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SOCIAL PROBLEMS
AFFECTING SOCIETY
Ms. Sheila J. Echaluce
Discussant
WHAT ARE SOCIAL PROBLEMS?
• Are the general factors that affect
and damage society.
• Is normally a term used to
describe ...
EXAMPLE OF SOCIAL PROBLEMS
• Poverty
• Child Labor
• Graft and Corruption
• Cyber Sex
• Drug abuse or Drug Addiction
• Sex...
POVERTY
POVERTY
• The world at its worst when people are deprived of
basic everyday things that we take for granted like
food, wat...
FACES OF POVERTY
FACES OF POVERTY
ETYMOLOGY
• Old French – poverté
• Modern French - pauvreté
• Latin paupertās - from pauper (poor)
CAUSES OF POVERTY
• Lack of education
• Natural disasters
• Lack of money
• Greed
• No opportunities provided
• Drugs and ...
FACTORS WHICH POOR PEOPLE
IDENTIFY AS PART OF POVERTY
• Abuse by those in power
• Dis-empowering institutions
• Excluded l...
9 KINDS OF POVERTY ACCORDING
TO A. M. HENRY
1) The disadvantaged
2) The unfortunate and accident victims
3) The isolated
4...
The disadvantaged
The unfortunate and accident
victims
The isolated
Those who have no future
The unwell
The ignorant, the incompetent, the
inexperienced
The unloved
Those who hide or hate
themselves
Those who lack willpower or
love
AMOUNT OF POVERTY
THE HARSH TRUTH
• 1 in 2 children live in poverty
• Over 3 billon people live on less than $2.50 a
day
• 22000 children di...
THE HARSH TRUTH
POVERTY FACTS IN THE PHILIPPINES
SOLUTIONS TO POVERTY
• No war
• Ask the government to do a lot more about
poverty
• Donate things you don’t use to charity...
CHILD LABOR
CHILD LABOR
• Work that harms children or keeps them from attending
school
• work by children that harms them or exploits ...
CHILD LABOR
• Firecracker
Industry
• Household Labor
HOW MANY ARE THERE?
• According to certain experts
approximately 10 million
bonded children labourers
are working as dome ...
CHILD LABOR FACT SHEET
• 73 million working children are less
than 10 years old
• While buffaloes may cost up to 15,000
ru...
CHILD LABOR IN INDIA
• INDIA accounts for the second highest
number where child labor in the world.
• Africa accounts for ...
THE FACES OF CHILD LABOR
CHILD LABOR INDEX
CAUSES OF CHILD LABOR…
• Over population
• Illiteracy
• Urbanization
• Orphans
• Willingness to Exploit
• Unemployment of ...
CONSEQUENCES FOR CHILDREN
• Physical injuries and mutilations
• Pesticide poisoning
• Growth deficiency
• Long-term health...
LAWS
National Policy on Child Labour was
formulated in 1987.
• Prohibition of children being employed in
hazardous occupat...
INITIATIVES TOWARDS ELIMINATION
OF CHILD LABOUR
• The government has made efforts to prohibit child labor
by enacting Chil...
THE CHILD LABOUR
(Prohibition and Regulation) ACT, 1986
• OBJECT : To prohibit the engagement of children in certain
emplo...
PROHIBITION OF EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDREN IN CERTAIN
OCCUPATIONS AND PROCESSES
1. Transport of passengers, goods; or mails by ...
PROHIBITION OF EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDREN IN CERTAIN
OCCUPATIONS AND PROCESSES
5. The port authority within the limits of any ...
THE CHILD LABOUR (Prohibition and
Regulation) ACT, 1986
PENALITIES
• Section 3 - shall be punishable with
imprisonment whi...
THE LEGAL PROTECTION OF
CHILD WORKERS
HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF
CHILD LABOR IN THE
PHILIPPINES
• R.A. 679 “An Act to Regulate the Employment of Women
and Children, to Provide Penalties for Violation Hereof, and
for Ot...
• P.D. 442 - Labour Code
• P.D. 603 - Child and Youth
WelfareCodeU.N. Convention on the
Rights ofthe ChildR.A. 7610 - The
...
CHILD LABOR
The Silent Killer…
"There is one dream that all Filipinos share: that
our children may have a better life than we
have had . . . there is one...
Children are remarkably
imaginative and resilient - but
also heartbreakingly fragile and
vulnerable.
“ So let us share
the...
