2.1 High Visibility ........................................................................................................ 14 4.3 Identification of Leadership Style.................................................................................. 16 4.3.1 Critique.................................................................................................................... 16 4.4 Conclusion...................................................................................................................... 17 References...................................................................................................17
  2. 2. BMLS5103 – Leadership Styles Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 2 Abstract This paper presents an evaluation of three different leaders in XYZ Malaysia, a multi-national company headquartered in the USA. The company is located in Cyberjaya, the heart of MSC, Malaysia. XYZ Malaysia is an offshore hub covering global outsourcing network support and services. The three chosen star leaders are Miss X, manager of a Centralized Lifecycle Management team covering global IBM company. Her team is located in India and she is managing the entire team remotely from Cyberjaya. The second star leader is Mr XX, Service Manager of Global Secure Access. His team is a subset of a larger Service Management portfolio dedicated to Shell OIL account. The final star leader is Mr X, Senior Operation Manager of Global Customer Support Services. The team is part of the global network support and incident management covering global sourcing accounts. There are at least twenty more managers in Cyberjaya office, but the three star leaders were chosen because each one of them is unique and different in many ways. Each profile includes their current role and background, evaluation of each profile leadership style through observations and identification of the leadership style based on the criteria given. 1. Introduction A simple leadership definition as defined by Bass (1960) is the power or ability to lead other people. The concept of leadership comprises a wide range of different interpretation regarding the characteristics of the leader, behaviors or traits, impact on employees and their activities. Leadership plays a critical role in an organization for business success as well as to stay competitive in the market. In 1967, the first researcher Fred Fiedler (1967), identified three major components in leadership process; 1) Leader 2) Follower 3) Situation. He developed his contingency model of leadership theory based on these components. Further research by Hollander (1978) discussed the transactional approach to leadership called interactional framework. As shown in Figure 1.1, the framework depicts leadership as a function of three elements; 1) The leader, 2) The followers, and 3) The situation. Figure 1.1 – An Interactional Framework for Analyzing Leadership
  3. 3. BMLS5103 – Leadership Styles Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 3 According to Hollander (1978), leadership process can be examined by each level of analysis separately as well as examine the interactions among the three elements, represented by the overlapping areas in the above figure. In the following chapter, we will describe and evaluate the three chosen star leaders on how the three elements affects each other in the leadership process. 2. Miss X – Manager, Centralized Lifecycle Management 2.1 Background and Current Role Miss X or “Miss X” was born in 1980. She is the youngest among three star leaders. She comes from a family of five, where her father is a retired supervisor while her mother is a full time housewife. In 2001, she graduated from Multimedia University, Cyberjaya with a degree in IT software engineering. Three years ago she completed her MBA from the same university. Miss X started her career in the same year she graduated as a Service Desk Analyst in HP. After a short stint in HP, she joined IBM for Technical Solution Specialist. After three years with IBM she moved on and joined another multinational company, Shell OIL as an Operations Engineer. In 2008, Shell OIL IT operations were outsourced to three different bundles, XYZ for network bundle, HP for Desktop services and T-Systems for hosting services. Her current position is Operations Manager managing Incident Management team for the IBM company. Ironically,
  4. 4. BMLS5103 – Leadership Styles Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 4 the account that she was familiar with during the early days of her career. In this role, her responsibility covers incident management for forty two and ten sub accounts of IBM. Her role is quite challenging when she has to manage her followers in India remotely from Cyberjaya. She is managing a team consists of fifteen followers. The primary responsibility of the team is to interface with customers on incidents related to network and technical issues, and collaborating with customers and other XYZ internal teams for resolution process. Miss X ensures all complaints are entertained by her followers and managing customer’s expectations for resolution progress. She also required to ensure the team is working cohesively, keeping her followers motivated to handle customer’s issues and ensure they achieve the goals set by the business unit. Figure 2.1 shows the followers of Miss X. Figure 2.1 Miss X’s Direct Reports. <<omitted>> 2.2 Evaluation of Leadership Style Miss X generally adjusts and adapts to the situation in fulfilling her everyday responsibilities. 2.2.1 Personal Values 2.2.1.1 Easygoing Judging by Miss X’s personal appearance and personality, she lives her life to the fullest. She always looks calm, no sign of stress and looks comfortable in her current role. Her characteristics are also echoed by one of her followers when asked to give an opinion about her. “She’s cool and gives autonomy to us to deliver our tasks”, commented by Siddesh or Sid. Her style is seen matches with one of the common leadership styles – laissezfaire. It is also her personal choice of leadership style in her response to my brief interview while preparing this report as depicted in Figure 1.2. Figure 2.2 – Snippet of Miss X’s response.
