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Malaysia Airlines Strategic Management (Case Study)

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Malaysia Airlines Strategic Management - case study now MAB analyses the beginning of the airline, its history (golden days) and how economic crisis affected the company. The pack also uncovers macro and micro environment of airline industry. The pack also identifies MAS (now MAB), Porter's framework, SWOT analysis for the company and the new beginning of the MAB. The pack detailed out the strategic management for the company and their moving forward plan.

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Malaysia Airlines Strategic Management (Case Study)

  1. 1. THE  MALAYSIA  AIRLINES  STORY   Strategic  Management  (MBC712)   Prepared  for  Dr  Azni  Zarina  Taha   Valerie  Hew  Yook  Ping      BGA140008   Sharifah  Khairin  Syed  Mohd  Ali      BGA140013   Zakiah  Hanim  Mohd  Hamdan    BGA140014   Ahmad  Syamil  Mohamad      BGA140004  
  2. 2. HISTORY  OF  MALAYSIA  AIRLINES   1937  –  Malayan  Airways  Limited  (MAL)  –  a  joint  iniJaJve   of  Ocean  Steamship  of  Singapore  &  Imperial  Aireways  &   Colonial  Straits  SeRlement   1947  –  1st  chatered  flight  from  Singapore  to  Kuala  Lumpur,   using  an  twin-­‐engined  Airspeed  Consul   1960  –  84-­‐seat  Bristol  Bitannia,  lauched  the  1st  long-­‐haul   internaJonal  flight  to  HK.   1963  –  Change  of  name  from  'Malayan  Airways'  to   'Malaysian  Airways',  (sJll  known  as  MAL)   1963  –  MAL  took  Borneo  Airways  Limited   1966  –  Change  of  name  to  Malaysia-­‐Singapore  Airlines   (MSA)  due  to  separaJon  of  Singapore  from  federaJon   1971  –  MSA  ceased  operaJon   1972  –  Malaysian  Airline  Systems  (MAS)  as  incorporated   1980  –  ImplementaJon  of  InformaJon  Systems  into   operaJon  management   1985  –  MAS  was  privaJsed.  MAS  entered  into  coporate   sector,  listed  on  KL  stock  exchange.   1987  –  Change  of  name  to  Malaysia  Airlines   1991  –  Awards  received  –  Asian  InsJtute  of  Management  /   World  ExecuJve's  Digest  Management  Award  in  the   General  Management  category,  TDC  1990  Tourism  Gold   Award   1990s  –  diversifica/on  of  opera/ons  i.e.  HR,  training,  catering,  property   consultancy,  technical  ground  support  for  the  aircra>s  (need  to  check)     1992  –  Awarded  its  4th  Boeing  award  to  B737  fleet  for  its  reliability   1993  –  MAS  was  first  in  SEA  which  served  South  America  with  its   Boeing  747  aircrad   1994  to  1998  –  MAS  flew  to  Mexico  City  &  had  5-­‐freedom  right  to   carry  passengers  between  Mexico  City  and  LA.   1997  –  MAS  suffered  losses  prior  to  Asian  financial  crisis   2001  –  Awarded  by  Skytrax  UK  –  World's  Best  Cabin  Crew   2002  to  2004  –  profit,  peak  of  the  business   2005  –  Awarded  a  5-­‐star  airline   2005  –  Downturn  of  MAS   2006  –  CEO  introduced  a  3-­‐year  Business  Turnaround  Plan   2007  –  Profit  of  RM  853  million   2009  –  15  new  Airbus  A330  purchased  –  10  opJons   2011  –  Loss  of  RM2.52  billion  due  to  fuel  costs  and   mismanagement   2014  –  Missing  of  Boeing  777  aircrad  –  MH370  &  MH17   2015  –  New  CEO  restructuring  the  firm  –  in  progress    
  3. 3. BACKGROUND  
