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Handbook Copenhagen Solar Panel Cooker

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Handbook describing how to build and use the Copenhagen Solar Panel Cooker

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Handbook Copenhagen Solar Panel Cooker

  1. 1. HANDBOOK ON HOW TO BUILD AND USE THE COPENHAGEN SOLAR PANEL COOKER MADE WITH CARDBOARD AND ALUMINUM FOIL PETALS Version: August 2019 | Licence: the manual is released with the licence Creative Commons Attribution – ShareAlike 3.0 Italia (CC BY – SA 3.0 IT). For more information, please go to https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/it/deed.it. INDEX 1 Introduction (pg. 2) 2 Components of the Copenhagen Solar Panel Cooker (pg. 3) 3 Instructions on how to build and assemble the oven (pgg. 3 - 7) 4 The cooking system (pgg. 8 - 9) 5 Simple meals cooked with the sun (pg. 10) 5.1 Cooking rice (pg. 10) 5.2 Pasta with tomato sauce (pg. 11) 5.3 Making boiled potatoes (pg. 11) 5.4 Vegan mousse made with dark chocolate and water (pg. 12) 6 Further information on the physics of solar cookers (pgg. 13 - 14) 7 Exercise (pg. 15) 8 Considerations about the environmental and sanitary benefits of solar cooking and observations on the greenhouse gas mitigation potential (pg. 16)
  2. 2. 1. Introduction The Copenhagen solar cooker has been invented by Sharon Clausson (http://solarcooking.wikia.com/wiki/Copenhagen). It is a panel type solar oven, therefore it is characterized by simple reflective panels which are able to concentrate the solar rays in the little volume where we put the pot, thereby allowing to cook. As per the other models of solar panels, the Copenhagen is simple to build and it is sufficiently powerful to allow to cook rice and legumes, boil vegetables, cook pasta (it is not really simple but it is feasibile) and prepare sauces. In this economic version of the Copenhagen solar cooker, it is possible to cook on sunny days from May to September. The following table describes the estimated maximum daily temperature of the oven without food for each month of the year: Month Jan Feb March Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Tmax [°C] 68 74,5 119 139 155 164 166 158 137 114 68 54 When we add food to the pot, the temperature becomes reduced, so it is important to add not too much food. This is better explained in chapter 5 of the handbook. This implies that it is not always feasiblle to bake as in a traditional oven, but with the higher temperatures it is possible to bake small amounts of food (bread, muffin, buscuits, etc). In this handbook, we will first indicate the components of the oven and of the cooking system, then we will give you the instructions on how to mount the solar oven, taking care to position the four “petals” (thiat is its reflective panels) so that you will better concentrate the solar radiation in the small volume containing the pot in which we will cook. Then we will give you some useful advice for cooking and we will describe some solar cooking recipes. Finally, we will give you some information about the environmental and sanitary benefits of solar cooking. The photo on the right shows the model of panel cooker that you will learn to use. Moreover, in the photo you will be able to see the pyrex bowl inside which we put the dark pot with its glass lid and the oven thermometer. If you want to share with us your trials or recipes of solar cooking, you can send us an e-mail to grupposelene@gmail.com. Otherwise you can post them on our facebook page “Sentinelle dell'energia – Selene”, or on the facebook page “The Solar Cookers World Network”.
