2. Task 1.
Since our classmates are a phone away, call a
partner (classmate or friend) and share your experiences
on the following.
What usually are your problems when attending
Were there instances that you just missed out on
important information from your teacher's lecture? Why
do you think this happened?
Is it easy for you to recall important points from a class
lecture? Why or why not?
What other listening strategies do you do to help you
remember your teacher’s lectures?
As a future teacher, in what way can you help your
students remember your lecture?
3. Teaching Listening
• Listening is an important foundation for the language
• Teaching this skill provides an avenue for students to be
exposed to rich input and an authentic sample of oral
• This allows them to be familiar with what constitutes oral
texts like pronunciation, stress, pitch, and intonation; and
to be exposed to rich vocabulary and language structure
that is used in varied communicative settings.
4. • Process of Listening (top-down & bottom-up process)
• Cahyono and Widiati (2009) mentioned that "successful listeners
are those who can use both bottom-up and top-down processes
by combining the new information and the knowledge that they
• Lopez, et.al. (2020) mentions an ‘integrative approach' in
teaching listening which involve three key stages: before-
listening, while-listening, and after-listening.
*ensure to provide activities that would involve students processing
and decoding the text (bottom-up), and then comprehending it
using one's schema (top-down).
5. • According to Vandergrift (2011), "the greater use of one
process over the other will depend on the listening purpose,
the listeners' characteristics, and the context where the
listening act takes place”.
• Richards (2008) in Lopez et.al. (2020) states that:
…In real-world listening, both bottom-up and top-down
processes generally occur together. The extent to which one or
the other dominates depends on the listener's familiarity with
the topic and content of a text, the density of information in a
text, the text type, and the listener's purpose in listening.
6. The following are some of the exercises you can use which would
develop students’ top-down and bottom-up processing:
Teachers may ask students to:
point out familiar words from the oral
identify the meaning of unfamiliar words
from texts listened to
locate the syllable stress from words,
and word stress from sentences
identify rhyming words
listen for pitch levels and intonation
determine synonyms and antonyms
from texts listened to
write down as many words and phrases
related to the topic they are about listen
get the idea from the texts listened to
discriminate between emotional
make predictions and inferences from
listen for specific information
sequence information after listening to a
7. identify key words that occurred in a
find which modal verbs occurred in a
identify thought groups
find collocations and idioms
point out key transitions in a discourse
identify grammatical relationships
between key elements in sentences
determine the order in which words
occurred in an utterance
share one's ideas based on the topic
give synthesis from texts heard
summarize important points
generate questions from topics heard
identify conversation themes
rewrite the listening texts using their
share what the speaker's purpose is
and identify his/her speaking attitude
students to ask about and/or to
describe other expressions they may
write a journal of their listening
8. Three key stages in teaching listening: before-
listening, while-listening, and after listening.
• Richards (2008) in Lopez, et.al. (2020) explains that:
- before-listening stage prepares students for both types of
processing through activities that require activating their previous
knowledge, making predictions, and revising key vocabulary;
- while-listening stage focuses attention on comprehension
through activities that require selective listening, listening for main
ideas (gist listening), or understanding the sequence of events
- post-listening phase, students should express their opinions
on the topic and respond to comprehension. This stage may also
include a detailed analysis of some sections of the text that could
not be understand by the students.
9. Stages Suggested Activities
• Introduce some vocabulary words from the text.
• Encourage students to write down questions which they
would want to answer after listening.
• Have students sort a text from a jumbled version.
• Ask them to predict what the oral text will be based on its title.
• Ask students questions related to the oral text to activate prior
• Instruct students to list down important words.
• Let students guess the meaning of unknown words from the
• Ask students to list expressions that occurred while listening.
• Ask students to do cloze exercises while listening.
• Let them show evidence of understanding or non-
understanding through gestures (thumbs up or thumbs down)
• As the teacher reads the text, or as the audio recording
plays, the teacher may stop at some parts to ask students
to write down important points or give descriptions, etc..
• Ask students to think and talk about what they heard.
• Let them create and share their dialogues from what they
have listened to
• Let them write their own opinions and share them with the
• Ask them to sequence important events from the stories
• Let them complete gaps in the text, tick words, and
phrases that are heard, or match and choose pictures.