CYBERSEX
Mr. Bien Carlo Carlos
Discussant
CYBERSEX
• a form of a virtual
sexual activity
performed by two
persons directly or
indirectly through the
use of the worl...
WHY DO PEOPLE ENGAGE IN
CYBERSEX?
• It can satisfy some sexual desires without the risk of a
sexually transmitted disease ...
MORAL ISSUES OF CYBERSEX
• Demotes our sexual self
• Breaches human dignity
• Deteriorate our values
• Alters the essence ...
BIBLE’S TEACHINGS ABOUT
CYBERSEX
• “Deaden, therefore, your body members that are upon the
earth as respects fornication, ...
DRUG ADDICTION
DRUG ADDICTION AND DRUG
ABUSE
DRUG ADDICTION AND DRUG
ABUSE
• Addiction: Compulsive nature of the drug
use despite physical and/or psychological
harm to...
DRUG ADDICTION AND DRUG
ABUSE
Dependence:
• Psychological
dependence - Eg:
cocaine
• Physical
dependence
• addiction to mo...
DRUG USE TERMS AND
DESCRIPTIONS
• Drug: In medicine, it refers to any substance with
the potential to prevent or cure dise...
DRUG USE TERMS AND
DESCRIPTIONS
• Hard drug (lead to severe physical addiction): – Drug that is
generally considered to be...
DRUG USE TERMS AND
DESCRIPTIONS
• Illicit drug: AN illegal drug, can’t prescribed. Eg.: Cocaine,
heroin, LSD, marijuana. •...
DRUG USE TERMS AND
DESCRIPTIONS
• Adulterants: drugs that are added to mimic or
enhance the effects of the drug being offe...
TYPES OF ABUSED SUBSTANCES
• Legal Substances
– Legal substances, approved by law for sale
over the counter or by doctor's...
MOTIVATIONS FOR DRUG USE
• People take drugs for many reasons, and they may take
stimulants to keep alert, or cocaine for ...
THE EFFECTS OF SUBSTANCE
USE
• It can be on many levels:
– on the individual,
– on friends and family,
– on society.
Effects of Substance Abuse –
on individual
Effects of Substance Abuse –
on friends and family
Effects of Substance Abuse –
on the society
Symptoms
• Recurrent drug use may result in a failure to fulfill major role
obligations at work, school, or home.
• Repeat...
Treatment
• Pharmacological treatment
• Fighting Substance Abuse
• Supply Reduction
• Reduction of demand for drugs
• Lega...
Treatment
Pharmacotherapy
Both pharmacological and behavioral treatments are
used, often augmented by educational and voca...
The Main Drugs of Abuse
The Main Drugs of Abuse cont…
GRAFT AND
CORRUPTION
Mrs. Jovielyn D. Ramos
Discussant
GRAFT
• A form of political corruption, is the unscrupulous
use of a politician's authority for personal gain.
• The term ...
MOST CORRUPT ASIAN
COUNTRIES
• Philippines
• Indonesia
• Malaysia
• India
• China
• Tajikistan
• Myanmar
• Syria
• North K...
GRAFT AND CORRUPTION IN
THE PHILIPPINE GOVERNMENT
• In 1988, graft and corruption in the Philippines was
considered as the “biggest problem of all” by Jaime
Cardinal Sin, t...
GRAFT AND CORRUPTION IN
THE PHILIPPINE GOVERNMENT
• The Philippines then placed 6th out of the 11 Asian countries
under th...
GRAFT AND CORRUPTION IN
THE PHILIPPINE GOVERNMENT
• Thus; a budget of 80 billion pesos will stand to lose about 24
billion...
Indeed, today, graft & corruption in the
Philippines……
REMAINS!!!
SPECIFIC TYPES OF CORRUPTION
IN THE PHILIPPINES
1. Tax evasion
2. Ghost projects & payrolls
3. Evasion of public bidding i...
COSTS OF CORRUPTION
• On politics, administration, &
institutions
• Economic effects
• Environmental & Social effects
• Ef...
MEASURES EMPLOYED TO CONTROL
GRAFT & CORRUPTION
LEGAL MEASURES
The 1987 Philippine Constitution Article XI of the
1987 Phi...
LAW
• Executive Order No. 292 of the Administrative Code
of 1987
• Republic Act No. 6713 also known as the Code of
Conduct...
