Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Le téléchargement de votre SlideShare est en cours. ×

Roof Treatment

Prochain SlideShare
Plastering and pointing
Plastering and pointing
Chargement dans…3

Consultez-les par la suite

1 sur 35 Publicité

Plus De Contenu Connexe

Diaporamas pour vous (20)

Similaire à Roof Treatment (20)


Plus récents (20)

Roof Treatment

  2. 2. Technical Seminar on Roof Treatment Held on – 07.11.2014 Organized By Sri S.P Chandrikapure SR. DEN / Co / ADRA Engineering Department / Adra SOUTH EASTERN RAILWAY Prepared by – Shaswata Mitra Checked by – S.S.E (WORKS) / EAST / ADRA
  3. 3. Introduction One of the basic requirements in case of all buildings is that the structure should remain dry as far as possible. If this condition is not satisfied, it is likely that the building may become inhabitable and unsafe from structural point of view. To prevent the entry of water or dampness into a building is termed as leakage. And the process we generally apply to prevent the leakage and to the stop the external output and flow of water inside the building is termed as Roof Treatment.
  4. 4. What is Roof ? A Roof is a part of a building envelop, both the covering on the uppermost part of a building or shelter which provides protection from animals and weather, notably rain, but also heat, wind and sunlight, and the framing or structure which supports the covering. The characteristics of a roof are depended upon the purpose of the building that it covers, the available roofing materials and the local traditions of constructions and wider concept of architectural design and practice may also be governed by local or national legislation. In most countries a roof protects primarily against rain. A verandah may be roof with material that protects against sunlight but admits the other elements. The roof of a garden conservatory, protects plants from cold, wind and rain admits light.
  5. 5. Types of Roof • Flat Roof • Arched Roof • A-Frame Roof • Trussed Roof • Hip Roof • Dutch Hip Roof • Pitched Roof • Pyramid Roof • Gable Roof NOTE - Above roofs written by ‘Bolt’ font are used in Indian Railway.
  6. 6. Flat Roof Quarter Pitched Roofing Semidetached Quarters
  7. 7. Truss Roof
  8. 8. Some Discussion about Leakage Leakage in buildings is common and it is important to under stand the causes and measures to be taken for their prevention. Building materials absorb the water from atmosphere or water flows over it and after condition of saturation, the seepage through the component of a building like, walls, RCC members, roof terraces and plastering etc. takes place. Another reason for leakage is porosity of the building materials when buildings are exposed to atmosphere; water absorbed by the materials gradually and resulted in leakage through roof terrace and walls exposed to atmosphere. Leakage in buildings usually occurs in walls, Flat roof, and parapet wall and Pitched roof etc.
  9. 9. Causes of Leakage • Lack of proper slope thereby causing stagnation of water • Lack of proper drainage system • Poor maintenance of water pipe connections and joints • Poor quality of construction • Fault in planning • Forming of cracks in roof is the major cause, rain water flows off quickly by penetrating through the cracks to the roof slab.
  10. 10. Leakage caused by Nail Heads
  11. 11. Wide Cracks on Roof Cracks on parapet wall
  12. 12. Effect of Leakage • A damp building creates unhealthy conditions for those who occupy it • The metals used in the construction of the building are corroded. • Unsightly patches are formed on the wall surfaces and ceilings. • The electric fittings are deteriorated due to dampness. • The material used as floor coverings are seriously damaged.
  13. 13. The dark blue area in the corner of this room is a current moisture from a roof leak. The room had just been painted
  14. 14. To prevent leakage, normally we take some following remedies • Adequate slope should be provided to prevent stagnation of water. • Sufficient drainage pipes should be provided. • Maintenance of water supply pipe connections and fitting should be leak proof. • Cracks should be properly repaired. • Good workmanship should be adopted during construction. • Planning of the building should be proper & adequate.
  15. 15. How to Seal Roof Penetration ? One of the most popular methods of sealing roof penetrations around small entries such as conduits is to use a small rubber or silicon flashing or a gland that is UV stable, heat stable and freeze proof. Although there are a range of these products available on the market, the Dictate brand is a commonly known brand in Australia. These products seal around the conduit entering the roof space, and onto the roof material using a UV stabilized silicon or other sealant.
