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Trends in Open Access to Research Publications - Case Study of Oncology Journals

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A presentation about Open Access (OA) in research with a case study of journals in oncology and discussion about issues relating to OA and implications for Higher Education Institutions. This was a short paper presented at the OER14 Conference at the Centre for Life, Newcastle.

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Trends in Open Access to Research Publications - Case Study of Oncology Journals

  1. 1. Trends in Open Access to Research Publications: Case Study of 274 Oncology Journals Simon Cotterill Learning Technologies for Medical Sciences School of Medical Sciences Education Development Newcastle University, UK
  2. 2. Introduction The advent of the Internet is changing the Publishing industry and its relationships with academia. Image c/o Wikimedia Commons http://tinyurl.com/otehvjs Publicly funded research should be freely available to the public The growing requirements from research funders for Open Access (OA) is also having an impact.
  3. 3. Case Study Cancer: broad field that cuts across many medical specialties Methods • Cancer-related journals were identified from multiple sources: – CancerIndex.org – Entrez – Reuters & SCImago list of journal rankings – Publishers Websites – DOAJ • Criteria were broadly inclusive with the requirement that the journal is current and specifically related to oncology (or on Reuters or SCImago subject list of journals).
  4. 4. Methods (cont.) • Journals were assessed for their level of OA (open, ‘hybrid’ or none), embargo times, and up-front costs for ‘Gold’ OA (access to the full published article). • What proportion of articles from ‘hybrid’ journals are ‘Gold’ OA? – Analysis of a sample of 14 journals, which had deposited in PubMed Central (PMC). – Script written to download from Entrez all articles published in 2012 from these journals were assessed to see how many had free full-text access in PMC, as a proxy for ‘Gold’ OA. – The data was also analysed to see if a funder or grant number had been recorded, as an indicator of public funding.
  5. 5. Results • 274 oncology journals were identified – 54 (20%) were immediate full OA – 14 (5%) were fully OA after an embargo period (typically of 12 months) – 107 (39%) had some articles open access (‘hybrid’) – 99 (36%) no indication of OA on Journal Web page • Of the 54 journals with full and immediate OA 19 were launched within the last 4 years. • Observation: growing number of online-only journals
  6. 6. List of Journals http://www.cancerindex.org/clinks9.htm
  7. 7. Results #2 • From the sample of ‘hybrid’ journals 8,182 articles were identified in Entrez for 2012 – Of these 2,430 (29%) were available free via PMC. • Articles for which funder/grant information was recorded were more likely to be included in PMC (75% of 2,151 articles) compared to those that didn’t (13% of 6,031), p<0.0001
  8. 8. Types of OA Article Processing Charge (APC) and OA Options for selected publishers (Feb 2014) Publisher Group Oncology Journals Scheme OA Cost Wiley 13 OnlineOpen (CC licenced) US$ 3,000 Elsevier 39 Varied pricing + agreements with funders for licencing US$ 500 to $5,000 Springer 43 Open Choice US$ 3,000 Nature Publishing Group 9 Open Access Options US$5,200 (CC BY) US$4,800 (CC BY-NC- ND) Bentham Science 8 Open Access Plus Not stated Gold OA Green OA Full article is made free at the point of access (subscription journals and OA Journals usually charge an APC) Authors archive a final copy of their in an institutional (e.g. ePrints) or external repository (usually not the publishers final layout version) +/- an embargo period +/- an embargo period
  9. 9. Types of OA #2 • Growth in dedicated ‘Open’ journals - competing with established subscription journals • Most subscription journals are now ‘hybrid’, giving the choice to pay to make articles ‘Gold’ OA. • Most journals charge APCs (OA and Subscription journals). • Most subscription journals permit ‘Green’ OA publishing (often after an embargo period of >=12 months).
  10. 10. Limitations • The study is a snap-shot at one point in time • The use of publishing in PMC as a proxy for ‘Gold’ access is not exhaustive • The scope of this study did not include ‘Green’ access (self-archiving, typically a final draft uploaded in an institutional repository).
  11. 11. Discussion Changing technologies and growth in journals: • financially sustainability? • quality impact? • more opportunities for junior researches • potentially decreased time-lags to final publication. • The Internet has provided the foundations to make the results of publically funded research publically available, in its broadest sense, in that clinicians, researchers, patients and other members of the public have rapid free access to research findings. Big unknown: do stakeholders value ‘Green’ OA? • Are pre-proof versions of articles good enough? • Do embargo periods reduce impact? • Are institutional repositories truly ‘discoverable’??
  12. 12. Irreversible Change? Value relationships (traditional model) • Publishers deeply entwined with Academia • Institutional + individual subscriptions • Esteem of voluntary peer review and Editorships Internet • Reshaping the Publishing Industry • Quicker / immediate publishing • Public access to publically funded research • Lower barriers to entry for new publishers esp. online-only journals Academia / Funding • “Publish or perish” intensified pressure: • REF • Reduced funding • Harder to justify/find time for Peer Review? • Reduced library budgets, why pay twice? • Public funders require OA
  13. 13. More Sticks than Carrots Now!
  14. 14. Beyond the REF “To be eligible for submission to the post 2014 REF, authors’ final peer reviewed manuscripts must have been deposited in an institutional or subject repository on acceptance for publication. Deposited material should be discoverable, and free to read and download, for anyone with an internet connection. The requirement applies only to journal articles and conference proceedings with an International Standard Serial Number.” “Higher education institutions are now advised to implement processes and procedures to comply with this policy, which may include using a combination of the ‘green’ and ‘gold’ routes to open access. Institutions can achieve full compliance without incurring any additional publication costs through article processing charges.”
  15. 15. Fake Papers Fake Journals? Welcome to the world of: Predatory Publishers, Slur and Scam ! • Pressure to publish • Pay to publish • Minimal peer review? • OA to blame? • Would ‘traditional’ Journals have done any better?
  16. 16. Implications • OA is now mission critical for HEIs in order to secure research funding. • Need robust institutional processes to support and monitor compliance with OA + funders specific requirements. • ‘Gold’ OA: often little cost difference between selecting a ‘traditional’ journal or an ‘Open’ Journal. • However, it raises big issues for Universities/funders in paying for OA and for publishers who are dependent on under threat library subscriptions. • The definition of ‘Green’ OA was variable, and its value for stakeholders unclear :: Research needed.
  17. 17. References / Further Information CancerIndex: List of Journals: http://www.cancerindex.org/clinks9.htm Working Group on Expanding Access to Published Research Findings (‘Finch Group’) (2012). Accessibility, sustainability, excellence: how to expand access to research publications. Research Information Network: London. http://www.researchinfonet.org/publish/finch/ , accessed 3 Apr 2014. RCUK Policy on Open Access and Supporting Guidance, http://www.rcuk.ac.uk/documents/documents/RCUKOpenAccessPolicy.pdf , accessed 1 Jul 2013. Wellcome Trust – Open access Policy: http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/About-us/Policy/Spotlight-issues/Open-access/Policy Policy for open access in the post-2014 Research Excellence Framework. HEFCE (2014). http://www.hefce.ac.uk/pubs/year/2014/201407/#d.en.86771 Entrez / NLM Catalogue – National Library of Medicne (USA) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/?term=Cancer[ti] Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) http://www.doaj.org/ SHERPA ROMEO database http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/ SJR Journal rankings (Cancer Research) http://www.scimagojr.com/journalrank.php?category=1306