  4. 4. BACKGROUND  OF  MALAYSIA  AIRLINES   The   airline   began   as   Malayan   Airways   Limited   and   flew   its   first   commercial   flight   in   1947.   A   few   years   ader  Singapore's  independence,  the  airline's  assets  were  divided  in  1972  to  form  Singaporean  flag  carrier  Singapore   Airlines  and  Malaysian  flag  carrier  Malaysian  Airline  System.     Despite   numerous   awards   from   aviaJon   industry   and   recogniJon   from   the   World   Travel   Awards   as   the   leading   airline  in  and  to  Asia  (2010–11,  2013,2015)  the  airline  struggled  to  cut  costs  to  compete  with  new,  low-­‐cost  carriers   in  the  region  since  the  early  2000s.  In  2013,  the  airline  iniJated  a  turnaround  plan  ader  large  losses  beginning  in   2011   and   cut   routes   to   prominent,   but   unprofitable,   long-­‐haul   desJnaJons,   such   as   the   Americas   (Los   Angeles  and  Buenos  Aires)  and  South  Africa.  Malaysia  Airlines  also  began  an  internal  restructuring  and  intended  to   sell  units  such  as  engineering  and  pilot  training.     In  2014,  Malaysia  Airlines  lost  two  aircrad—Flight  370  and  Flight  17—less  than  five  months  apart  with  a  combined   537  people  killed,  exacerbaJng  the  airline's  financial  troubles  and  leading  to  the  renaJonalizaJon  of  the  airline.   Prior  to  2014,  MAS  had  one  of  the  world's  best  safety  records—just  two  fatal  accidents  in  68  years  of  operaJon,   including  the  hijacking  in  1977  of  Flight  653  that  resulted  in  100  casualJes.        
  5. 5. An  economic  boom  in  Malaysia  during  the  1980s  spurred  growth  at  Malaysia  Airlines.  By  the  end  of  the   decade   MAS   was   flying   to   47   overseas   desJnaJons,   including   eight   European   desJnaJons,   seven   Oceania  desJnaJons,  and  United  States  desJnaJons  of  Los  Angeles  and  Honolulu.       The  airline  then  suffered  three-­‐cycle  of  unprofitability  starJng  with  the  Financial  Crisis  in  1997  and    they   had  several  business  turnaround  plan.  To  date,    ader  filing  on  a  bankfruptcy  and  bailed-­‐out  by  Khazanah   Nasional   (the   biggest   shareholder),   they   slowly   building   up   the   company   as   Malaysia   Airlines   Berhad   (MAB).     BACKGROUND  OF  MALAYSIA  AIRLINES  
  6. 6. MAS  Financial  Crisis  and  series  of  event   Prior  97  :  Asian  Financial  Crisis,  loss   RM  260M.   03/04  :  Profit  RM  461M   00/01:  Loss  RM  417M   01/02  :  Loss  RM  836M   96/97  :  Profit  RM333  M   98/99  :  Loss  RM700  M   99/00  :  Loss  RM259  M   2005    :  Loss  RM  1.3B   cost  increases  included   staff  costs,  handling   and  landing  fees,  aircrad   maintenance  and   overhaul  charges.       Low  yield  per  available   seat  kilo  (ASK)  because   poor  management  and   inefficient  route  network   06/07:  Profit  RM  853M   2011  :  Loss  RM  2.52B   2014  :  Loss  RM  443.4M   MH  370  &  MH17   2014  :  Declared  bankrupt  
  7. 7. MAS  Financial  Crisis  and  series  of  event   Dec  2014  :  Appointment  of  Christoph   Mueller  as  CEO     Nov  2014  :  Khazanah  Nasional  created  a   new  company  known  as  NewCo,  to   control  the  airline  group.   Sept  2014  :  Centre  for  AviaJon  (CAPA)   analysed  on  planned  job  cuts,  which  are   aimed  at  improving  producJvity  and  closing   the  gap  with  the  group’s  Asian  compeJtors.   CAPA  also  examined  the  expected  reducJon   of  long-­‐haul  capacity  as  the  recovery  plan   outlines  a  focus  on  regional  operaJons   within  Asia-­‐Pacific  while  relying  on   partnerships  to  cover  other  markets.  