  3. 3. 2. Components of the Copenhagen solar cooker (1) Nr 4 “petals” made of reflective material measuring 50 cm x 50 cm, or also a little bit smaller. In this economic version, they can be realized with thin cardboard, transparent adhesive tape and aluminum foil. Instead of aluminum, it is possibile to use also a film of mirror reflective plastic material, as for example paired polystirene and mylar, that have a higher cost. Otherwise it is possible to use also a thin film simply based on mylar, that has an intermediate cost between the other two solutions that we have described right above. (2) Cardboard base measuring 30 cm x 30 cm, or also a little bit smaller; (3) Nr 4 clips for cardboard; (4) Strings in order to assemble the petals with the base and in order to transport the oven as a bag or as a shoulder strap; 3. INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO BUILD AND ASSEMBLE THE OVEN 1. With the help of a ruler or a T-ruler, draw four squares measuring 50 cm x 50 cm, which will form our petals for the solar oven. If you don’t have enough material, you can also choose smaller measures, such as 45 cm x 45 cm. If you want to save money for the cardboard, you can try to ask to the supermarkets. Usually, in the supermarkets it is possible to find the cardboard that is used to separate each row of the bottles of water that are on the pallets. If you opt for this solution, please check the kind of cardboard that is used for water. Often it is thin and flexible enough so that it can be used for the petals of the solar cooker, but sometimes there are some that are far more thicker and some that are slightly thicker. These ones are not adapt for our solar cooker. Otherwise, if we want to improve the design of the cooker, we can buy some thin colored cardboard for drawings, taking care that its weight is sufficiently high. Indeed, 300 gr will not be enough, so that it will be necessary to combine together two pieces of paper weighting 300 gr. Figure 3.1_a. Using the T ruler in order to cut the cardboard and get the 50 cm x 50 cm petals. Figure 3.1_b. Detail for the T ruler and for the marking of the point at 50 cm. Figure 3.1_c. One of the four petals of the Copenhagen solar panel cooker. 2. In the same way, in order to make the base, you can draw on the paper a square measuring 30 cm x 30 cm. The base should be more resistant than the petals, so the cardboard that you use could be that of cardboard boxes, better if they are of double wave cardboard or of reinforced cardboard. 3. Using some resistant scissors, cut the five squares that you have drawn before, four thinner for the
  4. 4. petals and one thicker for the base. For the base, if you choose a double wave cardboard, it could be preferable to use a box cutter and in order to cut with it, you must pass it on the cardboard more times until you get the desired cut. 4. Take the aluminum foil and cut as many pieces as needed in order to cover the four petals and the base that has been realized in the previous steps. If you buy the standard aluminum cooking foils, that has an height lower than 30 cm, for each petal (and also for the base) we will need to cut two pieces of rectangles, that in part will need to be folded in the rear part of the petal (and of the base) and then they can be fixed with adhesive tape (figures 3.4_a and 3.4_b). The adhesive tape will need to be put also at the interface between the two pieces of aluminum that are present in the frontal part of the petal (figure 3.4_c). Figure 3.4_a. Detail relating to the height of the aluminum roll compared to the height of the aluminum petal. Figure 3.4_b. Detail relating to the fixing of aluminum in the rear part of the petal using adhesive tape. Figure 3.4_c. Detail relating to the fixing of aluminum foils using the adhesive tape at the interface between the two pieces of aluminum. 5. Now put the square base on the four petals of aluminum, so that it becomes perfectly at the center and that it is turned of 45° C with respect to the directions of the petals, as you can see in the photo reported hereunder: Figure 3.5. The positioning of the base on the petals of the solar oven in order to perfectly realize the holes for the assembly. 6. Then on the square base, sign with a pen the eight points on which you will make the holes in order to tie with a string the petals to the base. In order to find the position of the holes, draw with a pen the two diagonals on the square base, therefore finding the center of the base. Then you might go at the vertices of the square base and, for each vertex, you can sign two points that are distant 7 cm from the vertex and 4,5 cm on the right and on the left of the diagonal. You can better understand all that by looking at the photoes that are reported hereunder. With the help of the scissors, make the holes on the 8 points that have just been signed.
  5. 5. Figure 3.6_a. The drawing of the diagonals of the square base. Figure 3.6_b. The 8 points that have been signed on the square base. 7. Then put again the base at the center of the four petals and with a pen sign the point also on the four petals. As regards this, we suggest you to number the petals and to show the corresponding number also on the area of the base that covers each petal. Figure 3.7_a. Positioning the base at the center of the four petals in order to find the 8 points of the petals on which you can make the holes for the assembly Figure 3.7_b. Detail relative to the numbering of the petals and of the base for a correct positioning of the holes on the base of the petals. 8. Now you might tie the petals to the base. In order to do that, from a roll of spring (we suggest you to use, if available, an hemp string made in Italy) cut a 130 part of spring. Righ after that apply an adhesive tape at the ends of the string in order to reinforce it. Then pass the string through the holes of the base and of the petals in order to tie them together. Figure 3.8_a.Part of string 130 cm long. Figure 3.8_b. Adhesive tape applied at the ends of the string. Figure 3.8_c. Detail on the positioning of the petals on the rear part of the base Figure 3.8_d. Let’s start to pass the string through the holes, having the base frst and then the petal (from the bottom to the top) and then from the petal to the base (top down). Figura 3.8_e. A detail of the procedure that has been described in the previous step. Figura 3.8_f. At the end of the assembly, let’s tie the string near a hole so that the assembly is stronger.
