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conflict management.ppt

  1. 1. Conflict Management 1
  2. 2. Objective At the end of this session you will be able to:  Define conflict  Identify sources of conflict  Describe types of conflict  Discuss stages of conflict  Identify approaches to conflict resolution 2
  3. 3. Definition:- It is the internal discord that results from difference in ideas, values, or feeling b/n two or more people. Conflict is also created When there are difference in economic and professional values When there is competition among professionals. Scares resources and poorly defined role expectations 3
  4. 4. Conflict theory Conflict, which is closely related to power and political issues. Inevitable can be constructive or destructive. 4
  5. 5. Sources of conflict Cultural difference Different views of their own power and authority Varying goals and objectives Different perception of events Competition of scarce resources Communication barrier impede understanding Accumulation of unresolved conflict 5
  6. 6. Types of conflict 1. Structural based conflict i. Vertical conflict:- difference b/n manager and staff association are often related to Inadequate communication Opposing interests Lack of shared perception and attitudes 6
  7. 7. ii. Horizontal conflict:- line staffing conflict Is commonly struggle among domains related to activities, expertise and authority and is often related to interdepartmental trouble. The need for consensus, the work sequence, and common use of shared facilities or service are area of interdependence aggravated by differing departmental goals. 7
  8. 8. 2. Role conflict A. Intra-sender conflict  Originate in the sender who gives conflicting instruction or expects conflicting or mutually exclusive behavioural responses Example:- the same supervisor may demand a higher quality of nursing care, refuse to allow the head nurse to fire incompetent staff, and in an effort to cut costs, refuse to 8
  9. 9. B. Inter-sender conflict Arises when an individual receives conflicting messages from two or more sources C. Inter-role conflict Can occur when an individual belongs to more than one group. Example:- A person may be expected to attend two different committee meeting at same time. D. Person- role conflict It is the result of disparity b/n internal and external roles An individual has perceived role and expectation based on one's values and perception of one self. 9
  10. 10. E. Inter-person conflict It is common among people whose position require interaction with other person/not personal F. Intra-group conflict Occur when the group faces a new problem, when new values are imposed on the group from outside. G. Intergroup conflict It is common where two groups have different goals and can achieve their goals only at the other's expense. The conflict may be b/n groups on the same level or b/n groups on different levels within an organization. 10
  11. 11. H. Role ambiguity conflict A condition in which individuals do not know what is expected of them, frequently occur in organization. In adequate job description, incomplete explanation of assigned tasks, rapid technological changes I. Role overload-  Occur when the person simply unable to accomplish so much with in a limited time 11
  12. 12. Stages of conflict Filly’s model of conflict resolution This model provides a framework that helps explain how and why conflict occurs and ultimately, how one can minimize conflict or resolve it with the least amount of negative aftermath.  Filley suggests that conflict and its resolution develop according to a specific process 12
  13. 13.  The conflict process are expressed in five stage: 1st stage: - Latent conflict (antecedent condition) Latent conflict implies the existence of antecedent conditions such as short staffing, and rapid change. In this stage conditions are set for conflict 13
  14. 14. 2nd stage: - perceived and felt conflict Perceived conflict: - is the realization that conditions exist between groups or within self that can cause conflict. Felt conflict, the conflict brings out feelings of threat, hostility, fear or mistrust between groups 3rd Stage: - Manifest Behaviour It is the outcome of conflict. 14
  15. 15. 4th Stage: - conflict resolution and suppression Suppression occurs when one person or group defeats the others. Resolution occurs when mutually agreed up on solution is arrived at and both parties commit themselves to carry out the agreement 15
  16. 16. Conflict Management technique  Thomas (1992) has described the following five conflict handling modes in terms of two underling dimensions: Assertiveness (attempt to satisfy one’s own concern) Cooperativeness (attempt to satisfy other’s concern) These five modes are: - 16