  8. 8. FLEET  AGE  LIST  
  10. 10. PESTLE  ANALYSIS   PoliWcal/ Legal   •  Ownership  &  effecJve  regulaJons     •  Open  skies  agreement  with  the  US  in  1997     •  Government  enforcement  on  unprofitable  routes   •  Government  focus  in  developing  tourism  &  hospitality  industry  –  turning   KLIA  into  a  regional  air  hub  –  improve  connecJng  transportaJon  from  city  to   airport  (ERL)   •  Bilateral  air  rights  agreement  increases  landing  &  navigaJon  chargers   •  ImplementaJon  of  government  official  rates  &  discounts   Economic   (local  to   worldwide)     •  Increasing  fuel  prices  (bunker  cost)  eg:  in  2008   •  Global  financial  crisis  in  2008   •  Large  populaJon  in  Asia    and  rapid  growth  of  air  travels  in  the  region   •  Investment  in  improved  airport  infrastructure   •  Increasing  number  of  low  cost  airlines  
  11. 11. PESTLE  ANALYSIS   Society   •  Passengers  are  looking  into  cheaper  flights  and  compromising  on   food  and  frills   •  ARract  mostly  high  cost  and  premium  travellers   •  Access  to  alternaJve  choices  like  low  cost  carriers   •  Increased  working  populaJon  and  disposable  income   Technology   •  IntroducJon  of  e-­‐commerce  for  online  Jcket  purchasing   •  Online  check  in  services&  e-­‐kiosks   •  IntroducJon  of  social  media/networks  and  mobile  applicaJon   •  IntroducJon  of    onboard  infotainment  system   Environment   •  Global  pandemic  disease  -­‐    H1N1   •  Rise  of  terrorism  in  parJcular  ader  911  
  13. 13. PORTER’S  5  FORCES  FRAMEWORK   CompeWtors   (local)  
  14. 14. PORTER’S  5  FORCES  FRAMEWORK   CompeWtors   (InternaJonal)   •  The  worlds  top  10  airlines   •  MAS  is  listed  as  18  best  airline  
  15. 15. PORTER’S  5  FORCES  FRAMEWORK   CompeWtors   (world’s  low   cost)  
  16. 16. Supplier   Power   PORTER’S  5  FORCES  FRAMEWORK   •  25  years  contract  with  one  food  caterer     •  Airline  industry  is  monopolized  by  two  air  crad  manufacturers   •  Increasing  fuel  prices  –  high  supply  power   •  Ageing  fleet  –  increase  orders  for  new  air  crad  &  increase  use  of  fuel   •  Sell  off  used  fleet  reduces  new  sale  by  Airbus  
  17. 17. Bargaining   Power   PORTER’S  5  FORCES  FRAMEWORK   •  High  cost  premium  travellers   •  Mostly  Malaysians   •  No  switching  cost  imposed   •  Frequent  flyer  programme  –  Erich  Miles   •  Online  travel  sites  provide  mulJple  choices  –  affordability,  locaJon,   service  provider  preference,  cost  
  18. 18. PotenWal   New   Entrants   PORTER’S  5  FORCES  FRAMEWORK   •  High  barrier  to  enter  and  exit  the  business   •  License  to  operate  is  high   •  No  economy  of  scale   •  Di-­‐regulaJon  has  reduced  the  entrance  into  airline  industry  
  19. 19. SubsWtute   PORTER’S  5  FORCES  FRAMEWORK   •  Rail  transportaJon  local  and  internaJonal   •  On  road  transportaJon   •  Online  –  web  and  video  conferencing   AddiWonal   •  Longer  lay  overs   •  Crew  shuRle  services   •  Strong  Union  
  21. 21. No   Items   V   R   I   N   1   •  Established  and  strong  brand  name  -­‐  MAS   •  Associated  with  tagline  Malaysian  Hospitality     Phase  II   •  Renamed  to  Malaysia  Airlines  Berhad  (MAB)   O   O       O   O   O       O   O   O       O   O   O       O   S   S       S   2   Human  Resource   •  World  recognised  and  well  trained  crew   •  Crew  and  service  represent  Malaysian  Hospitality  (MH)  internaJonally   Phase  II   •  New  CEO  &  Key  Management  with  Airline  &  Hospitality  experience   •  Rightsizing  workforce  to  match  operaJonal  requirements  (14,000  offered/6,000  exiJng)   •  Promote  business  ethics  and  