  5. 5. BMLS5103 – Leadership Styles Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 5 2.2.1.2 Protective Another example of how Miss X maintains her relationship with her subordinates is she did not jump into conclusion too easily. In customer orientation environment, communication skills are very important. Due to many factors like cultural differences and language barriers, customers may get offended when they misinterpret the message they received via email. The customer usually escalates to the manager to share their dissatisfaction over the issue and demanded stern action to be taken. Her reaction in mitigating this issue is she will investigate the allegation herself and immediately send an apology note to the customer. She will then hold a discussion with the employee and discuss how to improve the situation in the future. Most of the time, it is merely a misunderstanding as choice of words used is not appropriate. She did not punish her staff as suggested by the customer, but she used a different approach by providing training in remediating the issue. As we continue to learn from mistakes, her followers feel protected and they will try to avoid it in the future. This situation is witnessed by myself since the customer looped me since we work under the same business unit. 2.2.1.3 Caring This may sound something small but Miss X remembers her followers’ birthday. She will not just send a simple “happy birthday” notes, but she will include some meaningful lines showing that she really cares about them. She does this to her peers as well. At the end of every quarter, she organizes a small birthday bash for them. Her followers felt appreciated and their sense-of- belonging, increased by her kind gesture. 2.2.2 Flexibility As combining leadership styles have been argued to be the preferred way by many researchers, Miss X is seen to apply a different leadership style to complement the dynamic working
  6. 6. BMLS5103 – Leadership Styles Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 6 environment she lives in. As cited by Issue, Held and Reaiche (2015) referring to Murphy (1941), situational theory was developed to highlight the importance of situational factors and how they impact leadership effectiveness. Leadership is naturally situational and this theory highlights that there is no better single leadership style for all situations, and conversely encourages leaders to consider the impact that situational variables can have on the effectiveness of a behavior. 2.2.2.1 Flexi-hours One of the corporate goals is cost-savings policy across the board. Implementing “hiring freeze” by each business unit is one of the objectives in achieving that goal. Many teams, including her team are impacted by this policy. Sadly, people leave and no replacement is granted. She uses her creativity within her capacity and allows her followers to “work from home”. Her justification for doing this is to allow her followers to be more productive as they can start working on them remotely as they don’t have to beat the morning rush hour. Upon completing their work, they can spend the additional hours with their loved ones instantly. Her flexibility in tackling this issue improves the morale of her followers, they become more productive as well as improves the wellbeing of the team. Since Miss X and I are from the same business unit, her team productivity report is accessible and it shows all “green” despite scarce human resources. 2.2.2.2 Self-discipline Although Miss X sounds like a soft “lady boss”, from a different angle she is very self-discipline especially dealing with time-sensitive situation. For example, when she organized a meeting at 3pm and she expects everybody to be in the meeting sharp at 3pm too. Most of the time she will be there five minutes early. It has been observed many times since our teams cross path in many meetings together. This value demonstrates a great example of how to respect other people’s time. Instead of her keeps sending reminder to be punctual, she leads by example. People respect her value and they recognize her as an easygoing and strict at the same time. 2.3 Identification of Leadership Style – The Affiliative Leader 2.3.1 Critique Based on the above descriptions, Miss X demonstrates a great example of “people oriented” leader. It matches with affiliative leader as it creates emotional bonds and harmony in the team.