  17. 17. A. Competing It is a power oriented mode that is assertive but uncooperative. This create a win lose situation. Nevertheless, it is appropriate when A quick or unpopular decision is needed, The person is knowledgeable about a situation Able to make a sound decision, or One must protect oneself from other aggressive people 17
  18. 18. B. Collaborative Is assertive and cooperative It is win-win strategies It contributes to effective problem solving because both party try to find mutually satisfying solution 18
  19. 19. C. Compromise Moderate both assertive and cooperation. It addresses a problem more effectively than avoidance but less than collaboration. lose-lose atmosphere results. It is useful when the goals are only moderately important and the parties have equivalent power. 19
  20. 20. D. Avoiding Create a lose-lose situations through unassertive and uncooperative means. The conflict is simply not addressed. This approach is may be appropriate when: The other party is more powerful, The issue is unimportant One has no chance of meeting the goals 20
  21. 21. E. Accommodating Is cooperative but unassertive. It is self sacrificing- the opposite of competing One neglect one’s own need to meet the goals of the other party It is appropriate when  The opponent is right  The opponent is more powerful, or  The issue is more important to someone else  When preserving harmony is important or  When collecting social credit is necessary for 21
  22. 22. Strategies for management of conflict  Filley (1975) identified three basic strategies for dealing with conflict according to the out come: - Win-lose, Lose – lose, and Win-win. A. Win-lose strategy One party exerts dominancy, usually by power, authority, and the other party submits and loses. Forcing, competing, and negotiation are techniques likely to lead to win-lose completion. 22
  23. 23.  Methods include: The use of position power, Mental or physical power, Failure to respond, majority rule, and railroading a minority position over the majority. 23
  24. 24. B. Lose – lose strategy Neither side win- both parties try to win over the other but both ends up losing to each other. Avoiding, withdrawing, smoothing, and compromising may lead to lose-lose outcome. Method includes:  Compromise,  Bribes for accomplishing disagreeable tasks,  Arbitration by a neutral third party, and  Resorting to use of general rules instead of Considering the merits of individual cases. 24
  25. 25. C. Win –Win Strategy Focus on goals and attempt to meet the needs of both parties. Allow both individual (parties) to feel they have accomplished all or parts of their goals. In this approach, there is no attempt by one party to win over or control another party. They emphasize consensus and integrative approaches to decision making. 25
  26. 26. Problem solving strategies include:  Identifying both the problem and each party’s needs,  Exploring alternatives,  Choosing the most acceptable alternative,  Planning, defined roles, implementing, and evaluating the decision. 26
  27. 27. 1/27/2023 27
  28. 28. Objectives At the end of this session you are excepted to ◦ Define monitoring and evaluation ◦ List the purpose of monitoring and evaluation ◦ Describe the process of monitoring and evaluation ◦ Differentiate the types of evaluation ◦ Describe methods of monitoring and evaluation 28 1/27/2023
  29. 29. Evaluation  It is the methodical process of determining the worth of a system, project, campaign, etc.  Assessing, systematically and objectively a completed project or program  It involves the comparison of the actual performance of the system. 1/27/2023 29
  30. 30. Evaluation  Promote better planning by ◦ careful selection of alternatives for future action or ◦ asks, “Did we achieve what we set out to do?” ◦ Comparing the present situation with the past in order to find out to what extent organizing purposes have been achieved. 1/27/2023 30
  31. 31. Importance of Evaluation  To show the main achievements/findings;  To show where and how changes can be made;  To Identify program strengths  To show how strengths can be built upon  To provide information;  To increase skills for planning and decision- making.  To Identify and improve weaknesses  To Justify use of resources 31 1/27/2023
  32. 32. The Process of Evaluation It is spiral and the steps have to be followed properly. 1. Planning 2. Development 3. Implementation 4. Feedback 32 1/27/2023
  33. 33. con... 1. Planning:  Deciding when and how to evaluate  Selecting objectives and methods to be used • Why are you doing the evaluation?  Set priorities  Specify evaluation question? 33 1/27/2023
  34. 34. Con…  Source of evaluation question • Strategic plans • Mission statements • Policies • Need assessments • Goals and objectives • National standards and guidelines 34 1/27/2023
  35. 35. 2. Development ◦ Data collection • What Will be Collected? based on evidence required How Collected?  surveys? published instrument? focus group? observations? 35 1/27/2023 con...