integrate  high  ethical  standards  as  the  company’s  cultural  system   •  Enforce  Conflict  of  Interest  Avoidance   •  Encourage  whistle  blowing  /open  door  policy     O   O       O   O   O   O   O     X   O       X   X   X   X   X     X   O       X   X   X   X   X     O   O       O   O   O   O   O     N   S       N   N   N   N   N   3   Asset   •  5  types  of  air  crad  (Airbus  A330,  Airbus  A380,  Boeing  737,  Boeing  747,  Boeing  777)   •  Ageing  fleet  of  average  5.1  years  (13  units  of  Boeing  777  aged  15.6  years)   •  Entered  into  lease  agreements  for  4  new  Airbus  A350s  with  Air  Lease  CorporaJon  (2  x  A350-­‐900  &   2  x  A330-­‐900  neo  aircrad)   •  In  2015  –  offer  sale  or  lease  of  six  Airbus  A380,  2  Boeing  747,  four  Airbus  A330  &  four  Boeing  777   –  may  cease  MAS  Cargo  operaJons   •  14  orders  Boeing  737  placed  and  10  opJons  unJl  market  improve   •  Marketable  MAS  Airbus  A380  is  12  years  younger  and  more  than  Singapore  &  Emirates  Airlines     O   O   O     O     O   O     X   X   X     X     X   X     X   O   X     X     X   O     O   O   X     X     O   O     N   S   N     W     N   S   VALUABLE,  RARE,  INIMITABLE,  NON-­‐SUBSTITUTE  (VRIN)   •  O  =  Yes  /  X  =  No  
  22. 22. No   Items   V   R   I   N   4   FaciliWes   •  Introduced  self-­‐service  kiosk   •  Online  Jmetable  for  real  Jme  flight  informaJon   •  Dedicated  premium  check  in  lanes     O   O   O     X   X   X     X   X   X     X   O   X     W   S   W   5   Financial   •  Embark  on  a  route  profitability  project  &  revenue  enhancement  project   •  Diversified  revenue  stream  –  established  global  presence  in  Europe,  Middle  East,  America,  Australia   &  Asia     O   O     O   O     O   O     O   X     S   S   6   Services   •  Flies  direct  over  60  desJnaJons  worldwide,    over  30  countries   •  A  part  of  One  World  Alliance   •  Enter  into  code-­‐sharing  with  Cathay,  Qantas,  Japan  Airlines    to  enhance  air  connecJvity   •  Enrich  loyalty  programme  with  major  hotels  –  earn  3x  Enrich  Miles   •  Intro  six  feeder  flights  from  Kelantan  to  KL  for  Haj   •  Collaborate  with  Tourism  Australia  for  first  redempJon  programme  focusing  on  Australian  market   –  Enrich  Hearts  Australian   •  Launched  inaugural  redempJon  campaign  (30-­‐50%  discounts)  for  Greater  China  –  Wo  Ai  Ni   •  Provide  5  star  special  charter  services   •  Special  services  for  infants   •  Offer  special  meals  –  muslim,  vegetarian,  koscher,  baby  meal,  health  related  meals   •  Provide  faciliJes  and  special  services  for  physically  challenged  &  disabled  people     O   O   O   O   X   O     O   O   O   O   O     X   X   X   O   O   O     O   O   X   O   X     X   X   X   X   X   X     X   O   X   O   X     X   O   O   O   X   X     X   O   O   O   O     W   N   N   S   W   N     N   S   N   S   N   VALUABLE,  RARE,  INIMITABLE,  NON-­‐SUBSTITUTE  (VRIN)   •  O  =  Yes  /  X  =  No  
  23. 23. SWOT  ANALYSIS  
  24. 24. STRENGTH   •  Strong  brand  image  (well-­‐known  airlines  across  the  world).   •  Strong  backing  from  Malaysian  Government.  Ader  filing  the  bankruptcy,  Malaysia  Airlines  was  bailed  out   by  Khazanah  Nasional  and  rebuilt  as  Malaysia  Airlines  Berhad  (MAB).     •  Strong  workforce  with  more  than  20,000  employees   •  Best  cabin  crew   •  Cover  more  than  60  routes  internaJonally  and  domesJcally  with  the  fleet  size  of  97  aircrads.   •  Won  a  lot  of  presJgious  awards  and  have  a  broad  network  of  desJnaJon.   •  Offer  high  quality  services  to  their  customers.     •  Offer  mulJple  range  of  meal  during  the  flight.  