COSTS OF CORRUPTION
• Imprisonment (between 6- 15
years)
• perpetual disqualification from
public office
• confiscation of...
CONSTITUTIONAL ANTI-CORRUPTION
BODIES
a. The office of the Ombudsman (OMB)
b. The Civil Service Commission (CSC)
c. The Co...
OTHER GOVERNMENT ANTI- CORRUPTION
BODIES
• The Department of Justice (DOJ
• The National Bureau of Investigation (NBI)
and...
OTHER GOVERNMENT ANTI- CORRUPTION
BODIES
1. Appointees with rank of or higher than
Assistant Regional Director,
2. At leas...
IMPEDIMENTS TO THE ANTI- CORRUPTION
EFFORTS
• Specific culture of Filipinos is enhancing the proliferation of graft
and co...
THANK YOU…
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Social Problems Affecting Society

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Poverty, Child Labor, Graft and Corruption, Cyber Sex, Drug Abuse

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Social Problems Affecting Society

  1. 1. SOCIAL PROBLEMS AFFECTING SOCIETY Ms. Sheila J. Echaluce Discussant
  2. 2. WHAT ARE SOCIAL PROBLEMS? • Are the general factors that affect and damage society. • Is normally a term used to describe problems with a particular area or group of people in the world. • Often involve problems that affect real life.
  3. 3. EXAMPLE OF SOCIAL PROBLEMS • Poverty • Child Labor • Graft and Corruption • Cyber Sex • Drug abuse or Drug Addiction • Sexual transmitted disease • Anti social behaviour • Alcohol abuse • Economic Deprivation • Unemployment • Natural Disasters
  4. 4. POVERTY
  5. 5. POVERTY • The world at its worst when people are deprived of basic everyday things that we take for granted like food, water, shelter, money, and clothes. • Is general scarcity or dearth, or the state of one who lacks a certain amount of material possessions or money. • A multifaceted concept, which includes social, economic, and political elements. • Seems to be chronic or temporary, and most of the time it is closely related to inequality.
  6. 6. FACES OF POVERTY
  7. 7. FACES OF POVERTY
  8. 8. ETYMOLOGY • Old French – poverté • Modern French - pauvreté • Latin paupertās - from pauper (poor)
  9. 9. CAUSES OF POVERTY • Lack of education • Natural disasters • Lack of money • Greed • No opportunities provided • Drugs and alcohol
  10. 10. FACTORS WHICH POOR PEOPLE IDENTIFY AS PART OF POVERTY • Abuse by those in power • Dis-empowering institutions • Excluded locations • Gender relationships • Lack of security • Limited capabilities • Physical limitations • Precarious livelihoods • Problems in social relationships • Weak community organizations
  11. 11. 9 KINDS OF POVERTY ACCORDING TO A. M. HENRY 1) The disadvantaged 2) The unfortunate and accident victims 3) The isolated 4) Those who have no future 5) The unwell. 6) The ignorant, the incompetent, the inexperienced 7) The unloved 8) Those who hide or hate themselves 9) Those who lack willpower or love
  12. 12. The disadvantaged
  13. 13. The unfortunate and accident victims
  14. 14. The isolated
  15. 15. Those who have no future
  16. 16. The unwell
  17. 17. The ignorant, the incompetent, the inexperienced
  18. 18. The unloved
  19. 19. Those who hide or hate themselves
  20. 20. Those who lack willpower or love
  21. 21. AMOUNT OF POVERTY
  22. 22. THE HARSH TRUTH • 1 in 2 children live in poverty • Over 3 billon people live on less than $2.50 a day • 22000 children die each day because of poverty • 1 percent of what the world spent every year on weapons was needed to put every child into school and yet didn’t happen. POVERTY FACTS AROUND THE WORLD
  23. 23. THE HARSH TRUTH POVERTY FACTS IN THE PHILIPPINES
  24. 24. SOLUTIONS TO POVERTY • No war • Ask the government to do a lot more about poverty • Donate things you don’t use to charity • Donate food that won’t spoil to food banks • Education • Lots of opportunities
  25. 25. CHILD LABOR
  26. 26. CHILD LABOR • Work that harms children or keeps them from attending school • work by children that harms them or exploits them in some way (physically, mentally, morally, or by blocking their access to education). • It is the work that exceeds a minimum number of hour depending on the age of the child and on the situation • Is not only a social problem but also an economic one • Has a predominant feature in Indian society • carpet industry requires the fine little fingers to weave the finest and tiniest of knots to create the most expensive of carpets
  27. 27. CHILD LABOR • Firecracker Industry • Household Labor
  28. 28. HOW MANY ARE THERE? • According to certain experts approximately 10 million bonded children labourers are working as dome In South Asia. • Beyond this there are almost 55 million bonded child labourers hired across various other industries. • Less than 5% of child laborers make products for export to other countries.