  6. 6. 9. Now the oven is ready and you can fix the petals in the right position by using some clips. If you have used a cardboard that is not really flexible in order to realize the petals, this is the right moment to curve it. When you curve the petals, you can do that in such a way that they form a triangle in the area where they adhere to the base, so that the four triangles of the petals perfectly overlap on the square of the base. Now you have realized your solar oven, congratulations! When you connect the petals, we suggest you to maintain the rear petal higher, while the frontal petal that is directed toward the sun, can be inclined a little bit lower, so that we can optimize the quantity of solar radiation that is intercepted by the oven. In order to better understand what has been said, you can see the following YouTube video (from about 3’ to about 4’20’’): “Copenhagen Solar Cooker - How to set up and use”. Anyway, more generally, the opening of the petals should be set up as a function of the sun on the horizon, which depends from the period of the year and from the hour of the day. With a little bit of practice and experience we will understand what is the best position for the petals! Figure 3.9_a. Lateral view of the solar oven mounted with the clips. Figure 3.9_b. Rear view of the solar oven mounted with the clips. Please note that the paper used for making the solar cooker described in figure 3.9_a and 3.9_b is flexible but it is not really stiff nor resistant, so the petals tend to provide a wide aperture area to the oven, reducing the power available in the cooking area. It is possible to obtain more resistant petals by using colored paper of higher weight or by using the cardboard used in the pallets of water in the supermarket, as described at the beginning of chapter 3. 10. In order to make our oven easily transportable, you can untie the string and unmount the petals from the base and then you can practice four more holes in each of the four petals. In particular, for each petal, please sign 4 points which are distant 4 cm from the vertices and are on the diagonals. Now you can position the four petals one over the other and then you can put the base over them so that two of its 8 holes find a correspondence with two of the holes of the four petals. With the 130 cm string tie the four petals and the base.
  7. 7. Figure 3.10_a. Draw the 4 holes for transporting the solar oven. Figure 3.10_b. With the 130 cm string, tie together the four petals at the base, starting from the two holes that have a correspondence on the petals and the base. The last thing that remains to be done is to cut other two pieces of string that are at least 160 cm long, reinforcing them too at the ends with adhesive tape. Each of them will pass through two of the four holes that have been realized at the vertices of the four petals, so that we can bring the oven with us as it was a bag. Alternatively, we can bring the oven also as a shoulder bag. Figures 3.11_a, 3.11_b and 3.11_c shows what has been just indicated. In these figures on the base you can notice that there are more than just three strings, because the photos are referred to a model of solar oven in which we used a higher number of strings that were shorter respect to the unique 130 cm long string that we have proposed in this handbook. Using a unique string is more advantageous in practical terms, in particular as regards the time required for mounting and unmounting the oven. Figure 3.11_a. Detail relative to the oven unmounted and assembled for being transported, as a bag. Figure 3.11_b. The oven transported as a bag. Figure 3.11_c. Another detail of the oven transported as a bag.
  8. 8. 4. The cooking system With cooking system we indicate all that we need in order to transfer the heat from solar rays to the food, allowing us to cook our dishes. Moreover, we also indicate the oven thermometer. In particular, our cooking system is represented by: (1) One dark pot, possibly having also a dark lid, otherwise the lid can be of transparent glass. In order to cook with it in our solar oven we usually will need to remove the handle. Aluminum pots with covering in teflon Aluminum pot with covering in teflon (2) Bowls of transparent glass or glass container for cooking with microwaves; (3) One oven thermometer
  9. 9. The cooking pots. In order to cook with the Copenhagen solar cooker, you can utilize a dark pot with its lid (it is better if it is dark, but it will also be good a transparent glass lid) and this should be put inside a transparent glass bowl. In particular, the dark pot allows to optimize the adsorption of solar radiation so that it can be transferred to the food. The glass bowl allows to create the greenhouse effect, that is to say to optimize the adsorption of solar radiation by the pot and by the food. Please note: the choice of the cooking system, that is the pot wth its lid and glass bowl can strongly influence the performance of our solar oven. In particular, if the pot and the bowl are thick, we will need more time in order to reach the cooking temperature, because we will need to bring to the desired temperature a bigger mass. On the contrary we will reach the cooking temperature well before if the pot and the bowl are thin. At the same time, if the pot and the lid are thicker they will maintain the cooking temperature for a longer time. This is good for example if clouds cover the sun for a while when we cook, because it will reduce the risk to compromize the cooking. Nonetheless, this advantage can be of minor interest with respect to the cooking time of the oven. Instead of using a dark pot with lid and a glass bowl, we can choose more low-cost and home made solutions that can be found on the website of the Solar Cookers International Network, such as the Jar-in- Jar invented by Bernhard Muller (http://solarcooking.wikia.com/wiki/Solar_cooking_pots). This has been utilized also in Italy by Eng. Matteo Muccioli and you can find it in the photo here on the right. It is represented by two jars, one put inside the other, where the inner one is made of glass or metal sheet (not covered with teflon) and it has its external surface coloured in black, in order to optimize the adsorption of solar radiation. Finally, you could also utilize single glass jars of jams, taking care to colour them in black at their external surface, using for example flour glue and carbon black. We have utilized them in the past and I might recognize that they functioned well! The oven thermometer. The oven thermometer allows to control the cooking temperature of the oven and therefore it allows to understand if the temperature is sufficient for cooking our meals.