• Ask questions for comprehension.
• Introduce memory games.
• Let students complete tables, charts, diagrams,
• Let them answer multiple-choice. s and true/false
11. Format of a Listening Lesson
• Teachers have to provide activities that supplement
comprehension goals with acquisition goals.
• Successful listeners are these that can use both
bottom-up and top-down processes thus, teaching-
learning activities should provide students the
opportunity to practice both.
• The three key stages in listening may be used as an
outline in designing a listening lesson that ensures an
interactive process approach in teaching listening.
This stage sets the context of the listening activity that will be
given to the students. In this stage, the following will help you in
getting your students ready for the listening task:
• Identifying vocabulary/comprehension needs. As language
teachers, you should have information on your students' listening
skills as well as their vocabulary level. This is very helpful not just
when designing pre-listening vocabulary activities but also when
choosing specific materials for listening activities. Teachers should
help students better understand the listening or oral texts by
identifying possible difficult words or presenting specific vocabulary
expressions which students would need while listening.
13. • Activating interest. Teachers would always start with motivational
activities to set the classroom mood. The goal is for students to be
ready and be motivated to listen. The listening text should be
‘familiar’, interesting, and within students' level of understanding.
• Putting it in context. Teachers should choose oral and listening
texts that are relevant and interesting to the students. During pre-
listening, the teacher should be able to design contextualized
listening activities that would activate students’ prior knowledge
and help them form appropriate inferences which they need to
comprehend the message. According to Vandergrift (n.d), teachers
need to help students organize their thoughts, activate appropriate
background knowledge for understanding and to make predictions
to prepare for listening.
14. • Setting the purpose. At the onset, the purpose of the listening
activity should be made clear to the students. Are they listening
for information? for gist? Or are they going to do intensive
listening? Students should be cued in advance on what specific
points they need to attend to when listening. This will help them
to be more prepared at the same time know the listening
strategies they will have to use while listening. What is the
purpose of listening-to gain information, or to be entertained, or
to evaluate, or to give support or understanding to the speaker?
Students will better understand if they know why are they made
to listen in the first place.
15. In planning the while listening activities, you may need to consider the
• Listening and re-listening. Most students may need to listen to a text
several times before they can understand. Listening becomes more
challenging if you’re using adapted audio texts from foreign speakers.
In this case, you may want to inform your students ahead that such
audio recordings will be played more than once so as not to put too
much pressure on them. Likewise, depending on the purpose of the
listening task and the listening material, as a teacher, you need to
assess how much your students can take and whether listening once is
enough for them. If students are listening independently, they can stop
the audio and think or listen again as needed.
16. • Guided listening and Scaffold note-taking. While-listening focuses on
comprehension through exercises that require selective listening, gist
listening, sequencing, etc. If you need your students to complete
something while listening, you have to make sure that they have
previewed and understood the written task first before listening begins.
Remember that these tasks are given to guide your students in the
listening task and not to distract them. Thus, you also have to keep
writing tasks to a minimum especially if your goal is comprehension.
You can provide listening organizers to help students focus on
important details which can help them deepen their understanding of
the listening material/task. You can also direct them to find clues from
the listening text which would help them understand better. These
activities may be done by pairs or in groups. Although listening is an
individual activity, sometimes students become more confident if they
are working with a partner especially in completing while-listening
• ‘Thinking space’. Just like any classrooms activity, students need
‘breathing’ or ‘thinking space’ between and after listening activities.
Give them time to process the information by pausing in between
paragraphs, and check now and then if they are still following. If
there are parts that students have difficulty understanding, they may
start to wander off and lose focus in the activity. Thus, you have to
be keen and address these difficulties while in the process. You
may summarize, use questions, point out significant details so that
students will be able to recognize important parts of the message.
18. Listening texts may be from any of the following:
• spoken poetry
• radio programs (news advertisements etc.)
• song lyrics
• a lecture
• ‘recorded’ announcements in airports, bus terminals etc.
• video segments like TED Talks, etc.
• tutorial videos
• an anecdote, short stories etc.
• podcasts and vodcasts
This stage serves as a follow-up to the listening activity done
while taking into account the primary purpose of the listening task.
Thus, post-listening activities may focus on:
• Responding to the text. It is important that students share their
reactions to the content. You can provide discussion questions or
evaluative questions that would guide students in processing what
they feel and the ideas they got after listening.