  29. 29. CHILD LABOR FACT SHEET • 73 million working children are less than 10 years old • While buffaloes may cost up to 15,000 rupees , children are sold at prices between 500 and 2,000 rupees. • 47 out of 100 children in India enrolled in class I reach class VIII, putting the dropout rate at 52.79%. • Approximately 16.64% of villages in the country do not have facilities for primary schooling. (UNICEF) • 42 million children in the age-group 6- 14 years do not attend school in India.
  30. 30. CHILD LABOR IN INDIA • INDIA accounts for the second highest number where child labor in the world. • Africa accounts for the highest number of children employed and exploited. • According to certain experts approximately 10 million bonded children laborers are working as domestic servants in India • Beyond this there are almost 55million bonded child laborers hired across various other industries.in India.
  31. 31. THE FACES OF CHILD LABOR
  32. 32. CHILD LABOR INDEX
  33. 33. CAUSES OF CHILD LABOR… • Over population • Illiteracy • Urbanization • Orphans • Willingness to Exploit • Unemployment of Elders
  34. 34. CONSEQUENCES FOR CHILDREN • Physical injuries and mutilations • Pesticide poisoning • Growth deficiency • Long-term health problems • HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases • Exhaustion and malnutrition
  35. 35. LAWS National Policy on Child Labour was formulated in 1987. • Prohibition of children being employed in hazardous occupations and processes. • Poverty being the main root cause the gov’t has decided to generate the employment • Supplementary nutrition and regular health check ups so as to prepare them to join regular mainstream schools
  36. 36. INITIATIVES TOWARDS ELIMINATION OF CHILD LABOUR • The government has made efforts to prohibit child labor by enacting Child labor laws in India including the 1986 Child Labor (Prohibition and Regulation) • Government has accordingly been taking proactive steps to tackle this problem through strict enforcement of legislative provisions along with simultaneous rehabilitative measures • State Governments, which are the appropriate implementing authorities, have been conducting regular inspections and raids to detect cases of violations • Government has been laying a lot of emphasis on the rehabilitation of these children and on improving the economic conditions of their families
  37. 37. THE CHILD LABOUR (Prohibition and Regulation) ACT, 1986 • OBJECT : To prohibit the engagement of children in certain employment’s and to regulate the conditions of work or children in certain other employment’s • DEFINITION : Child: Child means a person who has not completed his fourteen years of age. • PPLICABILITY : In extends to the whole of India • WEEKLY HOLIDAY : Every child shall be allowed in each week a holiday of one whole day. • HOURS AND PERIOD OF WORK : The period of work on each day shall not exceed three hours and no child shall work for more than three hours before he has had an interval for rest for at least one hour. No child shall be permitted or required to work between 7 p.m. and 8 a.m. No child shall be required or permitted to work overtime.
  38. 38. PROHIBITION OF EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDREN IN CERTAIN OCCUPATIONS AND PROCESSES 1. Transport of passengers, goods; or mails by railway 2. Cinder picking, clearing of an ash pit or building operation in the railway 3. Work in a catering establishment at a railway station, involving the movement of vendor or any other employee of the establishment from one platform to 4. Work relating to the construction of railway station or with any other work where such work is done in close proximity to or between the railway lines.
  39. 39. PROHIBITION OF EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDREN IN CERTAIN OCCUPATIONS AND PROCESSES 5. The port authority within the limits of any port. 107 6. Work relating to selling of crackers and fireworks in shops with temporary licenses 8. Automobile workshops and garages. 9. Founderies 10. Handling of taxies or inflammable substance or explosives 11. Handlom and powerloom industry 12. Mines (Under ground and under water) and collieries 13. Plastic units and Fiber glass workship
  40. 40. THE CHILD LABOUR (Prohibition and Regulation) ACT, 1986 PENALITIES • Section 3 - shall be punishable with imprisonment which shall not be less than three months which may extend to one year or with fine which shall not be less than ten thousand rupees but which may extend to twenty thousand rupees or with both .