  36. 36. From Whom Collected?  who or what provides evidence When Collected and by Whom?  specific dates, times, persons  How Data are to be Analyzed? 36 1/27/2023 Development…
  37. 37. 3.Implementation ◦ Data collection ◦ Data analysis  Looking at the results and draw inferences to why some results occurred and others did not ◦ Documentation ◦ Positive outcomes ◦ Shortfalls  Provides opportunities to  improve program  make recommendations to benefit the program 37 1/27/2023
  38. 38. 4. Feedback  Report: disseminate the findings  Inform all your relevant stakeholders & target audience;  Program staff  Media  Researchers  Concerned body, etc  Application: using the results for improvement 38 1/27/2023
  39. 39. Types of Evaluation 1. Process/implementation evaluation 2. Impact /outcome evaluation 3. Formative evaluation/ Diagnostic Evaluation 4. Summative evaluation 39 1/27/2023
  40. 40. Types . . . 1.Process/implementation evaluation ◦ Measurements obtained during the implementation of program activities to control / assure / improve the quality of performance or delivery. 40 1/27/2023
  41. 41. Types. . . . 2. Impact /outcome evaluation ◦ Focuses on the immediate observable effects of a program leading to the intended outcomes of a program ◦ Document and explain cause and effect  Identifies the results or effects of a program. oEx If You want to measure clients’ knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors as a result of a program. oDid program increase….?41 1/27/2023
  42. 42. Types. . . . 3.Formative evaluation/ Diagnostic Evaluation ◦ Measurements and judgments made on the process of the program. ◦ As the program is happening to make changes as program is being implemented 42 1/27/2023
  43. 43. Types. . . . 4.Summative evaluation  Any combination of measurements and judgments that permit conclusions to be drawn about impact outcome or benefits of the program or method.  At the end of a program to document results 43 1/27/2023
  44. 44. Evaluation Methods 1. People  Physical measurements: like height, weight, medical tests  Verbal questions: such as those asked in questionnaires, interviews, etc  Written questions: such as those asked in questionnaires, tests of knowledge and skills, attitudes. 44 1/27/2023
  45. 45. Methods. . . . 2.Program structure and organization  Written information: such as records, reports, budgets, plans, past evaluations, minutes of meeting, etc 3.Program activities  Measurement of various kinds, such as areas covered, # of people or houses, etc  Meetings, tape recordings  Observations and pictures, photographs  Written information, such as reports and records 45 1/27/2023
  46. 46. Who will conduct the evaluation?  Internal Evaluation ◦ someone trained in evaluation, who is personally involved with the program conducts Advantages:  Making it easier to collect the relevant information,  Less expensive. Major Drawbacks:  Evaluator bias or conflict of interest 46 1/27/2023
  47. 47. Who will Conduct. . . External Evaluation  Conducted by someone who is not conducted with the program. Advantage:  provide a more objective outlook  a fresh perspective, and  it helps to ensure unbiased outcome of evaluation. Disadvantage:  More expensive. 47 1/27/2023
  48. 48. Practical problems in evaluation  Planner failed to build evaluation into program planning  Procedures cost time and resources  Some changes do not last.  It is often difficult to distinguish between cause and effect.  Conflict can arise between professional standards 48 1/27/2023
  49. 49. Monitoring  A systematic and routine collection of information from projects and programs  The day-to-day watch on, or continuous follow- up of, the on going activities.  It is regularly checking to see that program activities are being done as planned. 49 1/27/2023
  50. 50. Monitoring…  It is carried out through  observation  Discussion with workers, supervisors and beneficiaries, and  Review of reports, diaries and statistical data.  Monitoring is one of the tools for evaluation 1/27/2023 50
  51. 51. Purposes of monitoring  To learn from experiences to improve practices  To have internal and external accountability of the resources used and the results obtained  To take informed decisions on the future  To promote empowerment of beneficiaries 1/27/2023 51
  52. 52. Key areas of monitoring 1. Adequacy of supply, materials and budget. 2. Training type, relevance and quality. 3. Quantity and quality of work done. 4. Communication. 5. Supervisory activities. 52 1/27/2023 Monitoring . . .
  53. 53. Steps in Monitoring 1. Collect data to monitor 2. Summarize the data 3. Analyze 4. Action 53 1/27/2023 Monitoring . . .