  7. 7. BMLS5103 – Leadership Styles Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 7 This style is part of the six Emotional Leadership style identified by management theorists, led by Daniel Goleman (2002). She puts her followers first than anything else. She handles most of the situations in her team with strong empathy, she builds close relationship with her followers and she communicates proficient with them in achieving the goals. The “friendly” approach, she has been applying with her team members remove the power distance between her and the team. Acknowledgement from her follower proves that she is truly a people oriented leader. In a different scenario, she protects her followers well, but not too defensive. She forges strong emotional bonds with her followers. Her followers know that they have a strong leader that they can rely on. Preston, Moon, Simon et al (2015) mentioned that emotional bonds lead to immense loyalty from the individual. By remembering her followers birthday and send nice wishes is another good trait of how she builds relationships with her followers. All these sets a solid foundation in establishing positive team chemistry. (Preston et al, 2015). Miss X understands that just being nice is not sufficient to sustain a healthy and productive team. Therefore, she combines her leadership style with other styles and adapt accordingly to situations. She adjusts her style to whatever limitation laid out in front of her. An example to support this notion is when she uses flexibility in the attendance rules. In the “hiring freeze” situation, instead of disagreeing with the management, she “bends” the rules. She allows her team to work from home primarily to boost their motivation. Despite an increased of individual workload resulted from replacement restriction, her followers felt motivated since they were given flexibility to manage their work schedule. Her decision was not only able to maintain team performance, but also improves their wellbeing. Miss X demonstrates high self-discipline too. She uses her power to educate others to respect other’s time. The meeting example is a great example, as it sets precedent in all other situations that her followers must respect the deadlines given to them. To a certain extent, Miss X may use her different source of power to punish her followers for not meeting the deadlines.
  8. 8. BMLS5103 – Leadership Styles Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 8 Preston, Moon, Simon et al (2015), conclude that while this leadership style is effective in building a positive work environment and group culture, there are some disadvantages associated with it. Affiliative leaders predominately remain constructive in the feedback they provide, under- performing workers tend to go unrecognized, which thereafter, fosters mediocrity. This group of employees will start to become content with their performance, as affiliative leaders leave such issues unaddressed, it leads to poor performance of the specific followers. This group of followers lack of clear direction that is needed in order to course-correct, thus they must rely on themselves to improve their performance. If corrective measure is not taken properly, it will lead to an overall poor group’s performance, cause disruption in the harmony and disorientation of the followers. 3. Mr XX – Service Manager, Global Secure Access 3.1 Background and Current Role Mr XX is widely known by his initials “MR XX”. He is another young leader in the organization. He was born in the year of the “dragon” of the Chinese zodiac, 1976. MR XX is married with three kids. He was graduated abroad from the University of Western Australia with double degrees in Electrical Engineering and Business Commerce (Accounting and Finance). After completing his higher learning, he started his professional career as an IT engineer at the age of twenty five years old. In total, he has spent almost fifteen years in IT industry, specializing in network security which is now becoming his subject matter expert. In 2005, he joined Shell OIL as a service manager covering network security landscape. Three years later he transitioned to XYZ after Shell OIL completed the global IT outsourcing service project.
  9. 9. BMLS5103 – Leadership Styles Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 9 His current role is interfacing with Shell OIL, internal XYZ service delivery teams and support teams. He acts as the focal point for all new service requirements and onboarding, escalation point for service interruption and coordinating with XYZ internal teams for service delivery, support structure and maintenance. In Cyberjaya office, he made his presence felt through his strong character and vocal in expressing his opinions. His expertise, experiences, and passion have made him a role model for others, especially the younger generation in XYZ. MR XX used to be individual contributor, in other words manager role with no direct reports. Until two years ago, when his scope of work was enlarged, two analysts have been assigned to sustain the operation of the team. People around him may look him as a rookie in leadership roles, but practically through his own experiences and observations of how other leaders do “people management”, he managed to adapt and cope well to his added responsibilities. Figure 2.1 shows the team structure of MR XX. Figure 2.1 – Service Management – Secure Access <<omitted>> 3.2 Evaluation of Leadership Style Since MR XX used to work alone as an “individual contributor” and only recently he was assigned with two employees, we will examine him based on these two situations. Individual contributor does not mean that the person has no involvement in people management. In fact, his responsibilities can be even challenging as he needs to manage two or three different teams for a certain period of time depending on project duration. For example, service improvement projects may take up to six months or more to be completed. During this period, the service manager acts as a team leader for many followers from different teams to achieve project’s goal. 3.2.1 Team Leadership via Project Delivery 3.2.1.1 Traits MR XX has strong technical and communication skills which give him a huge advantages dealing with a large group of followers from different background. He has a strong command in