  41. 41. THE LEGAL PROTECTION OF CHILD WORKERS HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF CHILD LABOR IN THE PHILIPPINES
  42. 42. • R.A. 679 “An Act to Regulate the Employment of Women and Children, to Provide Penalties for Violation Hereof, and for Other Purposes". • R.A. 7658 “An Act Prohibiting the Employment of Children Below 15 Years of Age in Public and Private Undertakings“ • R. A. 3071 “An Act to Regulate the Employment of Women and Children in Shops, Factories, Industrial, Agricultural and Mercantile Establishments, and Other Place of Labour in the Philippine Islands, to Provide Penalties for Violations Hereof and for Other Purposes“ REPUBLIC ACT NO. 679, 7658 and 3071
  43. 43. • P.D. 442 - Labour Code • P.D. 603 - Child and Youth WelfareCodeU.N. Convention on the Rights ofthe ChildR.A. 7610 - The Child Protection Law PRESIDENTIAL DECREE
  44. 44. CHILD LABOR The Silent Killer…
  45. 45. "There is one dream that all Filipinos share: that our children may have a better life than we have had . . . there is one vision that is distinctly Filipino: the vision to make this country, our country, a nation for our children." Jose W. Diokno
  46. 46. Children are remarkably imaginative and resilient - but also heartbreakingly fragile and vulnerable. “ So let us share their dreams And shape their future ” .
  47. 47. CYBERSEX Mr. Bien Carlo Carlos Discussant
  48. 48. CYBERSEX • a form of a virtual sexual activity performed by two persons directly or indirectly through the use of the world wide web. • also called as pornography, computer sex, internet sex, net sex, tiny sex, mud sex, conversex and cybering.
  49. 49. WHY DO PEOPLE ENGAGE IN CYBERSEX? • It can satisfy some sexual desires without the risk of a sexually transmitted disease (STD) or pregnancy, • Allows real-life partners who are physically separated to continue to be sexually intimate. • Allows for sexual exploration. • Takes less effort and fewer resources on the Internet than in real life to connect to a person like oneself or with whom a more meaningful relationship is possible. • Demotes our sexual self
  50. 50. MORAL ISSUES OF CYBERSEX • Demotes our sexual self • Breaches human dignity • Deteriorate our values • Alters the essence of sexuality from being sacred to just for pleasure • Numbs consciousness and conscience Sensitivity is disregarded
  51. 51. BIBLE’S TEACHINGS ABOUT CYBERSEX • “Deaden, therefore, your body members that are upon the earth as respects fornication, uncleanness, sexual appetite.” (Colossians 3:5) • “Everyone that keeps on looking at a woman so as to have a passion for her has already committed adultery with her in his heart.” (Matthew 5:28) • “Let fornication and uncleanness of every sort or greediness not even be mentioned among you.” (Ephesians 5:3) • “The works of the flesh are manifest, and they are fornication, uncleanness, . . . and things like these. As to these things I am forewarning you, the same way as I did forewarn you, that those who practice such things will not inherit God’s kingdom.” (Galatians 5:19-21)
  52. 52. DRUG ADDICTION
  53. 53. DRUG ADDICTION AND DRUG ABUSE
  54. 54. DRUG ADDICTION AND DRUG ABUSE • Addiction: Compulsive nature of the drug use despite physical and/or psychological harm to the user and society and includes both licit and illicit drugs. • Substance abuse: Frequently used broad range of substances (including alcohol and inhalants) that can fit the addictive profile.
  55. 55. DRUG ADDICTION AND DRUG ABUSE Dependence: • Psychological dependence - Eg: cocaine • Physical dependence • addiction to morphine (reward pathway) • dependence to morphine (thalamus and brainstem)
  56. 56. DRUG USE TERMS AND DESCRIPTIONS • Drug: In medicine, it refers to any substance with the potential to prevent or cure disease or enhance physical or mental well-being. In pharmacology, drug refers to any agent that alters the biochemical or physiological processes of tissue or organism. • Street drug: Drug that is taken for non-medicinal reasons (usually for mind-altering effects); drug abuse can lead to physical and mental damage and (with some substances) dependence and addiction. Eg: Alcohol, heroin, methamphetamine, crack, cocaine and marijuana (Cannabis).
