• The practice of reheating cooking oil or using the same cooking oil for frying is
common. Cooking oil is often repeatedly used by topping it up with fresh oil. But
sometimes it finds way to small food vendors at cheap prices. At household level
or by road-side vendors
• FSSAI has notified Food Safety and Standards ,First Amendment Regulation,
2017 on October 24, 2017 which prescribes the limit for TPCs to be maximum
25% beyond which the vegetable oil is not suitable for use.
• From 30 march 2019 (FSSAI) has directed Food Safety Commissioners to ensure
that Food Business Operators (FBOs), whose consumption of edible oils for
frying is more than 50 litres per day, stop reusing the oil more than three times.
3. • Frying is one of the most common methods used for the preparation of food such
as French fries, chips, samosas, patties, pakodas and various other products.
• Frying temperatures can range from 170-190°C. Fried Foods are good in texture,
flavor, aroma and taste. Soft foods become crispy when fried and so are liked by
• Cooking oils with more saturated fatty acids such as palm oil are usually more
stable than the oils with more unsaturated fatty acids such as soybean oil which
decomposes easily at high frying temperature, leading to the formation of Polar
Compounds. So oils with more saturated fatty acids can be used for frying,
provided it is occasional. On the other hand, oils with higher levels of unsaturated
fatty acids are far healthier, provided they are used only once for frying.
• Need for regulation:
Dirty UCO can be removed from the food chain.
Inappropriate UCO disposal.
Potential feedstock for biodiesel
Harmful effects of reUCO( High temperature and moisture, Total Polar Compound,
becomes acidic and darkens in colour, Bacterial contamination,Rancid)
4. • These changes include development of dark color, increase in viscosity and free
fatty acid content, decrease in iodine value and surface tension, changes in
refractive index and an increased tendency to foam. The flavor and stability of
compounds present in the oil are also changed.
• Numerous by-products that are volatile and non-volatile in nature such as free
fatty acids, alcohols, cyclic compounds, dimers and polymers are produced during
frying. The majority of the non-volatile by-products are generally categorized as
the Total Polar Compounds (TPC). The TPC constituents include dimeric fatty acids,
triglyceride monohydroperoxides, polymerized triglycerides (PTG), cyclic fatty acid
monomers and aldehydic triglycerides.
Changes after frying:
5. • The toxicity of these compounds is due to their high reactivity with proteins,
nucleic acids, DNA and RNA and reports have related them to the cause of several
diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and liver
• A probable human carcinogen, acrylamide is produced when the food containing
starch such as potato chips are heated above 120°C, due to a reaction between
amino acids (e.g., asparagines) and reducing sugars (glucose and fructose).
Dispose of Used Cooking Oil and Key issues:
• Out of 69, 00,000 units of oil used by processing industry nearly one third of the oil
i.e. 20,70,000.00 units is discarded as a used cooked oil. The used oil is usually
• By throwing off
• Giving away selling to waste collector/aggregator / waste management firm.
• Giving away / selling to used cooked oil processors/user
6. Environmental effects:
• Disposing of Fat, oil and grease cause major problems to drains and sewers
leading to blockages and polluting streams and rivers. Fat, oil and grease in liquid
form may not appear to be harmful, but as it cools it congeals and hardens. It
sticks to the inner lining of drainage pipes and restricts the wastewater flow
causing the pipes to block. Clearing these blockages may costs lakhs of rupees in a
year to businesses and the government.
7. • Guidelines in Food Safety and Standards (Licensing and Registration of Food
Businesses) Regulations, 2011:
At present, following provisions in Schedule 4 Part V-Specific Hygienic and
Sanitary Practices are to be followed by Food Business Operators engaged in
catering/food service establishments:
9. BIOFUEL any fuel that is derived from biomass-that is, plant or algae material or
animal waste. Since such feedstock material can be replenished readily, biofuel is
considered to be a source of renewable energy, unlike fossil fuels such as
petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
BIODIESEL is a green fuel that can be used in diesel engines. A methyl or ethyl
ester of fatty acids produced from non-edible vegetable oils, acid oil, used cooking
oil or animal fat and bio-oil.
• Improve health, economic, social, ethical and environmental impact.
• Significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions
• Non-sulfur emissions
• Non-particulate matter pollutants,Low toxicity,
• Excellent lubricity
• Does not enter the food chain again.
• As India is the second most populated country in the world. Energy and food safety
is a critical input for socio-economic development. The energy strategy of a
country aims at efficiency and security and to provide access which being
environment friendly and achievement of an optimum mix of primary resources
for energy generation.
• RUCO is one of the initiative taken under the theme of National biofuel policy
which associate to satisfy the needs of India's food safety and energy security in
terms of conversion from used cooking oil to biofuel.