  16. 16. Membrane roofing is a type of roofing system for low sloped roofs. It is used on flat or nearly flat roofs to prevent leaks and move water off the roof.
  17. 17. Treatment of Pitched Roof In general rainwater is liable to leak through a pitched or sloped roof on account of the following reasons, • Due to insufficient roof slope. • Due to insufficient lap in roof covering material i.e. AC or CGI sheets, tiles, slates etc. • Due to inadequate treatment to rain water gutter.
  18. 18. All the above-referred causes can be taken care of by proper design and construction. However, design and installation of rain water gutter or valley gutter needs extra special attention with respect to its capacity, position, fixing, water tightness and freedom to accommodate expansion or contraction in any direction. The slope of the gutter should not be flatter than 1: 100 in straight length and it should be made steeper in portion where the gutter is not straight. The gutter should be leak proof and all the joints in the gutter should be made tight. The work of laying roofing should be carefully supervised and it should be ascertained that the sheets or tiles project beyond the edge of the gutter. Lead flashing should be continued up to the vertical face of the parapet wall and should stop inside the body of the wall. As in case of flat roof, stone or brick coping should itself protect the parapet wall. The provision of damp proofing course layer is laid in a valley gutter. If the architect wants to provide a projection in the face wall to decorate the structure, a sloped junction should be stressed. A layer of damp proof course should further protect the junction.
  19. 19. Treatment of Flat Roof Flat roofs require relatively heavier and costlier water proofing treatment as compared with pitched roof or sloped roofs. The specification of material used for this purpose should be such that it performs the function of water- proofing as well as provides adequate thermal insulation. Stagnation of water on the roof is considered to be the root cause of leakage and dampness in flat roofs. This can be avoided by providing adequate roof slope and rainwater pipes. In case of RCC slab roofing with proper grading above a slope of 1 in 100 is considered desirable. In addition to the slope, the size and the spacing of the rain water pipes or the out lets require due consideration for the proper drainage of the roof. In general practice, one 10 cm dia. pipe is considered suitable for every 30 sq.m of the roof area to be drained.
  20. 20. Flat roof treatment is there to protect flat apartment roofs and lengthen their lifespan. Coating is a basic and common treatment for flat roofs.
  21. 21. All the flat roofs in the modern age are generally constructed with reinforced cement concrete. This material removes all the defects of flat roofs except that the roof should be made water- proof by employing any one of the following methods • Finishing - For ordinary buildings of cheap construction, finishing of roof surface is done at the time of laying cement concrete. The finishing of flat roof is carried out in cement mortar of proportion 1:4 i.e. one part of cement and four parts of sand by volume. • Mastic asphalt and jute cloths - In this method, a layer of hot mastic asphalt is laid on the roof surface. Jute cloth is spread over this layer. Then, one more layer of mastic asphalt is applied so that the jute cloth is sandwiched between the two layers of mastic asphalt. Sand is then sprinkled over the entire surface of roof. For better grip, lead sheets are inserted at the junction of parapet wall and roof
  22. 22. • Bedding concrete and flooring - In this method, the surface of RCC slab is kept rough and on this surface a layer of concrete is laid. The concrete may be brickbats lime concrete (1:2:4) or brickbats cement concrete (1:8:14), the thickness of concrete layer is about 10 cm. The surface of the bedding concrete is provided by suitable flooring such as tiles, terrazzo, Indian patent stone, etc. A convex joint is provided at the junction of parapet wall and roof.
  23. 23. Measurement of Roof Measurement of roof is generally done to find out the area of roof. Then we need to do grouting and concreting that part of area to prevent leakage. After hardening the concrete we apply the APP of Dr. Fixit. Then we use white paint over the sheet to which save the APP from sun ray and different external output.
  24. 24. APP of Dr. FIXIT as Water Proofing Compound Dr. Fixit, being a pioneer in Waterproofing & Building Repair solutions in India, offers a robust portfolio of repair products which are tailor made to suit various construction applications.