• Analyzing linguistic features of the text. Depending on the goal of
your listening task, you can also ask students to analyze language
forms from the script. You can also use the listening script task as
a springboard in teaching grammatical functions.
20. • Integrating speaking and writing. Since listening is a receptive skill,
you may also want to design tasks that would require students to
use their productive skills. In this case, students are allowed to use
the language creatively. They may write dialogues and short
compositions, role-play a certain scene, or express their
appreciation and reaction through written and oral tasks.
21. Generic Format of a Listening Lesson
Identify vocabulary needs
Activate interest and motivation
Put in context
Set the listening purpose
Provide opportunity for students to re-listen
Promote guided listening
Give students ‘thinking space’
• Post-listening. Activities may focus on:
Responding to the text.
Analysing linguistic features of the text.
Integrating speaking and writing.
22. Strategies and Examples in Teaching Listening
• Word webs: Inform the students of the listening topic and
using semantic webs; ask them to provide words, topics, or
sub-topics with which they are expected to come up during
the listening activity.
• Mind maps. Have students generate ideas and create word
associations from a given central idea theme or topic.
• Ask me. Give students words or expressions and let them
explain these to a partner. Roam around and check for
students understanding of these words or expressions. They
can use the list in the while-listening stage and tick the words
they hear in listening passage.
23. Pre-listening • Words on the board. Write different words on the board and
ask students to choose two-three words. From these two
words, they will have to create one sentence.
• Gap-fill. Write sentences with missing words. Ask students to
choose one of the sentences and complete it with their ideas.
• Brain Walking. Put posters around the classroom. Ask
students to move around and go to each poster then talk
about what comes in mind after taking a look at the posters.
Students may do this by pair or by small groups.
• Guess the Theme. The teacher may show eye-catching
images, graphics, maps, or diagrams as clues to help students
guest the theme of the listening text.
• Solve the puzzle. Students guess what could have happened
using some pieces of a puzzle picture related to the listening
• Sing along. Provide certain lines, expressions, words from the
listening text and ask volunteers to sing a song containing the
words or expressions.
re-listening • Meme it. Show students some memes the listening text to
arouse their interest. They may also create their own after the
• Discussion Questions. Students may work by pair or in small
groups. Provide them with discussion questions related to the
listening task. They will share their answers with their
• WH Question. Questions-Give students a topic and have
them generate as many questions as they can within 2
minutes. Let them use the WH questions- Who? What?
When? Where? Why? How?
Putting it in
• Post It. Students brainstorm ideas about a top related to the
listening task. By pair or by group they share what they know
of the topic relating it to their prior schema. Students write
down in small papers and post these on the board.
• Make up a Story. Based on what they know, provide
students with some pictures and ask them to put these
pictures in an order that make sense.
25. Pre-listening • Let’s Draw. Give students topic (refer to the listening text)
and ask them to draw something related to it providing as
many details as they can. You may also ask them to post
their work after for everyone to see.
• Using Poll. For listening topics that may involve
controversies, you can have a quick ‘anonymous poll’ (ex. in
google form) and reveal the result after they're done listening.
Students will later know what opinions are voiced in the
• KWL. Provide the title or the topic of the listening activity.
Then ask students to write on what they currently know about
the topic (K) and what more they want to know (W). After
listening, you can then let them complete the last column on
what they have learned (L).
• Exploring pictures. Post pictures on the wall and let students
go see each picture. Have them write their reactions to these
26. Pre-listening Setting the
• Brainstorming. Discuss the topic with students and have them
brainstorm headings to take notes under. This will help them
understand what specific task they will do while listening
• Listening for pleasure. Inform students of the title of the
listening text and ask them to list down the interesting things
that they think they can find out from the listening activity.
• What I want to do. Give the listening topic. Ask students what
they would want to do after they are done listening to the text
• Let me read it first. You let students read the listening
transcript first for a very short time. Then work on listening for
specific information, this time without the script.
• Take two. Read the listening text first, then let students listen
to the audio recording. This way, you are giving them varied
sources of listening text especially if the audio recording is
from a native speaker. Or if these are individual listening
tasks, you may give your students a chance to replay the
recordings especially if they are listening for specific details.
