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report of gis based flood risk assessment exercise in
phalombe and zomba districts:
19th
– 25th
january, 2015
This report ...
a. Over view of Phalombe district
Phalombe district received continuous stormy rains from 8th
to 13th
January,
2015 causin...
Figure 2: Misewu folo to Phalombe road
Figure below is the Mpasa bridge which has been washed away. This is 15
kilometers ...
Figure 3 and 4: Bridge that connect to Chanasa Village
Figures below shows a cut off bridge that connects Chanasa village ...
Fig. 3 Washed away bridge at Chanasa village fig 4. Alternative route to cross the
road
In summary, some of the roads that...
2.0. Agricultural sectors
The floods that occurred in the district have seriously affected the
agricultural sector. A tota...
4.0 Water and sanitation sector
The floods that occurred in the district has affected access to safe drinking-
water and b...
Sanitation in schools that have been used as camps are little to be desired
since pupils are sharing toilets with the disp...
Some of the affected houses that were built close to Thuchila river
II. Wash away of a dyke
The dyke that was constructed ...
ii. Unsustainable land use management
The team also observed that people in Phalombe district are cultivating
along the ri...
b. Over view of Zomba district
Zomba district received continuous rains from 9th
to 17th
January, 2015
causing flush flood...
to connect through villages of Didimu, Gibson, Chilunga, Mpyupu and
Chamba.
Likangala bridge Didimu bridge
Some of the roa...
13
Mpyupyu bridges
2.0. Buildings
Most of the houses that were affected by the rains and the floods in the
villages around Li...
One of the damaged houses in Zomba
iii.1. Agriculture Sector in Zomba
Unlike Phalombe district, the floods that occurred i...
Total 28,173 10,662.9
Source: District Agricultural Office, Zomba: 23rd
January, 2015
Some of the washed away crop fields ...
 There is need to intensify sanitation programmes targeting people in
camps in the two district;
 There is need for the ...
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GIS based flood risk assessment exercise in Phalombe and Zomba districts: 19th – 25 January, 2015

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This document is a report related to a field visit and data collection made by the Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team Interns in Malawi in areas hit by floods in January 2015, with the support of the national Department of Disaster Management Affairs.

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GIS based flood risk assessment exercise in Phalombe and Zomba districts: 19th – 25 January, 2015

  1. 1. report of gis based flood risk assessment exercise in phalombe and zomba districts: 19th – 25th january, 2015 This report and the field work have been by the HOT Interns in Malawi:  Justin Temwani Ng'ambi  Triphonia Nzeru  Ben Mlasaanthu  Tiyanjane Khomba  Silence Chirwa  Samson Chanika i. Introduction The Department of Disaster Management Affairs (DoDMA) and Open Street Mapping (OSM) team, with support from the World Bank, under the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR), undertook flood risk assessment exercise in response to flooding that Phalombe and Zomba districts have been experiencing since the onset of the 2014/ 2015 rain season. The aim of the exercise was for the team to work in collaboration with the districts council assessment teams, to determine the major sources of flooding, causes of the flooding, extent of the flooding and sectors that have been affected. The exercise was undertaken by Mrs. Mazonda from Surveys Department, Samuel Gama from the Department of Disaster Management Affairs and Triphonia Nzeru, Tiyanjane Khomba, Ben Mlasaathu Silence Chirwa, Samson Chanika andJustin Ng’ambi from OSM team ii. Methodology The team mapped out all the sectors that got affected by flood and stormy rains in traditional authorities of the 2 districts. The team also carried out case studies of the affected communities in order to apprehend the trends of disasters from the past and the present situations. iii. Proceedings This report is, therefore, presenting how key sectors per district have been affected, number of people affected, geographical information systems of the infrastructures affected as at 25th January, 2015 and recommendations: 1
  2. 2. a. Over view of Phalombe district Phalombe district received continuous stormy rains from 8th to 13th January, 2015 causing flush floods which affected a number of areas. The floods affected Traditional Authorities of Chiwalo, Kaduya, Jenala, Nazombe, Nkhulambe and Nkhumba. The floods have caused damage to people’s houses, washed away crops and damaged infrastructures such as roads, bridges, schools and water points. As at 21st January, 2015, the district recorded 34,589 households as displaced and seeking shelter in primary schools in various locations Summary of extent of damage: i. Infrastructure: Roads and bridges Figure 1: Zomba- Phalombe via Jali road The figure below is the road from Zomba to Phalombe via Jali. The bridge has been washed away making the road inaccessible. The flooding that washed away the bridge also damaged houses in the villages of Mpisa and Mariko of Traditional Authority Mwambo. The alternative route to get to Phalombe is through Chiradzulu or Thyolo districts. 2
