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  2. LEARNING OBJETIVES At the end this lesson the student can be able to: Explain the different rules of teaching grammar Construct narratives/ situationers that present the different rules in teaching grammar and; Write sample lesson guide applying the different rules.
  3. “A language is acquired through practice; it is merely perfected through grammar” -Liebniz
  4. As a future English teacher, How do you teach grammar?
  5. As a future teacher, it is not enough that you have memorized the rules of ‘correct usage’ or ‘good style’. The challenge now is how do you translate these technicalities into chewable chunks.
  6. 6 RULES OF GRAMMAR TEACHING Rule of Context Rule of Use Rule of Economy Rule of Relevance Rule of Nurture Rule of Appropriacy
  7. Rules of Grammar Teaching As Rutherford (1987) in Thornbury, (1996) observe: Theories of Grammar are not theories of language acquisition. This may mean that teacher should not make memorizing rules of grammar the only added that “the nature of our knowledge of language and of language-learning processes is such that notions of optimally accurate and/ or effective rules are neither realistic nor desirable in a learning teaching situation. It is much more relevant to the learner’s needs that a teacher can provide typical language data and monitor learner production effectively (whether for accuracy or for fluency) than the most watertight, static formulations of language data be aimed at.”
  8. RULE OF CONTEXT Teaching grammar “in context” means that grammar context/lessons are not taught as stand alone concepts, but are embedded and/or integrated into varied context, situations, or any field of study. Teachers not just ask students to focus on rules and diagramming, but guide them in understanding how grammar works in real communicative situations. Students should be taught how to use the form and not just memorize conjugations that may not be relevant and applicable across contexts.
  9. Why? Language knowledge does not necessarily guarantee language skills. Context provides avenue not just to learn grammar rules but for meaning-making. Every individual is creative and has rich experiences, thus should be given opportunity to utilize these through real- world type situations in which context is a major consideration. “Thinking of grammar in terms of concepts, that is, what is the purpose of using a specific form, what is the meaning expressed through that form, will broaden learners understanding and use of the target language”-ACTFL Language Connects
  10. What?  Grammar teaching should consider all three, form, meaning and use.  Grammar instruction should integrate aspects of both language and literature-and not as distinct “field” of English.  “Teaching grammar in context involves making connections between grammatical patterns and the meaning of text; wider contextual aspects such as genre, audience, subject and purpose; a reader’s feelings and responses to a text; potential authorial motivations for making decisions about language choices,” –(Aarts,,2018)  “Teach grammar in context. If you must take an item out of context to focus on it, recontextualize it as soon as possible. Always associate grammar form with the meaning of the speaker or author.” -(Thombury,2004
  11. How? Give real world scenarios and examples where grammar is used. Encourage interaction rather than spending more time answering written exercise and worksheets. Alda, (2020) purported the use of authentic materials in providing for concrete samples of language use in the community. These materials are accessible within the community like audio and video materials (songs, films, radio and TV broadcasts, news reports documentaries, etc.); visual and printed materials (signages, infographic, photographs, restaurant menus, product labels, calendars, etc.); digital materials (blogs and vlogs, videos from TED talk, podcast, etc.)
  12. Use scaffolding strategies like tapping into students prior experiences, use of graphic organizers, charts and other scaffolding tools, think aloud, providing discussion prompts, reinforcing contextual definitions, allowing students to collaborate and discuss with peers, use of dialogues, etc. Use literary pieces such as short stories, poems, songs and the like as a springboard in teaching grammatical concepts. A contextualized grammar teaching may start with the development of ideas and concepts, rather that the grammar it self. Inductive method of teaching grammar may be used in this case.
  13. RULE OF USE The rule of use in teaching grammar reminds language teachers to teach grammar for communications sake. Memorizing the rules do not guarantee language production. If the goal of your language class is for students to be able to use the target language meaningfully, then, you have to provide opportunities for language practice.
  14. Why? The primary goal of teaching English is to help Filipino students acquire the necessary skills for listening, speaking, reading and writing, which enable them use the language for effective communication. Language knowledge is not equal to language production. Students are able to appreciate what they are learning if they see how language works and is used in real context. Students should be able to see the relationship of grammar points to how the target language is actually used.
  15. What? “ Teach grammar in order to facilitate the learners comprehension and production of real language, rather than as an end in itself. Always provide opportunities for learners to put the grammar to some communicative use”-Thornbury (2004) Students understand the concepts (grammar rules) better if they are able to use and apply it in real communicative tasks. Learning English is more than just learning vocabulary and grammar rules, students need to actually use the language and listen to how others use it as well.
  16. Grammar teaching should incorporate spoken interactions or communicative production tasks. A key component of grammar teaching is the integration of communicative work. To teach grammar effectively, teacher should enable students to control grammar to express increasingly complex ideas.