  10. 10. 5. Simple information on the physics of solar cooking In this chapter we will give you some simple information about the physics of solar cooking. Then in the next one, we will describe some recipes that clarify further and more practically how to cook some simple meals. So, as regards the physics of solar cooking, we must notice first of all that in order to cook our meals, it is important to know what is the needed cooking temperature. Indeed, the same tells also for traditional cooking. For example, when we want to cook with a domestic oven, we usually need temperatures that are higher than 160° - 180° C, so that our food can get that crispness which is related to the chemical reaction between carbohydrates and proteins known as Maillard reaction. This kind of reaction can also take place at temperatures which are lower than 160°C, but in that case the time of the reaction will be much higher and there will be the risk to not obtain the crispness required for our meal. As another example, if we consider pasta, we have already said that the cooking temperature should be higher than 80° C, because this is the temperature for the denaturation and coagulation of the gluten contained in it. For this reason we usually put pasta in water when it has reached the boiling temperature, considering the fact that if we add food to water its temperature will be lowered. More generally, when we add food to the pot of our solar oven, the cooking temperature is lowered. And the more food we add, the more the temperature is decreased. Righ now, as a rule of thumb, we can say that with this economic version of the Copenhagen solar cooker it is possible to cook about 300 gr of food in about 1 h – 1 h 30’, depending on the period of the year and on the hour of the day.. Indeed, the cooking time could be lower or the quantity of food could be higher during summer, when our solar oven is able to reach higher temperatures. So, as soon as we will have more precise data about the performance of our solar cooker, we will give you better information about that! Now, hereunder, we would like to explain how it is possible to estimate the maximum temperature that can be reached with our solar cooker. First of all we should know what is the maximum temperature that can be reached by our solar oven. This temperature is related to the ambient temperature and to the solar radiation, so it varies from month to month. Prior to define the equations that can help us to calculate these maximum temperatures, we might make some further considerations relating to the solar radiation. In particular, it is useful to notice that the solar radiation varies costantly during the day and also from one month to the other, as represented in the following graph. Nonetheless, we can choose to take the average value of the solar radiation during the time 10:00 – 15:00, so that we can calculate the maximum temperature that is reached by the solar cooker for each month of the year in these hours. Obviously, we might consider also an average value for the ambient temperature.
  11. 11. So, in order to calculate the maximum temperature for every month of the year, it is possible to use the following equations: (a) Q = m*cp*ΔT (b) Q = Pirr*eta*A*t from which we can calculate Tmax as (c) Tmax = Tamb + (Pirr*eta*A*t)/(m*cp) where (a) is the calorimetry equation (b) is the equation that describes the heat that is provided from the solar radiation to the oven Q is the heat that is needed in order to reach the desired temperature. Joule is its unit of measurement; m is the mass of all that is put inside our solar cooker (pot with lid, glass covering, air, food, water, oven thermometer) and its unit of measurement is kg; cp is the specific heat of the mass m and it represents the heat that must be given to the mass m in order to increase its temperature by 1° C. It’s unit of measurement is J/(kg*°C); ΔT is the difference of temperature for mass m, between the starting temperature, which tipically corresponds to the ambient temperature (Tamb) and the final temperature that we want to reach, in this case Tmax. In other words, ΔT = Tmax – Tamb. Its unit of mearurements is °C; Pirr is the intensity of solar radiation and its unit of meaurement is W/(m2) or J/(s*m2); eta is the optical efficiency of the solar oven and it is dimensionless; A is the aperture area of the solar oven and it is equal to 0,25 m2; t is the time needed in order to get the heat value Q required for our cooking. Its unit of measurement is second; Please note: the value for Pirr can be obtained from statistical data (for example, from the website pvgis http://re.jrc.ec.europa.eu/pvgis.html), or it can be measured experimentally. For example the Osservatorio Valerio of the Municipality of Pesaro (http://www.comune.pesaro.pu.it/turismo/da-vedere-in-citta/luoghi-darte-e-di-cultura/musei/musei/ osservatorio-valerio/) among other data measures everyday the solar radiation and the ambient temperature of our city. From equation a, if we know m and cp (on internet it is possible to find websites describing the specific heat of food) and if we calculate ΔT by measuring the maximum temperature that is reached by the solar oven, we can get Q. From equation b, if we know Pirr (from experimental measurements or from staistical data) and if we measure A and t, we can get the value for eta. So at this point, for each month of the year, if we know Tamb and Pirr, we can get the value for Tmax. You can try to calculate the maximum temperature for your solar oven by completing the exercise of Chapter 7.
