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AUFBAU PRINCIPLE AND
ITS DEVIATIONS
WHAT IS AUFBAU PRINCIPLE?
Aufbau is a German word that means
“Building Up.”
Aufbau Principle states that when electrons
...
SEQUENCE OF ENERGY SHELLS
GRADUALLY OCCUPIED BY ELECTRONS
FOLLOWING AUFBAU PRINCIPLE
1s
2s 2p
3s 3p 3d
4s 4p 4d 4f
5s 5p 5...
1s
2s
2p 3s
3p
4s 3d
4p
5s 4d
5p
6s 4f
5d
6p 7s
SOME EXAMPLES
• H(1)=1s1
• He(2)=1s2
• Li(3)=1s22s1
• Na(11)=1s22s22p63s1
• Ar(18)=1s22s22p63s23p6
DEVIATIONS OF AUFBAU PRINCIPLE
Some elements do not follow the general rule of
Aufbau Principle because for such elements
...
ELEMENTS THAT DEVIATE FROM
AUFBAU PRINCIPLE
Cr(24)=1s22s22p63s23p64s23d4 (WRONG)
=1s22s22p63s23p64s13d5 (CORRECT)
Cu(29)=1...
IMPORTANT THINGS TO REMEMBER
WHILE WRITING AUFBAU PRINCIPLE
• 1.NEVER PUT SPACES BETWEEN THE DENOTIONS
OF THE ORBITS AND O...
Aufbau principle and its deviations
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Aufbau principle and its deviations

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An easy guide to one of the most important principles taught in secondary chemistry, The Aufbau Principle. Helpful for students who consider such an amazing topic to be a nightmare. Happy Chemistry!

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Aufbau principle and its deviations

  1. 1. AUFBAU PRINCIPLE AND ITS DEVIATIONS
  2. 2. WHAT IS AUFBAU PRINCIPLE? Aufbau is a German word that means “Building Up.” Aufbau Principle states that when electrons organize themselves in different energy shells or orbits, they occupy the lower energy shells at first and gradually make their way to the higher energy levels.
  3. 3. SEQUENCE OF ENERGY SHELLS GRADUALLY OCCUPIED BY ELECTRONS FOLLOWING AUFBAU PRINCIPLE 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p 5d 6s 6p 7s
  4. 4. 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d 6p 7s
  5. 5. SOME EXAMPLES • H(1)=1s1 • He(2)=1s2 • Li(3)=1s22s1 • Na(11)=1s22s22p63s1 • Ar(18)=1s22s22p63s23p6
  6. 6. DEVIATIONS OF AUFBAU PRINCIPLE Some elements do not follow the general rule of Aufbau Principle because for such elements the stability is determined by the presence of either a half filled or a fully filled orbital. Hence such elements gain more stability in the presence of np3 ,np6,(n-1)d5,(n-1)d10,(n-1)f7,(n- 1)f14 in their electronic configuration.
  7. 7. ELEMENTS THAT DEVIATE FROM AUFBAU PRINCIPLE Cr(24)=1s22s22p63s23p64s23d4 (WRONG) =1s22s22p63s23p64s13d5 (CORRECT) Cu(29)=1s22s22p63s23p64s23d9 (WRONG) =1s22s22p63s23p64s13d10 (CORRECT) Mo(42)=1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d4 (WRONG) =1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s14d5 (CORRECT) Ag(47)=1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d9 (WRONG) =1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s14d10 (CORRECT) Au(79)= 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s24f145d9 (WRONG) =1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s14f145d10 (CORRECT)
  8. 8. IMPORTANT THINGS TO REMEMBER WHILE WRITING AUFBAU PRINCIPLE • 1.NEVER PUT SPACES BETWEEN THE DENOTIONS OF THE ORBITS AND ORBITALS. IT SHOULD NEVER BE WRITTEN LIKE 1s 2s 2p or 1s,2s,2p. IT SHOULD ALWAYS BE WRITTEN LIKE 1s2s2p. • 2.AFTER WRITING THE SEQUENCE OF ENERGY LEVELS ACCORDING TO AUFBAU PRINCIPLE, ONE HAS TO ARRANGE THE ENERGY LEVELS AGAIN ACCORDING TO THE ASCENDING ORDER OF SHELLS IRRESPECTIVE OF THE ENERGY. EXAMPLE: Va(23)=1s22s22p63s23p64s23d3 =1s22s22p63s23p63d34s2

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