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Contents Introduction Working of WIMAX IEEE 802.16 standard 802.16 Architecture IEEE 802.16 Specifications Features of WIMAX Advantages of WIMAX over WIFI WIMAX vs. 3G ISSUES in WIMAX vs. 3G FUTURE OF WIMAX
What is WIMAX? WIMAX stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access WiMAX refers to broadband wireless networks that are based on the IEEE 802.16 standard, which ensures compatibility and interoperability between broadband wireless access equipment WiMAX, which will have a range of up to 31 miles, is primarily aimed at making broadband network access widely available without the expense of stringing wires (as in cable- access broadband) or the distance limitations of Digital Subscriber Line.
THINK OF INTERNET There are three possible ways to access internet. • Broadband access Uses DSL or cable modem at home and T1 or T3 line at office • WIFI Uses WIFI routers at home and hotspots on the road • Dial Up Connection
NEW TECHNOLOGY Broadband access is too expensive and WiFi coverage is very sparse. The new technology promises • High speed of broadband service • Wireless rather than wired access • Broad Coverage
Fundamental WiMAX Concepts Base Station (BS) The BS is the node that logically connects wireless subscriber devices to operator networks. The BS maintains communications with subscriber devices and governs access to the operator networks. Subscriber Station (SS). The SS is a stationary WiMAX- capable radio system that communicates with a base station, although it may also connect to a relay station in multi-hop relay network operations.
Fundamental WiMAX Concepts Mobile Station (MS). An MS is an SS that is intended to be used while in motion at up to vehicular speeds. Compared with fixed (stationary) SSs, MSs typically are battery operated and therefore employ enhanced power management.
Fundamental WiMAX Concepts Relay Station (RS). RSs are SS configured to forward traffic to other RSs or SSs in a multi-hop Security Zone The RS may be in a fixed location (e.g., attached to a building) or mobile (e.g., placed in an automobile). The air interface between an RS and an SS is identical to the air interface between a BS and an SS.
Fundamental WiMAX Concepts Operator Network – The operator network encompasses infrastructure network functions that provide radio access and IP connectivity services to WiMAX subscribers. These functions are defined in WiMAX Forum technical specifications as the access service network (radio access) and the connectivity service network (IP connectivity). WiMAX devices communicate using two wireless message types: management messages and data messages. Data messages transport data across the WiMAX network. Management messages are used to maintain communications between an SS/MS and BS, e.g., establishing communication parameters, exchanging security settings, and performing system registration events (initial network entry, handoffs, etc.)
A WIMAX system consists of A WiMAX tower, similar in concept to a cell-phone tower - A single WiMAX tower can provide coverage to a very large area as big as 3,000 square miles (~8,000 square km). A WiMAX receiver - The receiver and antenna could be a small box or Personal Computer Memory card, or they could be built into a laptop the way WiFi access is today
WIMAX Scenario Consider a scenario where a WiMax-enabled computer is 10 miles away from the WiMax base station. A special encryption code is given to computer to gain access to base station The base station would beam data from the Internet required for computer (at speeds potentially higher than todays cable modems)
WIMAX Scenario The user would pay the provider monthly fee for using the service. The cost for this service could be much lower than current high-speed Internet-subscription fees because the provider never had to run cables The WiMAX protocol is designed to accommodate several different methods of data transmission, one of which is Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP) If WiMAX-compatible computers become very common, the use of VoIP could increase dramatically. Almost anyone with a laptop could make VoIP calls
WIMAX CHIPSWiMAX Mini-PCI Reference Design Intel’s first WIMAX chip
FEATURES OF WIMAX Scalability Quality of Service Range Coverage
RANGE Optimized for up to 50 Km Designed to handle many users spread out over kilometres Designed to tolerate greater multi-path delay spread (signal reflections) up to 10.0μ seconds PHY and MAC designed with multi-mile range in mind
BENEFITS OF WIMAX Speed • Faster than broadband service Wireless • Not having to lay cables reduces cost • Easier to extend to suburban and rural areas Broad Coverage • Much wider coverage than WiFi hotspots
Benefits to Customers Range of technology and service level choices from both fixed and wireless broadband operators DSL-like services at DSL prices but with portability Rapidly declining fixed broadband prices No more DSL “installation” fees from incumbent
Advantages of WiMax over 3G Using an assortment of proprietary and standards-based technologies, such as OFDM and W-CDMA ,WiMax has a clear advantage over 3G The advantages include • Higher Throughput • Low Cost • Lower Latency
Advantages of WiMax over 3G WiMax spectrum is more economical than 3G. • The price paid per Hz is as much as 1000 times lower than for 3G spectrum • The low cost is a clear driver for service providers to enter the field of wireless services with WiMax
Advantages of WiMax over 3G WiMAX is important for mobile broadband wireless, as it completes 3G by providing higher performance for data with more than 1 Mbps downstream to allow connection of laptops and PDAs WiMAX technology is the solution for many types of high-bandwidth applications at the same time across long distances and will enable service carriers to converge the all-IP- based network for triple-play services data, voice, and video
Advantages of WiMax over 3G WiMAX interoperable solutions enable economies of scale through integration of standard chipsets, making WiMAX Forum Certified products cost-effective at delivering high-capacity broadband services at large coverage distances in Line Of Sight and Non Line Of Sight conditions
FUTURE WiMax will be deployed in three stages • In the first phase WiMaX technology (based on IEEE 802.16-2004) provides fixed wireless connections • In the second phase WiMaX will be available as a cheap and self-installing Subscriber Terminal (ST), linked to PC and to antenna • The third phase enables portability, thus WiMAX (based on IEEE 802.16e) will be integrated into commercial laptops
ISSUES in 3G vs. WIMAX Deployment of the network • WIMAX deployment is in the planning stages and it might take 3-5 years in providing reasonable coverage in well populated areas • WiMax may initially be relegated to college campuses and larger corporate campuses where people are less mobile and costs containment is important
ISSUES in 3G vs. WIMAX Cost Issue • The main reason to opt for WIMAX is its low cost. • The price paid per Hz for WIMAX spectrum is as much as 1000 times lower than for 3G spectrum • The low cost of WIMAX spectrum compared to 3G is a clear driver for service providers to enter the field of wireless services with WIMAX
Conclusion (The Final Issue) Will WIMAX replace 3G? • Along with the forthcoming standardization, WiMAX has the potential to substitute 3G and become a promising 4G • WiMAX has its distinct identity as either a stand-alone solution for incumbent and competitive fixed network operators or as complementary radio access solution for established 2G and 3G cellular network operators • Fixed-line operators, on the one hand, may consider WiMAX as a viable alternative to add mobility to the service portfolio, leveraging their huge subscriber base, in particular in countries where 3G licensing is delayed or not affordable