6. Geological Classification
• Igneous rocks: Formed by cooling and solidifying of lava.
Eg. : Granite, Basalt
• Sedimentary rocks : Formed by a process of cementation
of small particles that result from the disintegration of rocks.
Eg. : Limestone, sandstone
• Metamorphic rocks : Formed by gradual changes in
the structures of either igneous or sedimentary rocks caused
by heat, water, pressure
Eg. : Marble, Slate
7. Physical Classification
• Stratified stones : These stones are found in layers deposited one
above the other.
Eg. : Limestone , Sandstone
• Unstratified stones : Do not show any type of layer formation.
Eg. : Granite , Marble
• Foliated stones : Have the tendency to split away in a definite
direction only . This type of structure is commonly found in
8. Chemical Classification
• Siliceous rocks : silica is principal constituent , hard
& durable , not affected by weathering agencies.
Eg. : Granites , Quartzites
• Argillaceous rocks : clay predominates , moderately hard
& durable but brittle.
Eg. : Slates , Laterites
• Calcareous rocks : calcium carbonate predominates.
Eg. : Limestone , Marble
9. Types of Stones
Granite: Intrusive igneous rock.
ØIntrusive crystallized slowly within the earth.
ØGranite is a strong, hard & non-porous rock.
ØIt is a desirable foundation & building material.
10. Basalt: Extrusive igneous rock.
ØExtrusive: rapidly crystallized on the surface
ØBasalt is hard & strong but it is porous &
• Hardness and Toughness
• Porosity and absorption
• Resistance to fire
• Resistance to electricity
• Good appearance stone are
used for the face work of a building.
• Stone Masonry is used for
construction of Walls , Foundation,
Columns and Arches.
•They are used for construction of bridges,
• Crushed stones are used in roads, as well as
1) as a base inert material in concrete.
2) for making artificial stones and building
3) as railway ballast
16. • They are used in paving of roads, footpaths and even open
spaces round the building.
• Stone slabs are used as lintels and roofing materials.
17. Advantages and Disadvantages of using
• They are eco-
• It brings a very aesthetic and
• They are very strong and
• Low-maintenances required.
• Durable and resistant.
• Varied and unique.
• Natural stones are heavy.
• Some stones are soft ,
brittle and developing
cracks and breaking.eg:
• The construction process is
• Most of the natural stones
are highly porous and
absorb stain marks easily.
• If there are any gaps
between them it’s difficult
to connect them.
18. Types Of Masonry
The art of building a structure in stone with any suitable masonry is called
• Stone masonry can broadly be classified into the following two types:
1. Rubble Masonry
The stone masonry in which either undressed or roughly dressed stone are laid in a suitable mortar is called
2. Ashlar Masonry
It is the type of stone masonry in which finely dressed stones are laid in cement or lime mortar is known as
19. Cost Of Stones:
• GRANITE SLABS: Rs140 per Sq. Ft and
with polishing extra Rs30 per Sq. Ft
• SLATE STONES: Rs45 (These are available
• MARBLE SLABS: Rs80 per Sq. Ft to max
Rs200. (Rajasthani makrana marbles).
• ITALIAN MARBLES: Rs280 per Sq. Ft to
20. Rubble Masonry
1. Random rubble masonry - Rubble masonry is the type of stone
masonry in which either undressed or hammer dressed stones are used is
called random rubble masonry.
Types of Random Rubble Masonry:
Uncoursed random rubble
The random rubble masonry in which stones are laid
without forming courses is known as un coursed
random rubble masonry. Used for construction of
walls of low height in case of ordinary buildings.
Coursed Random Rubble
The random rubble masonry in which stones are laid in layers of
equal height is called random rubble masonry. Used for construction
of residential buildings, go downs, boundary walls etc.
21. 2. Squared Rubble Masonry - The rubble masonry in which the face
stones are squared on all joints and beds by hammer dressing or chisel dressing
before their actual laying . There are two types of squared rubble masonry.
Coarse Square rubble masonry
chisel dressed stones laid in courses is called coarse square rubble
masonry. Used for construction of public buildings, hospitals,
schools, markets, modern residential buildings etc and in hilly areas
where good quality of stone is easily available.
Uncoursed Square Rubble
The squared rubble in masonry which hammer dressed
stones are laid without making courses is called un
coursed square rubble masonry. Used for construction of
ordinary buildings in hilly areas where a good variety of
stones are cheaply available.
22. 3. Dry Rubble Masonry : The rubble masonry in which stones are laid
without using any mortar is called dry rubble masonry or sometimes shortly as
"dry stones". It is an ordinary masonry and is recommended for constructing
walls of height not more than 6m. In case the height is more, three adjacent
courses are laid in squared rubble masonry mortar at 3m intervals.
23. Ashlar Masonry
1. Ashlar fine or coursed ashlar masonry:
In this type of stone masonry stone blocks of same height in each
course are used. Every stone is fine tooled on all sides
2. Random coursed ashlar masonry:
This type of ashlar masonry consists of fine or
coursed ashlar, but the courses are of varying
thicknesses, depending upon the character of the
3. Ashlar facing:
Ashlar facing is the best type of ashlars
masonry. Since this is type of masonry is
very expensive, it is not commonly used
throughout the whole thickness of the
wall, except in works of great
importance and strength.
24. 4. Rough tooled ashlar masonry:
This type of ashlar masonry the sides of the stones
are rough tooled and dressed in chisels. Thickness
of joints is uniform, which does not exceed 6mm.
5. Rock or quarry faced ashlar masonry:
This type of ashlar masonry is similar to rough tooled
type except that there is chisel-drafted margin left rough
on the face which is known as quarry faced.
6. Chamfered ashlar masonry:
It is similar to quarry faced except that the edges
are beveled or chamfered to 450 for depth of 2.5
cm or more.
7. Block-in course masonry:
It is the name given to a class of ashlar masonry which
occupies an intermediate place between rubble and