  10. 10. BMLS5103 – Leadership Styles Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 10 English which makes him easy to communicate the objectives of the project and to guide people to work on the same direction. He knows the subject very well and often acts as the middle man should two or more teams have differences in opinions. He always there when people need him, his presence and visibility have significantly contributed to the success of his many projects. 3.2.1.2 Decision making Countless times, I have been involved in projects led by MR XX. Most of the time, he decentralizes his decision making process. He often leaves to the followers to decide the best solution to a problem. For example, when the teams were required to provide realistic service level agreement (SLA) to deliver a particular service. Theoretically, as a service manager, he would suggest the shortest lead-time in order to please the customer. But MR XX chose to get the delivery teams to come out with the realistic lead-time and justify why number of X days are needed to deliver the service. If the team provides weak justification, MR XX would challenge and get them to revisit the process. This approach has given positive impact to both customer and delivery teams. The customer gets comprehensive feedback with justification and delivery teams would deliver the service in a timely fashion since they made the decision. 3.2.1.3 Recognition and Rewards Satisfied customer usually will send a nice thank you notes or even invite for lunch or dinner, but for MR XX he will not take credit for himself but he celebrates success as a team. He always believes in the team effort and therefore he will share the notes or extend the lunch or dinner invites to the team. If the team is too big then he will select key persons in each team to join the event. 3.2.2 Managing his own team 3.2.2.1 Coach The approach that he takes to lead his own team is mostly the same. He added coaching as part of his action plan. Since MR XX and I are peers and we both are the same age, we talk and exchange ideas a lot. He believes in visibility and reachability are two important elements dealing with customers. Customers will escalate to the next level if he is not reachable when they need him
  11. 11. BMLS5103 – Leadership Styles Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 11 badly. MR XX is reachable via many ways, from mobile phone, email or via corporate instant messaging. Customers don’t need long time to hear from him back, MR XX checks his email regularly and will not keep an email unattended for more than a day. He sets a good example and coach his followers to be visible and reachable. 3.2.2.2 Trust Using XYZ flexible working hours as an example, MR XX do not really track his followers clock- in and clock-out. Sometimes they have to attend meetings during odd hours so they manage their own time or can even work from home the next day. Referring to the same policy that MR XX embraces, as long as they are reachable and no negative impact on productivity, then he’s fine. 3.3 Identification of Leadership Style – The Democratic Leader MR XX demonstrates a different set of qualities and values in the process. In general, his approach is matched with democratic or participative style. 3.3.1 Critique Many empirical studies (Bolden, Gosling, Marturano, and Dennison, 2003) and (Bosiok & Sad, 2013) defined democratic leadership style by a leader who involves team members in decision making and management. The leader encourages team members to participate in goal setting, determining methods and procedures, providing inputs, ideas and suggestions for solving relevant problems, as well as participating in the decision making process itself. The leader does not give detailed instructions or control his or her team members. Democratic style is part of the six leadership styles (emotional intelligence) founded by Daniel Goleman (1998). Although MR XX is recognized as SME in his area, he would rather let the team to decide for the best solution. Using the SLA determination as an example, with his strong technical experience and other personal values, MR XX just acts as a reference point and provide advice when necessary. This approach is aligned with Goleman (1998) description, it’s an open approach to leading, where decision making is shared and the views of a team are valued and contribute to the vision, goals and decision that are made. The style allows team members to feel included in the team. It offers equality of power, and group decision making.
  12. 12. BMLS5103 – Leadership Styles Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 12 According to Preston et al (2015), a democratic leader provides intrinsic motivation to the team. Research has proven that intrinsic motivation initiates creativity and innovation. Highly motivated team will go above and beyond any task assigned to them. Using the reward and recognition approach used by MR XX as an example, the team knows that they will be rewarded if the customer is delighted with the output the project. Based on the above justification, the approach used by MR XX in meeting his project goals is proven to be effective. As theorist and researchers (Goleman, 1998; Preston et al, 2015) argue that democratic style has its limitation like social-loafing for non-performer team members, MR XX employs a different approach like coaching. 3.3.2 Approach for his own Team An empirical study conducted by Giancola (2010) mentioned that a democratic-minded leader prefers highly talented followers. The leader sets goals where all team members should have equal knowledge and skills for them to actively participate in the decision making process. In other words, the leader does not condone “passengers” in the team. To achieve the goal, the leader has to build good relationship by adding an element of trust and at the same time the leader groom or coach them. MR XX in this case does all this to his team. He coaches his team to be highly competent with their work. Both MR XX and his followers have strong relationship and trusted each other.
