Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Le téléchargement de votre SlideShare est en cours. ×
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Prochain SlideShare
Memory & forgetting
Memory & forgetting
Chargement dans…3
×

Consultez-les par la suite

1 sur 34 Publicité

Plus De Contenu Connexe

Publicité

Plus récents (20)

Publicité

Memory

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION  Memory plays a very important role in our learning and psychological growth. Through memory of our past experiences, we handle new situations, it helps us in our relearning, problem solving and thinking.
  2. 2. Definition  In the world of psychology “ it is the ability or power of our mind to store the past experiences of learning and utilizing them at a later stage is known as “Memory” .  Memory consist in remembering what has previously been learned. (Woodworth & Marquis 1948)
  3. 3. Types of memory
  4. 4. TYPES OF MEMORY  1. Sensory Memory or immediate Memory : holds sensory information for less than one second after an item is perceived. The ability to look at an item and remember what it looked like with just a split second of observation, or memorization, is the example of sensory memory. It is out of cognitive control and is an automatic response.  E.g. when you make a call over a phone you will remember the number only as long as you dial it and soon after you forget it.
  5. 5. Functions of Sensory Memory  Prevents being overwhelmed  Gives decision time  Provides stability, playback, and recognition Three types of sensory memories exist.  A) Iconic memory is a fast decaying store of visual (through eyes) information; a type of sensory memory that briefly stores an image which has been perceived for a small duration.  B) Econic memory is a fast decaying store of auditory information( through ears), another type of sensory memory that briefly stores sounds that have been perceived for short durations.  C) Haptic memory is a type of sensory memory that represents a database for touch stimuli.
  6. 6. 2.Short-term memory-  This type of memory also is a temporary one and will last only for about 20-30 seconds.  More information can be stored in short term memory by the process called “Chunking”.  Here the information is stored in the form of chunks and in such cases the memory can last a longer time.  Up to about 7 chunks and in short term memory.  E.g.- chunks can be used to teach spellings to children like the spelling of lollipop can be learnt and memorized as lo-lli-pop. Similarly some numbers can be memorized more easily using chunks.
  7. 7. 3. Long-term memory  Long-term memory can store much larger quantities of information for potentially unlimited duration (sometimes a whole life span). Long term memory codes information according to meaning, pattern and other characteristics.  For example, given a random seven-digit number we may remember it for only a few seconds before forgetting, suggesting it was stored in our short- term memory.  On the other hand, we can remember telephone numbers for many years through repetition; this information is said to be stored in long-term memory.
  8. 8. Types of long term memory Long term memory can be categorized into declarative and procedural Memory. Declarative memory/ Explicit memory: Memories for specific information  e.g., what you ate for breakfast, material presented in class Procedural memory/ Implicit memory: Memories of how to perform tasks  e.g., reading, riding a bicycle, dialing a friend's phone number Declarative memory further divided into semantic memory and episodic memory
  9. 9. Subcategory of declarative/explicit memory  Episodic Memory: memory related to our personal affairs like name, our father’s name, date of birth and other personal data of birth etc.  Semantic memory: it comprises of our knowledge and information related to the world. -For example 2x2=4 or earth is round.
  10. 10. Nature of memory The fundamental characteristics of memory: • Memory involves input: Retention of the memory traces of the original experience. • Storage : It is either temporary or permanent. • Output: The revival (bringing back) of stored memory traces
  11. 11. Process of memory • Memory is a complex process which involves learning, retention, recall and recognition. • The process of memorization can be organized as follows; 1. Encoding/ Registration: It refers to a process to translate the sensory information into a coded form that can be easily stored and reproduced when the need arises. Every bit of information is transformed to engrams and codes for the storage. One can memorize anything using any methods. 2. Storage/ retention: It is the power of retention. These are the encoded message.
  12. 12. 3. Retrieval/ recall: It is the reproduction of the encoded message as and when required using the process of remembering. 4. Recognition: Refers to the recalled experience at the conscious level is the same from which the individual wanted to recall and had experience earlier. Recall provides the material in memory while recognition is the process of accepting or rejecting it. E.g: Remembering a person’s name
  13. 13. Factors influencing memory The factors influencing memory are divided into extrinsic factors and intrinsic factors. Intrinsic factors- • Age of the individual: Memory span increases between • 16 – 26 years of age. Youngsters can remember better than the aged. • Maturity: • Will to learn: • Interest and attention: • Intelligence: • Rest and sleep: • Medical conditions:  Hypertension, Hypothyroidism  Brain tumors, Alzheimer’s disease  Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder  Emotional factor- anxiety, fear, stress etc.
  14. 14. External factors-  Meaningfulness of material  Amount of material  Time required to vocalize response  Distraction  Effective teaching  Liking for teachers  Challenges from some significant person.  Monotonous nature of the material learnt etc.  Attitudes of parents, facilities available for learning etc.
  15. 15. Theories of Memory  Memory Trace Theory- According to this theory everything which we encounter or experience is recorded in the form of memory traces.  Theory of general Memory functions- This theory is a simple theory agreed on by most psychologists. Three distinct processes of memory have been identified. These are an Encoding process, a storage process and a retrieval process.
  16. 16. Information Processing Theory-  This theory was developed by Richard Athinson and Richard Shiffrin according to this theory memory starts with sensory input from environment ( vision, hearing, taste, touch and smell)  This input is held for a very brief time- for few seconds.  This information recognized in the sensory register may be passed to short term memory. ( 20-30sec )  Some of the information reaching short term memory is processed by being rehearsed.  Rehearsed information passed along to long term memory. Information not rehearsed is lost.  The information in long term memory will be organized into categories where they may reside for days, months, years or for life time. When the information is needed it is retrieved from LTM.