  17. How? Provide for authentic samples of language use anchoring on students context. Encourage students to identify usage patterns on how the target language is actually used. Used varied activities like letting students listen to audio samples of native and non-native speakers of the language. Provide opportunities for student to share insights and ideas in class and give helpful feedback to improve language use.
  18. Instead of using grammar-based approaches, that rule encourages teachers to employ communicative approaches, that is, language is best learned through interaction. Example of an activity using communicative approach is prompt- based activity. Like the famous game –Guess Who? You can contextualize this board game according to your objective. You may also use different characters like national heroes, politicians, famous poets etc. The artists used here are the top artists that gain popularity among teens. These are from famous Korean drama, Philippine movies, and international shows. Photos of these artists are used for academic purposes only. Moreover, these photos are transformed into cartoons/avatars using an online cartomizer –
  19. RULE OF ECONOMY The rule of economy explains that to provide time for language use, teachers should be economical. By economical, it means that teachers provide manageable and comprehensible input and allocate enough time for language use and practice.
  20. Why? Language is primarily a skill, thus, should be practiced and used. Just studying grammar will not in itself enable you to use it. Students language success may be limited if what they have learned will merely stay as rules to understand. Providing for more and more input may still not be sufficient, for input should be “comprehensible”. Thus, a content-jampacked syllabus do not necessarily guarantee language acquisition. Students who are at intermediate level and beyond may need more opportunities for practice rather than presentation of rules.
  21. What? “Economize on presentation time in order to provide maximum practice time. When grammar a little can go a long way.” –Thornbury (2004) The English curriculum should be decongested focusing on relevant grammar concepts. “ Comprehensible input is language input that can be understood by listeners despite them not understanding all the words and structures in it. It is described as one level above that of the learners if it can only just be understood.” Krashen (2003)
  22. Providing comprehensible input and more time for language practice help students acquire language naturally, rather than learn it consciously. As language learners usage of the target language increases so does their level of comprehension. Teachers should be able to strategize how to present grammar rules efficiently and effectively, then provide more time for students to apply these rules in communicative tasks.
  23. How? Plan your grammar lessons well. Sometimes the ones stipulated in the curriculum may be too much or too little depending on students level. Start where your students are. Be clear with your goal. What is your goal in teaching a certain grammar point? For students to gain a deeper understanding of the concept? For student to use these grammar points to complete a task? To accomplish both? A lesson guide/plan is helpful when creating relevant activities for the topic that are “enough” for you class time.
  24. Provide instructional scaffolding to enhance learning and aid in the mastery of tasks. Use teaching scaffolds like the use of visual aids, example is graphic organizer. Graphic organizers like charts, concept maps, mind maps, infographics and so on, help create visual images of how concepts are related and provide for an effective way of how concept are related and provide for an effective way of organizing information. These materials help “student convert and compress a lot of seemingly disjointed information into a structured, simple-to-read, graphic display. The resulting visual display conveys complex information in a simple-to-understand manner.” (Graphic Organizer, / ND).
  25. RULE OF RELEVANCE In this context, we define relevance as the “learning experiences that are either directly applicable to the personal aspirations, interest, or cultural experiences of students (personal relevance) or that are connected in some way to real-world issues, problems and context (life relevance)” (the glossary of Education Reform,2013).
  26. Why? “Relevant, meaningful activities that both engage students emotionally and connect with what they already know are what helps build neutral connections and long-term memory storage,”-Briggs(2014) “Relevant, meaningful activities that both engage students emotionally and connect with what they already know are what help build neutral connections and long-term memory storage,” –Briggs (2014) Students may disregard important concepts if they see the importance and connection of the concepts taught in the classroom to their real life encounters.
  27. Students may become disinterested in the things they already know thus, teachers should start where they are. If students acknowledge that the concepts are worth knowing, it will hold their attention and engage them.
  28. What? The rule of relevance prompts the language teachers to make learning become more personal to the students. “Teach only the grammar that students have problems with. This means, start off by finding out what they already know. And don’t assume that the grammar of English is a wholly different system from the learners mother tongue. Exploit the common ground.”-Thornbury ,(2004) The Glossary of Education Reform (2013) points out two kinds of relevance – personal relevance and life relevance. “Personal relevance occurs when learning is connected to an individual students interests, aspirations, and life experiences. Meanwhile, its world issues, problems, and contexts outside of school.”
  29. The rule puts students at the center of English language teaching and learning. Depending on the target language, teachers should teach grammar concepts in relation to the students mother-tongue. Communicative tasks should cater to cultural differences. Teachers should make sure that examples are accurate and appropriate to the certain groups.
  30. How? Provide examples that are grounded on how concepts learned are used in the real world. Let students experiences authentic use of the language. let them accomplish tasks using the target language, or non-native speakers having good command of the target language. Provide opportunities for multi-layered projects like those that innovative research, community involvement, language immersion,
  31. Create activities to showcase students communicative abilities like oration, declamation, broadcasting, mock job interview, debate, extemporaneous speaking, poem reading, spoken word poetry. Lets students watch movies where the target language is spoken by native and non-native speakers. Anchor your lessons on real world problems where students are able to see the importance of learning the target language- the danger of miscommunication, why headline writing is important, etc.