27. While-listening Promote
• Graphic organizers. Give students a blank graphic organizer
which summarizes the information in the text under headings.
Students listen and fill-in key words that they hear in the
• Who's who? If students are going to listen to a dialog with
several characters and, of course, if identifying the characters
is not going to be one of the tasks in the listening, give them
an overview of who's who in the listening. A dialogue with
several speakers can be difficult sometimes, so the following
tasks can help them have a higher rate of success.
• Dictogloss. The teacher first prepares a text that contains
examples of the grammatical form to be studied. As the
teacher reads the text at a normal speed, students will take
notes and continue the task after listening.
• Look for the meaning. Provide a list of words to students
before listening. Have them read it and instruct them that as
you play the audio track, they also have to write the words
that have the same meaning.
28. While-listening • Editing tasks. Students discern discrepancies between what
they hear and the printed text.
• Listen and describe. As the teacher tells a story, he/she can
stop regularly and then asks students to give or write
• What’s next. The teacher plays the audio track and then
stops it in the middle. He/she then asks students to predict
which word comes next. Then continues with the audio track
and repeats the process several times allowing students to
have time to respond.
to the text
• True or False. Prepare a series of statements and ask
students whether they are true or false.
• Chucking and Summarizing. You can check for students’
understanding by letting them summarize the information
they heard - orally or in writing.
• Discussions. You can also ask students to have a short
discussions about the topic taken from the listening task.
29. Post-listening It should be something interesting that would prompt them to
• Test your classmate. Students may be asked to prepare
questions from the listening task (yes-no, multiple-choice,
short answer, etc.) and have other students answer these
• Open questions. Ask students open questions so that they
can elaborate on their ideas even more.
• What Do You Recall? Put students into pairs. Ask them to
take turns recalling one bit of information from what they have
listened to without repeating anything. Challenge students to
continue as long as possible.
• Reflective and Self-assessment activities. Let students reflect
on the process and what helped/not helped them understand
the listening text.
• Interpretive tasks. Students attend to a unit of discourse and
respond to questions, thereby encouraging them to provide
evidence of their inferential thinking skills.
• Disappearing Dialogues. Another activity students can do to
promote critical thinking skills is erasing parts of the dialogue
and then asking students to fill in the blanks with phrases
they remember or other phrases that might fit perfectly into
• Synonyms and Antonyms. Let students identify vocabulary
and find its synonyms and antonyms from the listening script.
• Listening script as a springhoard. You can also take out some
sentences from the script and let students analyze word
functions and expressions.
• Dictogloss. After the while-listening activity, students will
prepare a summary of their work using the correct
• Sequencing events. Students may be asked to sequence
events from the listening passage using appropriate
• Reviewing the transcript. After the listening activity, students
may be provided the transcript and let them identify which
part they did or didn't understand. Ask them to write the
sentences or phrases that they didn't understand so that the
teacher can elaborate on them.
• Multiple-choice tests. Students listen to passages and
demonstrate their understanding by choosing the correct
answer from a multiple-choice type of test. This may also be
used during pre- listening or while-listening on the purpose.
• Deconstructing a Listening Passage. Students may be asked
to deconstruct certain passages and dialogues from the
• Writing a Short Composition. Students may share what they
have learned from the listening passage through a short
32. • Time to Act. Students may also be asked to identify certain
scenes from the listening passage, then create and present a
• Retelling. Students are asked to retell what has been heard
incorporating main ideas, supporting details, key phrases,
34. 2. ELLLO offers over 3000 free listening activities Teachers and students
can access lessons for beginner, intermediate and advanced learners.
You can access this site @ http www.ellor.org/
3. IELTS buddy. For more listening tasks created by native speakers of
English, you can also access the free materials across different levels @
36. 4. ESL Lounge. You can also try this which offers different kinds of
comprehension exercises after each listening task. This can be
accessed using http://www.esl-lounge.com/student/listening.php
37. 5. Breaking News English. On this website, you can listen to interesting
news content. This news is presented at different levels and can be read at
different speeds. Access these in
For listening and viewing
6. TEDEd can be accessed at this URL. http://ed.ted.com/lessons
You can look for relevant content to use as viewing and listening texts. Each
lesson has pre- and post-listening activities these parts watch-think and