  25. 25. WEAKNESS   •  High  operaJng  cost  such  as  the  landing  cost  and  airport  tax.   •  War  price  with  Air  Asia  as  they  are  dominaJng  the  low-­‐  cost  carrier  market.   •  Change  of  business  model  very  frequently   •  Relying  heavily  on  the  internaJonal  routes  and  plenty  of  those  routes  are  not  revenue-­‐making  and  do  not   have  high  demand  from  customers.   •  Limited  market  growth  domesJcally,  especially  ader  Air  Asia  entered  the  market.   •  Weak  financial  status  especially  ader  having  a  loss  of  about  RM  1.3  Billions  in  2005.   •  MAS  suffered  trust  issue  ader  the  crisis  of  MH  370  and  MH  17   •  Senior  Management  with  no  Airline  experience.   •  Strong  employee  union  prevenJng  change.  
  26. 26. OPPORTUNITY   •  The  launch  of  Firefly  –  to  compete  in  the  low-­‐cost  carrier  market.   •  Expand  their  services  in  the  Asia  Pacific  region  as  there  is  a  trend  of  increasing  traveler  from  China  and   Japan.   •  Increase  their  cargo  services.   •  Increase  more  internaJonal  routes  to  highly  demand  desJnaJon.   •  Rejuvenated  fleet.   •  Improved  entertainment  onboard.  
  27. 27. THREAT   •  Have  no  control  on  the  highly  fluctuaJng  fuel  price.   •  The    fast  emergence  of  low  cost  airlines.   •  Highly  intense  compeJJon  with  other  airlines  in  the  region  such  as  Singapore  InternaJonal  Airways,   Cathay  Pacific  Airways  and  Garuda  Indonesia  Airways.   •  CompeJng  with  other  well-­‐known  airlines  company  such  as  Emirates  and  EJhad  Airways.   •  Changing  government  policies  and  regulaJon  of  regulatory  bodies.   •  Terrorism  and  poliJcal  unrest.  
  28. 28.   In  September  2015,  Malaysia  Airlines,  welcome  the  start  of  its  new   company  Malaysia  Airlines  Berhad  (MAB).  The  main  objecWve  of   the  restructuring    is  to  enhance  the  inflight  experience  of  their   customers  and  embodying  the  reason  for  people  to  travel  with   MAB.     Right   ader   the   announcement,   MAB   recorded   89.8%   on-­‐ Jme  performance.       One   of   their   vision   and   new   business   strategy   is   to   stabilise   its   operaJons  and  to  ensure  perfect  on-­‐Jme  performance.  MAB  also   introduced  a  refreshed  Senior  Management  line-­‐up  that  will  focus   on  improving  revenue  efficiency  and  network  design  for  MAB.   MALAYSIA  AIRLINES  NEW  BEGINNINGS  
  29. 29. MOVING  FORWARD  PLAN   MAB  changing  the  business  model  :       The  development  of  a  business  model  is  on  track  and  will  change  the  following  :       -­‐  Flying  network  that  is  regionally  focused.     -­‐  Focus  on  routes  where  MAB  can  win  by  rebuilding  its  KUL  hub   -­‐  Review  incremental  and  fleet  replacement  for  2017  and  beyond   -­‐  Products  and  services  offering  befiung  targeted  customer  segments.     -­‐  Look  into  major  cost  reducJon  based  on  industry  benchmarked   -­‐  Apply  transformaJon  iniJaJves  by  NewCo   -­‐  Structural  cost  reducJon    
  31. 31. Lower  Cost   Overall  Low-­‐cost  Provider  Strategy     Broad  DifferenWaWon  Strategy     •  Brand  also  known  as  the  Malaysian   Hospitality  (MH)   •  Acknowledged  to  have  the  World’s  Best   Cabin  Crew   •   OperaJons  excellence  –  Skytrax  Award   for  passengers  choice   •  Provide  5  star  special  charter  services   •  Customised  meals  MH  Gourmet   •  Malaysian  Airlines  Golden  Lounge   •  Enrich  miles  programmes  and   partnerships  with  major  hotel  chains   Focused  Low-­‐Cost  Strategy       Focused  DifferenWaWon  Strategy       MALAYSIA  AIRLINES  GENERIC  COMPETITIVE  STRATEGIES   DifferenWaWon   Broad  cross   secWon  of   buyers   Narrow   buyer   segment  (or   Market   Niche)  