  13. 13. BMLS5103 – Leadership Styles Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 13 4. Mr X – Senior Operations Manager, Network Support 4.1 Background and Current Role Mr X or Mr X is the eldest among four siblings. Mr X graduated from a local university with a degree in IT. He started his professional career in 2000 at a well-known system Integrator company called Solsis as an application engineer. In 2002, he joined Shell OIL and transitioned to XYZ in 2008 as part of the outsourcing service project. Mr X is chosen as top three star leaders because of his vast experiences climbing the corporate ladder from junior analyst, engineer, team leader, manager and currently as a senior manager of Global Customer Support Center organization. His team consists of twenty six followers from various technical fields like security, proxy, DNS, DMR XXP, remote access and few others. The team operates round the clock, 24x7 shift. The primary deliverable of his team is to monitor network services availability and provides active and reactive support for multiple customers like Shell OIL, IBM and few other customers around the globe. While Mr X’s primary deliverables are to ensure his team collaborate with peers in other work-centers like India, Singapore and Philippines. Apart from that, he also ensures all incident
  14. 14. BMLS5103 – Leadership Styles Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 14 tickets are being assessed, process, execute and close within the agreed SLA and at the same time managing customer expectations. From people-management perspective, Mr X has quite a large number of followers reporting to him with various backgrounds like contractors, technical skills, knowledge, cultural differences and nationality. The majority of his followers are Malaysian then followed by Indian and Filipinos. Managing large number of people will be the area of interest for Mr X. With Mr X’s vast experience added to his strong personalities and leadership style have been seen to be the key success factor for him to be around today in XYZ Cyberjaya. Figure 4.1 shows the followers of Mr X. Figure 4.1 – The Team <<omitted>> 4.2 Evaluation of Leadership Style Naturally, Mr X has good personalities, good physiques, energetic, high assurance and very open in stating his views. He has charismatic attributes which have brought him to where he is today. Based on his career growth history, Mr X spent less time on technical hands-on since his leadership talent has been recognized by the top management much earlier. He applies his experiences to guide his followers effectively. 4.2.1 High Visibility 4.2.1.1 Reachable Mr X made his presence felt by his reachability and approachable by others. Mr X is always there at the right time, at the right place. His excellent interpersonal skills and great relationship with others have been instrumental to him. Through my own experience, Mr X owns every issue
  15. 15. BMLS5103 – Leadership Styles Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 15 goes to him until it gets resolved. Though the issue is not within his capacity, he will find alternatives like connecting the issue with his counterparts from another team and ensure it gets sorted out. All his values have made him a role-model to his followers and others in the work- center. 4.2.1.2 By-the-book Policy Managing a large group of followers have made him to lead “by-the-book”. He does not take chances with his followers with may lead to other problems. For instance, his team nature of work requires them to be in the office all the time. Unlike the two previous leaders, “work from home” is not tolerated for at all. He has strong reason doing this as the team is abiding to a strict contractual obligation with customers. Any unattended “trouble ticket”, will translate to financial impact, XYZ will be penalized for breaching the support agreement. 4.2.1.3 High Performance Standards Mr X always strives to be the best. His career growth history justifies this notion. He creates short- term and long-term goals and ensure he achieves it. His team always made headlines in the monthly newsletter for their achievements. Mr X is creative and innovative in keeping his followers best performance. He develops processes, continue enhancing the process and impose high work ethics are the recipe for his effective leadership approach. 4.2.1.4 Walk-the-Talk He leads by example. He sets most of the rules for his followers. One rule which has been seen difficult to follow by his followers when he imposed strict break policy. 12-hour shift is tough and tiring for some especially on “graveyard” shift. People constantly use it to go for a long break. Unfortunately for some, they abuse the flexibility given to them. They went for extra-long break, which has severed team productivity. Mr X employed new ruling, which allows only 30-minutes break each session and their movement is tracked by the door-access system. No exception for him too, as he has to adhere by not taking long lunch break. 4.2.1.5 Stand-up, Speak-up In a recent benefit harmonization project led by local HR, some of the ex-Shell OIL staff benefits have been cut. Few of his followers, including himself were affected by this new policy. The approach used by HR was seen to be vague since there was no concrete reason for doing so. Mr X