  12. 12. 6. Simple meals cooked with the sun In this chapter, we give you some recipes of solar cooking. For more information and for more recipes of solar cooking, you can go on our website at the page http://www2.grupposelene.net/piatti-cucinati- con-il-sole/ (in Italian). If you want, you can also write us about your cooking experimentations by sending us a mail to grupposelene@gmail.com, or by writing us a message to our facebook page “Sentinelle dell'energia – Selene”, or also by posting them on the facebook page “The Solar Cookers World Network”, thanks! 6.1. Cooking rice With the more economic version of the Copenhagen solar cooker it was possible to cook about 300 gr of rice during summer in a pot containing 500 ml of water in about one hour overall. If we consider the more efficient Copenhagen made with polystyrene and mylar, we can say that it could require less time for completing the same cooking. More generally, as a rule of thumb and speaking about volumes, we can say that the minimum necessary volume of water should be about 1,5 times higher than the volume of rice. This rule should be respected also in case we decide to cook the rice inside a single glass jar covered externally with black painting, rather than using a pot. As you can understand, the quantity of water is less than the quantity that we are accustomed to use with the traditional cooking on gas stoves. This is due to the fact that with this solar cooker we cannot warm nor cook an excessive mass of water and food, because the more mass we add, the more the temperature will lessen. According to that, we might note that rice can cook also at temperatures below 100 °C, but not too low, let’s say at least 80° C (this data is to be verified). That’s because what is important is the ability to get the gelatinisation of starch during the cooking process, and this can take place also at temperatures that are below 100 °C. As per the relatively small amount of water, we can say that the rice will absorb almost all of (or a high quantity of) it at the end of the cooking process and for this reason it will also release a lower amount of starch. So in order to reduce the amount of starch in our meals, we can wash the rice with further water before putting it inside the pot with the quantity of water needed for cooking.
  13. 13. 6.2. Pasta with tomato sauce With the Copenhagen solar cooker made with polystyrene and mylar, you can also try to cook pasta with tomato sauce. On the other hand, it is not so wasy to cook it with the more economic version of the Copenhagen. By using the more efficient Copenhagen, first of all you can prepare a sofrito with shallot, garlic and extra virgin olive oil. Then you can add tomato puree with salt and then you can let it cook for about 30 – 40 minutes. After that, you can put the sauce in a closed jar (preferably not made of plastic) and you can put it within a basket that is filled with whool or any other insulant material, so that the sauce can mantain its temperature. So now we can cook pasta in water. As per the quantities of pasta and water, we can choose to have one volume of pasta for five volumes of water. For example, we can choose almost 100 g of pasta in 500 ml of water. In this case, the cooking time will be of about 1 hour. You can use the oven thermometer in order to understand when the temperature of the oven has reached 100° C. When you have reached this temperature, you can add salt and pasta, then you can mix pasta in water for just one time and let it cook. After having done this, you might wait for the cooking time of pasta (as indicated in its pack), or at most wait for 1 or 2 minutes more than the cooking time. Please note: in order to cook pasta, we suggest you to mantain a temperature above 80°C, that is necessary for the denaturation and coagulation of gluten. For more information about that, please read the following article (written in Italian): http://bressanini-lescienze.blogautore.espresso.repubblica.it/2017/02/07/la-cottura-della-pasta/. 6.3. Making boiled potatoes With this more economic version of the Copenhagen solar cooker, during summer we cooked about 300 g of potatoes in 1 hour. On the other hand, with the Copenhagen made of polystyrene and mylar we could cook higher quantities of potatoes in the same time. In a similar way, we can say that it is possible to cook other vegetables with the same quantities of potatoes. It is important to stress that the cooking time will diminuish if we cut the potatoes (and other vegetables) in small pieces, while it will be higher if we cook whole (not cut) potatoes. Moreover, the cut potatoes has also the advantage that they can be directly seasoned with extra virgin olive oil, salt and at wish also with rosemary, and this alllows us to have already a nice sauce for our meal.