  57. 57. DRUG USE TERMS AND DESCRIPTIONS • Hard drug (lead to severe physical addiction): – Drug that is generally considered to be more dangerous, with a higher risk of dependence that soft drugs. Eg.: Heroin, methamphetamine, cocaine. • Soft drug (do not cause physical addiction): – While they do not cause physical addiction, some of them may still lead to psychological dependency. Psychological dependency is a dependency of the mind. This means that people feel better when they have the drug. Eg: lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), Cannabis
  58. 58. DRUG USE TERMS AND DESCRIPTIONS • Illicit drug: AN illegal drug, can’t prescribed. Eg.: Cocaine, heroin, LSD, marijuana. • Designer drug: A synthetic drug very similar in chemical makeup to an existing drug and thus exerting similar. • Club drug: A drug whose use primarily occurs in clubs, bars and trance parities. E.g: Rohypnol, ketamine. • Recreational drugs: – Recreational drugs are those used for non medicinal purposes, in particular, for fun or leisure. – Eg.: methamphetamine (potent psychostimulant of the phenethylamine), that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), drive long distances and obesity
  59. 59. DRUG USE TERMS AND DESCRIPTIONS • Adulterants: drugs that are added to mimic or enhance the effects of the drug being offered. Example, sometimes amphetamines have been cut with caffeine or ephedrine • Diluents: Compounds such as sugars or baking soda that are used to increase the bulk of the drug sample.
  60. 60. TYPES OF ABUSED SUBSTANCES • Legal Substances – Legal substances, approved by law for sale over the counter or by doctor's prescription, include caffeine, alcoholic beverages, nicotine, and inhalants (nail polish, glue, inhalers, gasoline). – Prescription drugs such as tranquilizers, amphetamines, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, steroids, and analgesics can be knowingly or unknowingly overprescribed or otherwise used improperly.
  61. 61. MOTIVATIONS FOR DRUG USE • People take drugs for many reasons, and they may take stimulants to keep alert, or cocaine for the feeling of excitement it produces. – peer pressure – relief of stress – increased energy – to relax – to relieve pain – to escape reality – to feel more self-esteem, and for recreation. • Athletes and bodybuilders may take anabolic steroids to increase muscle mass
  62. 62. THE EFFECTS OF SUBSTANCE USE • It can be on many levels: – on the individual, – on friends and family, – on society.
  63. 63. Effects of Substance Abuse – on individual
  64. 64. Effects of Substance Abuse – on friends and family
  65. 65. Effects of Substance Abuse – on the society
  66. 66. Symptoms • Recurrent drug use may result in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home. • Repeated absences, tardiness, poor performance, suspensions, or neglect of duties in major life domains suggests drug abuse. • Recurrent drug use in situations in which it is physically hazardous is a sign of abuse. • Operating machinery, driving a car, swimming, or walking in a dangerous area while under the influence indicates drug abuse. • Recurrent drug-related legal problems, such as arrests for disorderly conduct or for driving under the influence, are indicative of abuse. • Recurrent use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems, caused or exacerbated by the effects of the drug, is indicative of abuse.
  67. 67. Treatment • Pharmacological treatment • Fighting Substance Abuse • Supply Reduction • Reduction of demand for drugs • Legalization and decriminalization
  68. 68. Treatment Pharmacotherapy Both pharmacological and behavioral treatments are used, often augmented by educational and vocational services. Treatment may include detoxification, therapy, and support groups, such as the 12-step groups Alcoholics Anonymous, Narcotics Anonymous, and Cocaine Anonymous. – Disulfiram is a medicine used in the treatment of alcoholism. – methadone or buprenorphine maintenance programs for heroin addiction.
