• 1. A relationship between the lyrics and the visuals, which illustrate,
amplify or contradict the lyrics.
2. Goodwin looked at a relationship between the sounds and the
music video visuals.
3. Genre related style and iconography present.
4. Multiple close-ups of the main artist or vocalist: the creation of a
star image to promote a recognizable brand image.
5. Voyeurism or ‘looking’ – particularly at the female body.
6. Intertextual references to other media texts
3. 1. A relationship between
the lyrics and the visuals,
which illustrate, amplify
or contradict the lyrics.
Themes, mise-en-scene and events
of the video match with lyrics of the
song, to help to portray the
message of the song.
The song could be used to portray a
certain positive or negative image.
For Example, Chief Keef’s “Love
Sosa” glorified violence against
police and glorified the gang life.
4. 2. Goodwin looked at a
relationship between the
sounds and the music
The cuts and edits of the video are
in sync with the rhythm and beat of
the song matching cuts or effects to
specific drum beats or notes.
For example in 410’s (BT, Tiny Syikes
& Rendo) music video
“4doorComing” there were many
different cuts according to the beats
of the beat which in fact went well
with the video as it has over 600k
views on YouTube.
5. 3. Genre related style
Certain features are expected out of
a video depending on the genre of
the music, for example a trap artists
are expected to have back up hype
men with different camera shakes
and rows of intimidating young,
For example , In 67(R6 x ST) &
Harlem (Bis x MizzorMac) “Splash &
Cash” which has notched nearly 2
million views have used these
camera shakes and rows of black
men efficiently in their video.
6. 4. Multiple close-ups of the
main artist or vocalist: the
creation of a star image to
promote a recognizable brand
This allows the record label to
promote a set image for the band,
which will help target audiences
empathies with the band.
For example in Miley Cyrus’s video
“Wrecking Ball” there are many
close ups which highlight her talent
and what she was trying to portray
in the music videos.
7. 5. Voyeurism or
‘looking’ – particularly
at the female body.
The idea of putting women or men
at a seductive place in front of the
camera. It could also be helped with
props and it doesn’t always have to
obviously put out there and could
be put in the subliminal.
For Example in Nicki Minaj’s video
“Anaconda” was very famous for
the oversexualised subliminal lyrics
and out there sexual gyrates.
8. 6. Intertextual
references to other
Music videos reference other forms
of media, most commonly film, but
can also be television, music videos.
For example, In Blanco “Jason
Bourne” he connected his song to
famous American actor to Jason
Bourne while rapping with his
normal trap lyrics and stereotypical