  3. 3. Figure 2: Misewu folo to Phalombe road Figure below is the Mpasa bridge which has been washed away. This is 15 kilometers before Phalombe boma from Misewu Folo. 3
  4. 4. Figure 3 and 4: Bridge that connect to Chanasa Village Figures below shows a cut off bridge that connects Chanasa village of T/A Nkhumba from the main road. This was due to diverted water from Thuchira River into the village due to breakage of the dyke that was constructed along the river. 4
  5. 5. Fig. 3 Washed away bridge at Chanasa village fig 4. Alternative route to cross the road In summary, some of the roads that have been completely cut off and bridges that have been washed away are as follows: Route Remarks Migowi- Nambazo road via Matawa the road has been cut off; Matawa via Lihaka road at Phaloni a stretch of 500 meters has been washed away Phaloni via Nthambula road has been washed away Migowi via kwa a Joni road, Namichimba bridge has been washed away Nkhulambe via Mpata road there are several cuts such that a 3 tones truck cannot pass through 5
  6. 6. 2.0. Agricultural sectors The floods that occurred in the district have seriously affected the agricultural sector. A total of 7,705 hectares of 17,040 farming families have been completely washed away. The table below show the extension planning areas (EPA)that have been affected: EPA NUMBER OF H/H AFFECTED TOTAL HECTARAGE Tamani 6713 4500 Walumpinda 1538 400 Naminjiwa 1741 870 Waluma 1812 544 Kasongo 1573 850 Nkhulambe 3663 1391 Total 17,040 7,705 Source: Phalombe District Agricultural Office as at 24th January, 2015 Destroyed maize field in Kuchombe village, T/A Jenala, Phalombe 6
  7. 7. 4.0 Water and sanitation sector The floods that occurred in the district has affected access to safe drinking- water and basic sanitation is being compromised. People are drawing drinking water from unprotected and contaminated water sources, making them susceptible to water borne diseases such as cholera. The figure below shows some of the community water points that have been affected. One of the affected water point in Kuchombe village 5.0. Education sector The flooding in Phalombe has heavily affected the education sector in the district, since many houses have been destroyed and others heavily damaged, the displaced persons are seeking refuge particularly in primary schools in the district. Some of the school blocks have their roofs blown off, thereby affecting lessons. So far, over 37 camps have been established out of which 19 are primary schools, making pupils unable to attend classes. 7
  8. 8. Sanitation in schools that have been used as camps are little to be desired since pupils are sharing toilets with the displaced people. The figure below is showing situations in schools that have been used as camps: One of the schools that is being used as a camp Mpasa primary school whose roof has been blown off in Phalombe 6.0. Major sources of flooding in Phalombe district The team learnt that Thuchila and Phalombe rivers are the major sources of flooding in Phalombe district. Almost 80% of the reported flooding cases were as a result of the over flow of the 2 rivers, lack of proper housing construction, construction of weak dykes and unsustainable land use management and deforestation were among others. The team also carried out case studies of the affected communities in order to apprehend the trends of disasters from the past and the present situations in the district. The following was what the team gathered from random interviews with the group village head men in the affected areas: i. Lack of proper housing construction guidelines It was noted that people are constructing houses with lower foundations, low quality materials that cannot withstand stormy rains. Besides, some houses that were destroyed by floods are built few meters away from the rivers. The figure below is the house that was built close to Thuchila river in Phalombe district. 8
  9. 9. Some of the affected houses that were built close to Thuchila river II. Wash away of a dyke The dyke that was constructed along Thuchira river was washed away, making the water of the river to divert from its main course. The villages that got affected by the diverted waters are Katuma, Sadibwa, Mangoza , Chanasa, Kuchombe, Pathewe, Kazombo and Pambachulu. The figures below show the dyke that has been washed away and some households that have been demolished by water. 9
  10. 10. ii. Unsustainable land use management The team also observed that people in Phalombe district are cultivating along the river banks and cutting down trees for firewood. The southern part of the district is mountainous, making the surrounding villages susceptible to the impacts of strong winds. Due to the high rate of deforestation, stormy rains that were experienced in the district destructed a lot of houses. This was mainly experienced in traditional authority Chiwalo, affecting group villages of Mlambe, Mtemanyama, Nthambula, Chimbalanya, Nambala and Chiwalo affecting 2,343 households. The figures below show the houses that got affected by stormy rains and also poor farming practices that contributed to the wash away of crops: 10