  17. 17. Information processing theory
  18. 18. This theory was criticized for being too simplistic. LTM is believed to be actually made up of multiple sub components, such as episodic and procedural memory. This theory proposes that rehearsal is the only mechanism by which information reaches long term storage. But evidence shows that remembering happens even without rehearsal.
  19. 19. Levels of processing theory The levels of processing model (Craik and Lockhart, 1972) focuses on the depth of processing involved in memory, and predicts the deeper information is processed, the longer a memory trace will last. Craik defined depth as: "the meaningfulness extracted from the stimulus rather than in terms of the number of analyses performed upon it.” It is a non-structured approach. The basic idea of this theory is that memory is really just happens as a result of processing information. Memory is just a by-product of the depth of processing of information, and there is no clear distinction between short term and long term memory.
  20. 20. We can process information in 3 ways: 1.Shallow Processing - This takes two forms of verbal processing 1. Structural processing (appearance) which is when we encode only the physical qualities of something. E.g. the typeface of a word or how the letters look. 2. Phonemic processing – processing the sounds of words. Shallow processing only involves maintenance rehearsal and leads to fairly short-term retention of information.
  21. 21. Deep Processing - This involves 3. Semantic processing, which happens when we process the meaning of a word and relate it to similar words with similar meaning. Deep processing involves elaboration rehearsal which involves a more meaningful analysis (e.g. images, thinking, associations etc.) of information and leads to better recall. For example, giving words a meaning or linking them with previous knowledge. The idea that the way information is encoded affects how well it is remembered. The deeper the level of processing, the easier the information is to recall.
  22. 22. Methods of Memorizing 1.Recitation Method: The learner reads a content once or twice , then tries to recites and recall. It helps in self appraisal and self evaluation and the learner can write down the points that he is unable to recall. 2. Whole and Part Method: memorizing from beginning to end at stretch or part by part. Like memorizing a Poem. It has merits and demerits. The learner can use a combined method by starting the poem with whole and difficult areas can be learned as part. 3. Spaced and Unspaced method: It follows the principle of work and rest. After memorizing something for a period of time, some rest is provided, and continues the memorization again.
  23. 23. Development/Improvement of memory. Learning and recall can be improved by training. Follow the techniques; 1. Recitation and Practice- this practice will help to store the information in brain for a longer time. 2. Grouping and rhythm – any thing learned through grouping and in rhythmical pattern will be remember better. e.g. phone no. 564582 can be easily remembered when grouped as 56, 45, 82. 3.When recalling free the mind from fear and anxiety. 4.Have confidence in self and maintain positive attitude. 5.Don’t fight with memory in recalling. Give time.
  24. 24. 6.Interests and attention influence memorization. 7.Adopt proper methods of memorization. 8.Follow the principle of association. Eg. VIBGYOR=color 9.Utilize many senses to learn. 10.Maintain external (envt.) and internal factors (health). 11.Proper Rest, Practice and Repetition. 12. Learning situation- Material learned under situation of peace and comfort will be retained more effectively. E.g.- comfortable sitting arrangements,
  25. 25. Forgetting Definition: • Forgetting is the loss( permanent or temporary) of the ability to recall or recognize something learnt earlier. - Munn • Forgetting is the failure of the individual to revive in consciousness an idea or group of ideas without the help of the original stimulus. - Bhatia
  26. 26. Types of Forgetting Natural Forgetting: Forgetting occurs with lapse of time in quite normal way without any intention. Morbid Forgetting: Deliberate try to forget something. This may be the result of repression. General Forgetting: Total loss of recalling some previous learning. Specific Forgetting: forgets only one or the other specific part of his earlier learning. Amnesia: This type of forgetfulness may be either Physical (age, diseases, accidents, intoxication etc.) or Psychological(stress, anxiety, apathy, conflicts etc.).
  27. 27. Theories of Forgetting  The memory Traces Decay Theory:  The interference Theory.  The repression or motivated forgetting theory.
  28. 28. The memory Traces Decay Theory  Trace decay theory states that forgetting occurs as a result of the automatic decay or fading of the memory trace.  Trace decay theory focuses on time and the limited duration of short term memory.  This theory suggests short term memory can only hold information for between 15 and 30 seconds unless it is rehearsed. After this time the information / trace decays and fades away.  It is widely believed that neurons die off gradually as we age, yet some older memories can be stronger than most recent memories. Thus, decay theory mostly affects the short-term memory system.  Long-term memory is often more resistant to shocks or physical attacks on the brain.
  29. 29. The interference Theory.  We forget something because what we have learnt previously interferes with the remembering of what we learn afterwards.  Proactive interference (pro=forward) occurs when a person cannot learn a new task because of an old task that had been learnt. What we already know interferes with what we are currently learning – where old memories disrupt new memories.  Retroactive interference (retro=backward) occurs when a person forget a previously learnt task due to the learning of a new task. In other words, later learning interferes with earlier learning - where new memories disrupt old memories.
  30. 30. The repression or motivated forgetting theory  It is suggested by Sigmund Freud.  Repression is a mental function that safeguards the mind from the impact of painful experiences.  By result we push the unpleasant and painful memories into the unconscious and thus try to avoid consciously the conflicts that bother us.  This is well motivated and intentional.  This is because we like to see the world around us as quite pleasant and reasonable. Eg. We forget the death of dearest ones/relatives and friends.
  31. 31. Implications for Nurses • A nurse should always remember that a thing well learnt are remembered well. • Forgetfulness is not bad all times. • Should understand there is no magic cure, pills or any other medications to improve the memory as some advertisements claim. • Memory can be improved only by hard work and attempts. • Understand that forgetfulness is natural phenomena and treat the patients accordingly, especially old age.

×