  32. Let students publish their poems, stories, narratives etc. Displaying or publishing student work is a great way to get them involve and motivated. Encourage students to build and create connections to what has been taught and to what is happening in the real world. For example, if your teaching students Headline Writing, particularly choosing headline verbs you may start, your discussion by showing them misleading headlines and ask them how poorly constructed headlines affect the integrity of the news. You can also start your discussion on the current situation in the Philippines regarding the fast spread of fake news.
  33. RULE OF NURTURE  As cliché as it may sound, teachers create significant impact on students lives. When students are asked to describe their favorite teacher, most of them would say, he/she is caring, a good listener, supportive, has good sense of humor, etc. If you will be the teacher, how do you want your students to describe you? More than being a knowledge dispense, the teacher also plays the role of a mentor, a friend , a parent, a counselor and so on. Sometimes, these things that make people feel more “human” matter the most. The things teachers say and do in the classroom may positively or negatively affect students competence and confidence. Further, the effectiveness components of learning are very important for students to be able to make measurable gains in acquiring and manipulating knowledge. teachers need to be strategic in cultivating positive and healthy learning environment for the students.
  34. Why? A nurturing environment is a learning-rich environment. Students need to feel that the classroom is a place for trial and error and learning from mistakes. They need to feel safe, supported, cared for in your classroom. Teachers should be able to provide a conductive learning environment free from fear and humiliation. Students tend to withdraw and lose interest in learning if the classroom does not reinforce self-esteem. Reinforcing self-steem in the classroom is associated with increased motivation and learning.
  35. What? “Teaching doesn’t necessarily cause learning – not in any direct way. Instead of teaching grammar, therefore, try to provide the right conditions for grammar, therefore, try to provide the right conditions for grammar learning – Thornbury (2004) “A teacher who builds positive relationships with students decreases the affective filter, or level of discomfort in the classroom and the students perform better. Teachers who make connections between old and new knowledge and the both into the real world also have students who perform better.”- Adams (2015)
  36. “One obstacle that is a ‘screen’ that is influenced by emotional variables that can prevent learning. This hypothetical filter does not impact acquisition directly but rather prevents input from reaching the language acquisition part of the brain.” – Krashen (2004) Teachers need to lower or decrease the “filter” or the barriers (anxiety, self-confidence, motivation and stress) as these may affect students overall language experience. Teachers need to see to it that grammar concept and the way they are taught will motivate students to internalize the input, produce optimal output and take into account feedback.
  37. How? Get to know your student and allow them to know you as well. Create a sense of order through clear behavioral and academic expectations. Utilize communal games and activities, relevant instructional materials, and engaging classroom discussions. Provide constructive feedback and allow students to learn from their mistakes. Don’t judge.
  38. Celebrate success and class achievements. Choose appropriate teaching methods to cultivate students motivation and creativity. Teachers may use the teaching method named Suggestopedia/ Desuggestopedia by Georgi Lozanov on Imploring different relaxing elements like music, drama and art in creating a more comfortable learning environment. This is also supported by Krashen’s Affective Filter in eliminating the “filters” or “barriers” that may hinder language learning.
  39. RULE OF APPROPRIACY It is given fact that no two students are alike. Even if you are teaching in the same grade level, your students will always vary in age, proficiency level, learning needs, interests, expectations, skills, learning styles, beliefs, attitude and values. This rule, according to Thornbury, suggests that teachers should be able to apply these rules of teaching grammar according to the aforementioned differences. Whether you put prevision to a grammar-driven classroom or may not teach grammar at all, it is your responsibility to identify what is best for your students.
  40. Why? People are more different than they are alike. Teachers here is respond to the diversity of learners. These individual differences in a language classroom can make for success or failure in attaining the goal of acquiring the target language. Regardless of how diverse the classroom is, students should be given equal opportunity to learn and achieve their goals. Teachers need to evaluate what students really need and design classroom activities suited to their needs. The teaching – learning process should be student-centered.
  41. What? Teachers should design classroom activities not just according to efficiency but also appropriacy. Grammar practice and communicative tasks should suit to the “context” of each learner. This rule prompts teachers to consider their students in the context of being language learners – What do they need to know in the future? These questions can help teachers evaluate if what they are doing in the classroom is somehow appropriate to their students. Teachers should consider the individual differences of the students and ue this to plan an effective and productive teaching-learning process.
  42. How? Teachers may conduct need assessment analysis or diagnostic tests to gain necessary data on students proficiency level and needs. Talk to your students and let them share their language learning challenges and how they want to be supported. Determine your students learning styles previous learning experiences and present expectations. Take into consideration all other rules of teaching grammar.
  43. Start where your students are
  44. References GraphicOrganizer ND
  45. Thank you for listening