  14. 14. 6.4. Vegan mousse made with dark chocolate and water The vegan mousse made with dark chocolate and water is quite simple to be prepared. In fact the ingredients are 1 bar of dark chocolate (about 80 gr) and about 100 ml of water. For dark chocolate, it is suggested to use a bar having a 70% content of cocoa and containing also soy lecithin. For water, we might notice that we should put a higher or a lower quantity of water instead of 100 ml, depending on the amount of fats that is present in our bar of chocolate. For more information, we suggest you to see the YouTube video made by Dario Bressanini, which is available at the following link https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a0hM0hVfGAg (in Italian) and also our video, availablle at the link https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1&v=utrf6GR8Pqo (in Italian).
  15. 15. 7. Exercise Now we suggest you to try this exercise, which will allow you to calculate the maximum temperature for your solar oven in the different months of the year. The maximum temperature will be calculated between 10:00 and 14:00 of a sunny day (clear sky) for each month of the year, starting by knowing the values for Tamb, m*cp, Pirr, eta and A, as better described in the following tables. Table 1. Values of Tamb (average for the hours 10:00-14:00) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec 9° C 9,5° C 12,5° C 17,5° C 21,5° C 26° C 29,8° C 29,2° C 24,1° C 18,5° C 14° C 9° C m*cp m*cp = m_glass_bowl*cp_glass_bowl + m_pot * cp_pot + m_pot_lid*cp_pot_lid + m_thermometer* cp_thermometer + m_air*cp_air = 1734,30 J/°C Table 2. Values for Pirr (average values for an “average” clear sky; W/(m2*°C)) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec 400 550 680 760 820 860 930 890 750 590 460 430 Eta = 0,98, A = 0,25 m2, t = 25 min = 1500 seconds Based on the data and the equations of chapter 5, you can try to complete the following table of maximum temperatures: Table of maximum temperatures Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec
  16. 16. 8. Considerations about the environmental and sanitary benefits of solar cooking, observations about the greenhouse gas mitigation potential On the website of the Solar Cookers International Network (http://solarcooking.wikia.com/wiki/United_Nations_Sustainable_Development_Goals), it is highlighted that the solar ovens can contribute to reach all the Sustainable Devevlopment Goals which have been subscribed by the General Assembly of the United Nations on September the 25th 2015. Relating to that, it is important to note that currently there are almot 3 billion people worldwide that cook at home with low efficent stoves, fed with wood, kerosene, carbon or dung, which have a profound impact on the health of people, considering the estimation of 7 million premature deaths each year due to air pollution. According to that, solar cooking can give an important contribution to the reduction of the sanitary problems associated with the traditional cooking. As regards cooking with wood, moreover, it is important to consider the benefit of solar cooking for the reduction of deforestation in the developing Countries. On the other hand, it is important to understand if solar ovens can contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In order to understand that, for each solar oven, we might consider its entire life cycle, calculating how much energy has been spent in order to produce its components and how much energy can we save if we cook with the sun instead of cooking in the traditional way. According to that, we do not have a proper estimate for the present model made with polystirene and mylar but considering the study reported in our article “Solar cooking and other clean cooking solutions helping to mitigate climate change”, available at https://www.grupposelene.net/solar- cooking-and-other-clean-cooking-solutions-helping-to-mitigate-climate-change/, and in particular the box “Life cycle analysis and energy payback time of solar cookers and solar ovens and how they relate to the potential reduction of the emissions of greenhouse gases”, we can say that after about one year, our solar oven will have recovered the energy that have been spent for its construction, so from that moment we will save energy thanks to it!
  17. 17. YOU CAN FOLLOW OUR ACTIVITIES OF SOLAR COOKING STARTING FROM HERE: 1. http://www2.grupposelene.net/cucina-solare/; 2. http://solarcooking.wikia.com/wiki/Sentinelle_dell'Energia; 3. Facebook page Sentinelle dell'energia – Selene On our website, you can find all the information about our activities and on the economic contributions on which they are based http://www.grupposelene.net/trasparenza-associazione/. Moreover, you can support us with a donation going to the home page of our website and pushing the button “Donazione” at the bottom of the page. Thanks!