Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oil
and aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents
used to give the human body, objects, and
l i v i n g s p a c e s a p l e a s a n t s m e l l .
Perfume is associated in many cultures with
the sensual and romantic side of life.
Since the beginning of recorded history, humans have attempted to mask or
enhance their own body odour by using perfume, which emulates nature's
pleasant smells. Many natural and man-made materials have been used to
make perfume to apply to the skin and clothing, to put in cleaners and
cosmetics, or to scent the air. Because of differences in body chemistry,
temperature, and body odors, no perfume will smell exactly the same on
a n y t w o p e o p l e .
Perfume comes from the Latin "per" meaning "through" and "fumum," or
"smoke." Many ancient perfumes were made by extracting natural oils from
plants through pressing and steaming. The oil was then burned to scent the
air. Today, most perfume is used to scent bar soaps. Some products are
even perfumed with industrial odorants to mask unpleasant smells or to
a p p e a r " u n s c e n t e d . "
While fragrant liquids used for the body are often considered perfume, true
perfumes are defined as extracts or essences and contain a percentage of
oil distilled in alcohol. Water is also used. The United States is the world's
largest perfume market with annual sales totaling several billions of
d o l l a r s .
4. CLASSIFICATION OF PERFUMES
• Perfumes are classified into five major groups on the
basis of concentration of fragrance and duration of
class % of aromatic
Eau de parfume 15-20 4-5
Eau de toilette 5-15 2-3
Eau de cologne 2-4 2
Eau fraiche 1-3 2
5. AROMATIC SOURCES
Fragrances used in perfume can be found from
a) Plant Source:
Barks, flowers, blossoms, fruits, resin, roots,
seeds, woods etc.
b) Animal Source:
Musk, civet, honeycomb etc.
c) Synthetic Source:
Calone, synthetic terpenes etc.
6. COMPOSITION OF PERFUME
Perfumes are mainly composed of –
Derived from natural aromatic plant extracts and/or synthetic
aromatic chemicals. E.g. limonene, linalool, geraniol, citral etc.
Natural or synthetic substances used to reduce the
evaporation rate. E.g. benzyl benzoate, benzyl alcohol etc.
The liquid in which the perfume oil is dissolved in is
usually 98% ethanol and 2% water.
Alcohol allows fragrance to spread along with it and does not
permit microbial growth in the perfume.
7. INGREDIENTS CAUSING ALLERGIC
Ingredients Use Side effects
Sandalwood Fragrance Hypersensitivity
limonene Slightly astringent
Irritates the skin
Benzyl alcohol Fixative Skin irritant causing
redness and pain
Benzyl benzoate Fixative; sweet
Skin irritation like
acetone Solvent Inhalation cause
of mouth & throat
Ethyl acetate solvent Defatting effect on
& may cause drying &
8. The Manufacturing Process
1 Before the manufacturing process begins, the initial ingredients must be
brought to the manufacturing center. Plant substances are harvested from
around the world, often hand-picked for their fragrance. Animal products are
obtained by extracting the fatty substances directly from the animal.
Aromatic chemicals used in synthetic perfumes are created in the laboratory
b y p e r f u m e c h e m i s t s .
Oils are extracted from plant substances by several methods: steam
distillation, solvent extraction, enfleurage, maceration, and expression.
2 In steam distillation, steam is passed through plant material held in a still,
whereby the essential oil turns to gas. This gas is then passed through tubes,
cooled, and liquefied. Oils can also be extracted by boiling plant substances
l i k e f l o w e r p e t a l s i n w a t e r i n s t e a d o f s t e a m i n g t h e m .
9. The Manufacturing Process
3. Under solvent extraction, flowers are put into large rotating tanks or
drums and benzene or a petroleum ether is poured over the flowers,
extracting the essential oils. The flower parts dissolve in the solvents
and leave a waxy material that contains the oil, which is then placed in
ethyl alcohol. The oil dissolves in the alcohol and rises. Heat is used to
evaporate the alcohol, which once fully burned off, leaves a higher
concentration of the perfume oil on the bottom.
10. The Manufacturing Process
4 During Enfleurage, flowers are spread on glass sheets coated with
grease. The glass sheets are placed between wooden frames in tiers.
Then the flowers are removed by hand and changed until the grease has
a b s o r b e d t h e i r f r a g r a n c e .
5 Maceration is similar to enfleurage except that warmed fats are used
to soak up the flower smell. As in solvent extraction, the grease and fats
a r e d i s s o l v e d i n a l c o h o l t o o b t a i n t h e e s s e n t i a l o i l s
11. 6. Expression is the oldest and least complex method of
extraction. By this process, now used in obtaining citrus oils from
the rind, the fruit or plant is manually or mechanically pressed
until all the oil is squeezed out.
Attar is a perfume or essential oil obtained from flowers or
petals (often from bark or leaves). It is mainly used in religious
The word "attar" comes from the word `atir, which in the
Persian language means "sweet or fragrant.“
Attars are alcohol-free and are used by many Muslim men and
Attars are also used among Hindu, Buddhist meditation
13. PSYCHOLOGY OF USING PERFUME
When we inhale the odorant molecules of a perfume, it not
only creates the sensation of odour but also creates emotions
and experiences associated with it. For instance, we focus
on the pleasant childhood memories associated with the
smell of vanilla.
Stimulation of hippocampus causes secretion of growth
hormone, sex hormone and neurotransmitters.
Another reason behind perfume use is to increase ones
attractiveness in the eyes of other people.
We wear a perfume which best expresses our individuality,
our tastes and our character.
Perfume using may become a habit and without it a person
may feel incomplete.
14. OTHER REASONS OF USING PERFUME
To mask body odour
To complement one’s mood and please one’s senses
Helps to get rid of anxiety and depression
To deepen spirituality
To soothe someone
For religious purpose
To be fresh and chilled all day long
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b. Made to
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Paris Hilton a. Heiress
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16. The Future
Perfumes today are being made and used in different ways than in previous
centuries. Perfumes are being manufactured more and more frequently with
synthetic chemicals rather than natural oils. Less concentrated forms of perfume
are also becoming increasingly popular. Combined, these factors decrease the
cost of the scents, encouraging more widespread and frequent, often daily, use.
Using perfume to heal, make people feel good, and improve relationships
between the sexes are the new frontiers being explored by the industry. The
sense of smell is considered a right brain activity, which rules emotions,
memory, and creativity. Aromatherapy—smelling oils and fragrances to cure
physical and emotional problems—is being revived to help balance hormonal and
body energy. The theory behind aromatherapy states that using essential oils
helps bolster the immune system when inhaled or applied topically. Smelling
sweet smells also affects one's mood and can be used as a form of
p s y c h o t h e r a p y .