  11. 11. b. Over view of Zomba district Zomba district received continuous rains from 9th to 17th January, 2015 causing flush floods which affected a number of areas. The floods affected Traditional Authorities (T/As) of Mwambo, Kuntumanji, Ntholowa, Mbiza, Nkapita, Nkagula, Ngwerero, Chikowi and Mlumbe. The floods affected 24,103 households and washed away 5,565.2 hectares of 19,309 farming households. A total of 36 camps have been established in primary schools and churches with 2073 people (974 male, 1099 female) displaced. A number of sectors including Water, Health, Agriculture, Education and others have been seriously affected. Out of these, the highly affected infrastructures in the district, unlike Phalombe, include roads and bridges. Education sector has alsobeen affected as most of the primary schools are being occupied by displaced people. Summary of extent of damage in Zomba district 1. Infrastructure: Roads and Bridges Fig : Likangala and Didimu bridges: The figure below is the Zomba- Jali road. As a result of heavy rains that resulted in the flooding of the Likangala river, two bridges on the same route have been cut off making it impossible 11
  12. 12. to connect through villages of Didimu, Gibson, Chilunga, Mpyupu and Chamba. Likangala bridge Didimu bridge Some of the roads connecting the villages around Likangala River were severely damaged by the rains and floods as such they were not accessible. However, the team did not make it to other areas due to impassable roads. 12
  13. 13. 13
  14. 14. Mpyupyu bridges 2.0. Buildings Most of the houses that were affected by the rains and the floods in the villages around Likangala in Zomba were in the villages that were not accessed by the field team due to bad road conditions. However, only a few damaged houses were visible in the villages that were accessed by the team. It should be noted though that most of the houses in the areas that were not accessed were heavily damaged by the rains and the floods. These areas include Pirimiti, Chilunga, St. Pauls, Namatamba, Sekwere, Matando, Ntonda, Namiwawa, Maula, Mitole, Chiphola, Muhasuwa and Chikhwangwa. The figure below shows one of the damaged houses around the villages in Zomba. 14
  15. 15. One of the damaged houses in Zomba iii.1. Agriculture Sector in Zomba Unlike Phalombe district, the floods that occurred in Zomba district have seriously affected the agricultural sector. A total of 28,173 hectares of 10,662.9 farming families have been completely washed away. The table below show the extension planning areas (EPA) that have been affected: EPA NUMBER OF H/H AFFECTED TOTAL HECTARAGE Chingale 747 145.2 Masaula 2281 699 Likangala 3230 3894 Nsondole 744 27 Ngwerero 871 331 Malosa 991 1.5 Dzaone 19,309 5565.2 15
  16. 16. Total 28,173 10,662.9 Source: District Agricultural Office, Zomba: 23rd January, 2015 Some of the washed away crop fields in Zomba district Recommendations From the flood extent exercise that was conducted in the two districts, the tea is recommending the following:  There is need to conduct a thorough analysis and develop planning framework for Thuchila and Phalombe rivers in Phalombe, and for Likangala river in Zomba district, to improve land and water management for ecosystem and livelihood benefits in target areas;  There is need to intensify safer housing construction with key messages on building houses with raised foundations and with durable materials and building houses atleast 30 meters away from the river base;  There is need for introduction of afforestation programmes in the two districts;  There is need for quick repairing and construction of bridges for easy access to the affected areas; 16
  17. 17.  There is need to intensify sanitation programmes targeting people in camps in the two district;  There is need for the provision of early maturing crops to the people whose crops have been washed away;  There is need to intensify prevention and control of disease outbreaks such as cholera, dysentery and malaria;  Mobilize and operate plants (mobile water treatment plant and water tank truck) to affected areas;  There is need for quick construction of temporary latrines (one latrine for every 20 persons) and hand washing facilities to provide adequate sanitation for displaced people;  There is need to undertake sanitary surveys of contaminated drinking water sources; and  There is need for distribution of supplies and commodities such as insecticide treated nets (ITNs), chlorine-based products for water treatment, emergency contraceptives, condoms, and nutrition and therapeutic supplements. Way forward  The OSM team to upload all the way points collected on Open Street Map. 17

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