  16. 16. BMLS5103 – Leadership Styles Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 16 and many others (including me) were not happy and he took a step forward represent the team to express our dissatisfaction. With Mr X’s openness and assertiveness characters, he practiced what he thinks was right for his followers. The followers admire his efforts and see him as one of many leaders that they can rely on. 4.3 Identification of Leadership Style From the above descriptions, Mr X is the pacesetter. He perfectly meets the criteria of pacesetting approach. 4.3.1 Critique As cited by Preston et al (2015) referring to Murphy (2011), characteristic of pacesetter is obsessed about doing things better and faster, and asks the same for everyone. The pacesetting method allows high-skilled leaders exemplify their skills over those tasks in the hopes that their followers will follow. Using Mr X’s “reachability” as an example, his approach to gain visibility from others is by ensuring he is reachable most of the time. By getting reachable, customers will be kept informed regularly and thus, resolution time will be faster and improves team performance. Ultimately, new tasks keep coming and by closing the old task in timely manner improves team productivity as well as improve employees’ motivation since the workload is well managed. Goleman (1998) mentioned that pacesetter leader will create a high energy team since the leader initiates everything in the team. Using “sets high performance”, lead “by the book” and “walk the talk” examples by Mr X, he created and defined the rules for his followers. He defines the goal, owns the rules and he ensure every team members sticks to it, including himself. He sets the momentum of the team and the style Mr X possesses yields and maintain good performance results as described earlier. His style is seen effective and suitable for the type of business and followers he manages. The other thing that people admire Mr X’s leadership quality that he fights for people’s rights. With good reason, Mr X will stand, speak up and not just simply adopt whatever new ruling and policy which he believes impacting the morale and motivation of his followers. As argued by Goleman (2002), it is not easy to maintain the high energy and enthusiasm of followers under
  17. 17. BMLS5103 – Leadership Styles Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 17 pacesetter leader if the morale is low and lack of motivation will obviously impact the overall performance of the followers. 4.4 Conclusion Based on the above discussion on the leadership process for three XYZ star leaders, we can conclude that there is no one style of leadership fits all situations. Our leadership approach is derived from the interactions among the leader, the followers, and the situation. In order to be an effective leader, we must be flexible and able to adapt our approach to fit the situation. [Word counter - 5167] References Bass, B. M. (1960). Leadership, Psychology, and Organizational Behavior. Bass, B.M. (1990). Bass & Stogdill’s handbook of leadership, 3rd edition. New York, NY: The Free Press.
  18. 18. BMLS5103 – Leadership Styles Nor Helmee Bin Abd Halim 18 Bolden, R., Gosling, J., Marturano, A. and Dennison, P. (2003). A Review of Leadership Theory and Competency Frameworks: Centre for Leadership Studies, 1–44. Bosiok, D., & Sad, N. (2013). Leadership styles and creativity, 1, 64–77. Fiedler, F. E. (1967) A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness, New York: McGraw-Hill. Giancola, D. P. (2010). Democratic Coaching : A Case Study by Democratic Coaching : A Case Study. Goleman, D. (1998). A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness. Working with Emotional Intelligence. Bantam. Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R. E., & McKee, A. (2002). Primal leadership: Realizing the power of emotional intelligence. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School PressJL & Newstrom JW. eds J Pierce & J Newstorm, McGraw-Hill, Irwin Boston, pp. 674-687. Hollander, E.P. (1978). Leadership Dynamics: A Practical Guide to Effective Relationships, The Free Press, New York, NY Issue, S., Held, C., & Reaiche, C. (2015). T h e J o u r n a l o f D e v e l o p i n g A r e a s THE EMERGING ROLE OF, 49(6). Murphy, AJ 1941, A study of the leadership process. In Pierce JL & Newstrom JW. eds J Pierce & J Newstorm, McGraw-Hill, Irwin Boston, pp. 674-687. Preston, G., Moon, J., Simon, R., Allen, S., & Kossi, E. (2015). The Relevance of Emotional Intelligence in Project Leadership. Journal Of Information Technology & Economic Development, 6(1), 16-40.

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