  32. 32. Low   GlobalisaWon  Strategy   •  Treats  world  as  a  single  global  market   •  Standardises  global  products/adverJsing   strategies   TransnaWonal  Strategy   •  Balance  global  efficiencies  and  local   responsiveness   •  Combines  standardisaJon  and   customisaJon  for  product/adverJsing     •  DomesJcally  focused   •  Exports  a  few  domesJcally  produced   products  to  selected  countries           InternaWonal  Strategy       •  Handles  market  independently  for  each   country   •  Adapts  products/adverJsing  to  local   tastes  and  needs       MulW-­‐DomesWc  Strategy     MALAYSIA  AIRLINES  GENERIC  COMPETITIVE  STRATEGIES   High   High   Low   Modern   Global     Need  for  Local  Responsiveness   Need  for  Global  IntegraWon  
  33. 33. MALAYSIA  AIRLINES  POINTS  OF  PARITY  &  DIFFERENTIATION   Category   Point  of  Parity   Points  of  DifferenWaWon   Service  Offerings   Experience  and  skillful  pilots.  High   demand  in  market.     Provide  mulJple  range  of  seat  class  such   as  economy,  business  &  first  class.  This  is   to  accommodate  the  different  needs  &   types  of  customers.   Crew   Provide  onboard  services.     Provide  highly  trained  crew  and  best   quality  service.   Food  &  Beverage   Offers  selecJon  of  meals  that  does  not   specifically  cater  to  special  dietary  needs.   Can  cater  to  various  customer  dietary   requirements  for  all  types  of  classes.     In-­‐fight  entertainment   Provide  infotainment  for  customers.     Hubs   MAS  is  the  only  airline  that  has  3  airport   hubs.   Average  fleet  age   On  average  age  of  fleet  is  5.1  years.  One   of  the  youngest  in  comparison  to  other   airlines.   Branding   Other  airlines  focus  on  service  and  not   specifically  aRached  to  a  culture.     Well  known  for  Malaysian  Hospitality.    
  34. 34. MALAYSIA  AIRLINES  POINTS  OF  PARITY  &  DIFFERENTIATION   Current     •  MAS  main  compeJtors  focuses  on  service  efficiency    and  comfort  with  emphasis  on  ensuring  that  the   passengers  will  reach  their  desJnaJon.     •  MAS  has  always  focused  on  their  best  crew  services  &  frills  and  downplayed  on  service  efficiency.  They   always  focus  on  customer  experiencing  the  Malaysian  Hospitality  in  line  with  Malaysia’s  Tourism  tagline  –   Malaysia  Truly  Asia.     Propose   •  MAS  should  focus  more  on  their  service  reliability  and  greater  flight  experience–  eg:  Well  trained  &  skillful,   world  sought  pilots.   •  DifferenJaJon  focus  should  be  more  on  only  selected  classes  like  Business  &  First  Class  services.   •  Focus  on  revamping  their  routes  to  only  profitable  locaJons  and  reduce  government  influence.    
  35. 35. REFERENCES   •  hRp://www.worldairlineawards.com/Awards/worlds_best_lowcost_airlines.html   •  hRp://www.cargoforwarder.eu/2015/05/03/final-­‐curtain-­‐for-­‐maskargo/   •  hRp://www.worldairlineawards.com/awards/world_airline_raJng.html   •  hRp://leehamnews.com/2015/04/30/malaysia-­‐air-­‐fleet-­‐restructuring/   •  hRp://www.malaysiaairlines.com/my/en/corporate-­‐info/press-­‐room/2015/ rightsizing_workforce_mab.html   •  hRp://www.nydailynews.com/news/world/malaysia-­‐airlines-­‐selling-­‐fleet-­‐airbuses-­‐jets-­‐arJcle-­‐1.2205379   •  hRp://www.themalaysianinsider.com/malaysia/arJcle/mas-­‐sells-­‐enJre-­‐airbus-­‐fleet-­‐in-­‐move-­‐to-­‐manage-­‐ losses   •  hRp://www.airfleets.net/agefloRe/Malaysia%20Airlines.html   •  hRp://www.freemalaysiatoday.com/category/naJon/2015/05/04/sale-­‐of-­‐airline-­‐fleet-­‐too-­‐premature-­‐ mas-­‐ceo/   •  hRp://www.airfleets.net/agefloRe/Malaysia%20Airlines.htm  
  36. 36. THANK  YOU