  69. 69. The Main Drugs of Abuse
  70. 70. The Main Drugs of Abuse cont…
  71. 71. GRAFT AND CORRUPTION Mrs. Jovielyn D. Ramos Discussant
  72. 72. GRAFT • A form of political corruption, is the unscrupulous use of a politician's authority for personal gain. • The term has its origins in the medical procedure whereby tissue is removed from one location and attached to another for which it was not originally intended. • Similarly, political graft occurs when funds intended for public projects are intentionally misdirected in order to maximize the benefits to private interests
  73. 73. MOST CORRUPT ASIAN COUNTRIES • Philippines • Indonesia • Malaysia • India • China • Tajikistan • Myanmar • Syria • North Korea • Cambodia
  74. 74. GRAFT AND CORRUPTION IN THE PHILIPPINE GOVERNMENT
  75. 75. • In 1988, graft and corruption in the Philippines was considered as the “biggest problem of all” by Jaime Cardinal Sin, the Archbishop of Manila. • In 1989, public perception was that “corrupt government officials are greater threat to the country” than the communist guerrillas. • In 1992, President V. Ramos considered graft and corruption as the third major hindrance towards attaining his development strategy for the country. • In 1998, the country got good marks from Transparency International and the Political and Economic Risk Consultancy (PERC), LTD. GRAFT AND CORRUPTION IN THE PHILIPPINE GOVERNMENT
  76. 76. GRAFT AND CORRUPTION IN THE PHILIPPINE GOVERNMENT • The Philippines then placed 6th out of the 11 Asian countries under the PERC corruption perception index (CPI), a measure of lost development opportunities in terms of investment. • However, while the anti-corruption landscape in the Philippines has improved, its low score of 6.5 still placed the Philippines as highly prone to corruption. • In general, national and international opinion depict the Philippines as still corrupt and being unable to effectively fight this problem. • About 30 % of the national budget is reportedly lost to graft & corruption every year.
  77. 77. GRAFT AND CORRUPTION IN THE PHILIPPINE GOVERNMENT • Thus; a budget of 80 billion pesos will stand to lose about 24 billion pesos….
  78. 78. Indeed, today, graft & corruption in the Philippines…… REMAINS!!!
  79. 79. SPECIFIC TYPES OF CORRUPTION IN THE PHILIPPINES 1. Tax evasion 2. Ghost projects & payrolls 3. Evasion of public bidding in awarding of contracts 4. Passing of contracts 5. Nepotism & favouritism 6. Extortion 7. Protection Money 8. Bribery
  80. 80. COSTS OF CORRUPTION • On politics, administration, & institutions • Economic effects • Environmental & Social effects • Effects on Humanitarian Aid • Other areas, health, public safety, education, trade
  81. 81. MEASURES EMPLOYED TO CONTROL GRAFT & CORRUPTION LEGAL MEASURES The 1987 Philippine Constitution Article XI of the 1987 Philippine constitution, titled “Accountability of Public Officers”, states in Section 1 that “public office is a public trust.” Public Officers and employees must at all times be accountable to the people, serve them with utmost responsibility, integrity, loyalty, and efficiency, act with patriotism and justice, and lead modest lives.
  82. 82. LAW • Executive Order No. 292 of the Administrative Code of 1987 • Republic Act No. 6713 also known as the Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for Public Officials and Employees of 1989 • Republic Act No. 7080 also known as the Act Defining and Penalizing the Crime of Plunder • Republic Act No. 8249 also known as the Act Further Defining the Jurisdiction of the Sandiganbayan • Republic Act No. 3019 also known as the Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act of 1960
  83. 83. COSTS OF CORRUPTION • Imprisonment (between 6- 15 years) • perpetual disqualification from public office • confiscation of forfeiture of unexplained wealth in favor of the government
  84. 84. CONSTITUTIONAL ANTI-CORRUPTION BODIES a. The office of the Ombudsman (OMB) b. The Civil Service Commission (CSC) c. The Commission on Audit (COA) d. The Sandiganbayan
  85. 85. OTHER GOVERNMENT ANTI- CORRUPTION BODIES • The Department of Justice (DOJ • The National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) and the Philippine National Police (PNP) • The Presidential Commission on Good Government (PCGG) • The Presidential Commission against Graft & Corruption
  86. 86. OTHER GOVERNMENT ANTI- CORRUPTION BODIES 1. Appointees with rank of or higher than Assistant Regional Director, 2. At least one million pesos; 3. An Offense that may threaten grievous harm to national interest; and 4. Cases specifically assigned by the president. 5. The Inter-Agency Anti-Graft Coordinating Council
  87. 87. IMPEDIMENTS TO THE ANTI- CORRUPTION EFFORTS • Specific culture of Filipinos is enhancing the proliferation of graft and corruption. • Transparency is not religiously observed particularly in government transactions. • Effective monitoring of government programs and projects as well as expenditures are not being seriously undertaken by those tasked to monitor them. • The Filipino culture of gift giving justifies bribery and extortion thereby making it hard for law enforcement and anti-corruption agencies to arrest the problem. • The statement of assets and liabilities, which is an effective mechanism to curb graft and corruption is religiously submitted yearly by all public officials. • Other anti-corruption provisions may work against getting good people in the government.
  88. 88. THANK YOU…

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