2. WHAT IS IR
Industrial relation means the relationship between employers
and employees in course of employment in industrial
Industrial relation is used to denote the collective relationships
between management and the worker.
IR is used to cover such aspects of industrial life as trade
unionism, collective bargaining, workers participation in
management , discipline and industrial disputes.
Definition: According to J.T. Dunlop, “Industrial relations are
the complex interrelations among managers, workers and
agencies of the government”
4. Features of Industrial Relations:
Industrial relations are outcomes of employment
relationships in an industrial enterprise. These
relations cannot exist without the two parties namely
employers and employees.
Industrial relations system creates rules and
regulations to maintain harmonious relations.
The government intervenes to shape the industrial
relations through laws, rules, agreements, terms,
5. Several parties are involved in the Industrial relations
system. The main parties are employers and their
associations, employees and their unions and the
government. These three parties interact within
economic and social environment to shape the
Industrial relations structure.
Industrial relations are a dynamic and developing
concept, not a static one. They undergo changes with
changing structure and scenario of the industry as
and when change occurs.
Industrial relations include both individual relations
and collective relationships.
6. Objectives of Industrial Relations:
•To maintain industrial democracy based on participation of labour
in the management and gains of industry.
•To raise productivity by reducing tendency of high labour turnover
•To ensure workers’ participation in management of the company by
giving them a fair say in decision-making and framing policies.
•To establish a proper channel of communication.
•To increase the morale and discipline of the employees.
•To safeguard the interests of the labour as well as management by
securing the highest level of mutual understanding and goodwill
between all sections in an industry.
•To avoid all forms of industrial conflicts so as to ensure industrial
peace by providing better living and working standards for the
7. Importance of Industrial Relations:Uninterrupted Production: The most important
benefit of industrial benefits is that it ensures
continuity of production. This means continuous
employment for all involved right from managers to
Reduction in Industrial disputes: Good Industrial
relations reduce Industrial disputes. Strikes,
grievances and lockouts are some of the reflections of
Industrial unrest. Industrial peace helps in promoting
co-operation and increasing production.
High morale: Good Industrial relations improve the
morale of the employees and motivate the worker
workers to work more and better.
8. Reduced wastage: Good Industrial relations are
maintained on the basis of co-operation and
recognition of each other. It helps to reduce wastage
of material, manpower and costs.
Contributes to economic growth and development.
9. Causes of poor Industrial Relations:
Economic causes: Often poor wages and poor
working conditions are the main causes for unhealthy
relations between management and
labour. Unauthorised deductions from wages, lack of
fringe benefits, absence of promotion opportunities,
faulty incentive schemes are other economic causes.
Other causes for Industrial conflicts are inadequate
infrastructure, worn-out plant and machinery, poor
layout, unsatisfactory maintenance etc.
12. Suggestions to improve Industrial Relations:
Sound personnel policies: Policies and procedures
concerning the compensation, transfer and
promotion, etc. of employees should be fair and
transparent. All policies and rules relating to
Industrial relations should be fair and transparent to
everybody in the enterprise and to the union leaders.
Participative management: Employees should
associate workers and unions in the formulation and
implementation of HR policies and practices.
17. UNITARY APPROACH
UNITARY APPROACHI is grounded in mutual
cooperation, individual treatment, team work and
Work place conflict is seen as temporary aberration,
resulting from poor management Employees who do
not mix well with organization culture Unions
cooperate with the management.
Management’s right to manage is accepted because
there is no ‘we they” feeling Underlying assumption is
that everyone benefits when the focus is on common
interest and promotion of harmony Based on reactive
18. PLURALISM(CONFLICT APPROACH )
PLURALISM(CONFLICT APPROACH )Pluralism is belief in the
existence of more than one ruling principle, giving rise to a conflict of
The pluralist approach to IR accepts conflict between management
and workers as inevitable but containable through various
institutional arrangements ( like collective bargaining, conciliation
and arbitration etc) and is in fact considered essential for innovation
It perceives organizations as coalitions of competing interests , where
the management’s role is to mediate among the different interest
It perceives trade unions as legitimate representative of employee
interests It also perceives stability in IR as the product of concessions
and compromises between management and unions
19. MARXIST APPROACH
MARXIST APPROACH Marxists like pluralists also regard conflict as
inevitable but see it as a product of capitalistic society where as
pluralist believe that the conflict is inevitable in all organizations
For Marxists IR has wider meaning. For them conflict arises not
because of rift between management and workers but because of the
division in the society between those who own resources and those
who have only labor to offer.
Marxist approach thus focuses on the type of society in which an
Industrial conflict is thus equated with political and social unrest
Trade Unions are seen both as labor reaction to exploitation by
capitalists, as- well-as a weapon to bring about a revolutionary social
20. THE SYSTEM APPROACH
The system approach was developed by J. P. Dunlop of Harvard
University in 1958.
According to this approach, individuals are part of an ongoing but
independent social system.
The behaviour, actions and role of the individuals are shaped by the
cultures of the society.
The three elements of the system approach are input, process and
Society provides the cue (signal) to the individuals about how one
should act in a situation.
The institutions, the value system and other characteristics of the
society influence the process and determine the outcome or response
of the individuals. The basis of this theory is that group cohesiveness
is provided by the common ideology shaped by the societal factors.
In organized sector- 28.1 million
In unorganized sector- 365.1 million
(Source: National Sample Survey Organization)
Facilities Provided To Employees:
1.Commitment To Industry
2. Protective Legislation
3. Status Of The Worker
4. Employment Pattern
22. Trade Unions:
The union power is exerted primarily at 2 levels-
At the industry level
At the plant level
The personal characteristics of workers, their culture,
educational attainments, qualifications, skills, attitude
towards work, etc. play an important role in an IR
These are the persons working at management level and
taking all the decisions
They have the right to hire and fire any worker
The government exerts an important influence on IR
through such measures as providing employment,
intervening in working relationships and regulating
wages, bonus and working conditions through various
laws relating to labour
The government keeps an eye on both the trade unions
and the employer’s organizations to regulate their
behaviors in the interests of the nations
28. IR Decisions
A proactive IR strategy programme must cover the
Discipline and Conflict
29. Role Of HRMHR department contribute through better recruitment
and hiring, induction, training and development, safety
and health, remuneration, welfare, communication
channels and other practices
Provides motivation, competent and trouble- free work
force to employees