  25. 25. Guidelines for Leak Proof Flat Roof Water proofing system on the roofs get deteriorated due to weathering effect and may become ineffective due to development of cracks/de-bonding/ disintegration of water proofing material etc. Stagnation of water due to undulation in roof surface, provision of less number of drainage pipes or choking of same and improper detailing at junction of parapet and roof etc., are other major contributors in making the roof leaky.
  26. 26. Roof Design Flat roofs should be designed to have adequate slope (1 in 80) so that rain water flows off without stagnating and penetrating into roof slab through hair or minor cracks or soaking. The top of the roof slab should be finished even and smooth with a trowel before the concrete began to set. The exposed surfaces of RCC work should be rendered smooth with 1:3 cement mortar, the tops of roofs should be painted with a coat of bitumen or provided with other water proofing material.
  27. 27. Proper Detailing at Junction of Roof with Parapet Wall Junction of roof with parapet wall is a vulnerable location for leakage. It is necessary that detailing at the junction of roof and vertical face of parapet wall be done very carefully. Following should be ensured : • The fillet (angular or concave, not convex) of 75mm should be provided all along the junction of parapet wall with roof. • Coping on top of the parapet wall should also be provided with adequate slope along with the provision of drip course on either side • Water proofing system should be extended from roof to parapet wall for a minimum height of 150 mm with a chase. General arrangements at junction of roof with parapet are given in figure
  28. 28. General arrangement at junction of roof and parapet wall
  29. 29. Expansion Joints Expansion joints in buildings or other structures may become source of perennial seepage due to failure of expansion joint fillers and sealants. Expansion joint should be treated with suitable non-absorbent, compressible, non-brittle and watertight sealants so that no leakage occurs through joint.
  30. 30. Prevalent water proofing system for roofs • Lime concrete terracing • Mud- Phuska treatment • Water proofing using polyethylene films • Water proofing using polymer cementious slurry coatings • Waterproofing using polymer modified bitumen membranes. • Waterproofing using bitumen felts
  31. 31. Rainwater Pipes for Roof Drainage Adequate openings in numbers and size, are necessary to allow the water to get drained off quickly. The number and size of openings depends upon the area of roof and intensity of rainfall of the region in which building is situated. The spacing in between outlet pipes should not be more than 6 m. The size of rain water pipes, depending upon the average rate of rainfall and roof area, should be as given in table. Average rainfall intensity may be obtained from local office of Indian meteorological department.
  32. 32. Five Roofing Tips to Better Your Home Ensuring the health of your roof is imperative when it comes to keeping your home improvement cost effective. While home owners are always looking for the best ways to increase the value of their home, they often overlook the simpler preventative maintenances. By being aware of our roofs and their health, we’re potentially saving a lot of money. Here is a list of some of the most frequent roofing problems, as well as suggestions on how to fix them. • Safety and Precautions - Climbing on top of the roof to fix a leak as soon as it occurs will only lead to injury and further damage to your roof. The proper thing to do is to avoid quick fixes. Do not attend to the roof if there is rain or snow. Before climbing on the roof, make sure that you are wearing rubber soled shoes to prevent slipping. Always practice the buddy system, and wear a harness.
  33. 33. • Roof Leaks - Roof leaks are extremely common but not always easy to identify. Use a garden hose to spray in various locations on the roof to find the leak. Do not do this during the winter months, as it is not safe. Because clogged gutters is the most common cause of leakage, check to see if they are clean. • Dry Rot - Dry rot is caused by lack of ventilation. If roof repair is in the center of the roof, there is a great possibility that the plywood might crumble. This will lead to cracked and brittle roof shingles, which causes leakage. To prevent this, install a ridge vent by drilling holes in the soffit vents so cool air will push the hot air out. • Ice Buildup - Winter makes it easy for ice to build up under the shingles, gutters, and roof membranes. Proper ventilation and ice shields will halt all of these problems. Remember, do not venture out on your roof if it is icy.
  34. 34. • Inspect and Fix Roof Boots and Other Materials - If the roof boots are dried up they will cause a leak. To fix this, purchase a new roof boot. Faulty installation of shingles and nails play a huge part in roof leaks. Make sure roof valley are properly sealed.
  35. 35. THANK YOU