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Advanced Concrete technology
unit – IV
M. SIVA SANKAR
WE SEE ABOUT …….
Concrete Manufacture Process
extreme weather concreting
1. hot weather concreting
2. cold weather concreting
special concreting methods
1. vacuum dewatering concreting
2. under water concreting
special framework type
EXTERME WEATHER CONCRETING:-
• in countries which experience extreme weather condition special problems are
encountered in preparation, placement and curing of concrete.
• India has regions of extreme hot weather (hot –humid and hot-aird)as well as
cold weather .
• The Indian standards dealing with extreme weather concreting are:-
IS: 7861 (Part 1-1975)- Hot weather concreting
IS: 7861 (Part 2-1981)- cold weather concreting
There are two major extreme weather conditions:-
Hot weather concreting
Cold weather concreting
HOT WEATHER CONCRETEING:-
hot weather is any combination of the following conditions that tends to impair
the quality of freshly mixed or hardened concrete by accelerating the rate of
moisture loss and rate of cement hydration, or otherwise causing detrimental
• High concrete temperature;
• Low relative humidity;
• Wind speed
• Solar radiation.
• High ambient temperature.
Difficulties in Hot Weather:-
• Increased water demand.
• Accelerated slump loss.
• Increased rate of setting.
• Increased tendency of plastic shrinkage cracking.
• Critical need for prompt early curing
• Certain precautions should be taken in order to reduce the difficulties in hot
• Temperature ranging from 10 to 15˚C is desirable, but such temperatures are not
• Many specifications require that concrete when placed should have a temperature
of less than 29 to 32˚C.
Precautions Depends on:-
• Type of construction.
• Characteristics of the materials being used.
• The experience of placing and finishing crew in dealing with the atmospheric
conditions in the site.
• Use materials and mix proportions that have a good record in hot weather conditions.
• Cool the concrete or one or more of its ingredients.
• Use a concrete consistency that allows rapid placement.
• Reduce the time of transporting, placing, and finishing as possible.
• Schedule concrete placements to avoid extreme weather, such as at night or during favorable
• Consider the methods to limit moisture loss during placing and finishing such as sunshades,
wind screens, fogging, and spraying.
Effect of High Concrete Temperature:-
• As concrete temperature increases there is a loss in slump that is often unadvisedly
compensated for by adding water to the concrete at the jobsite. At higher temperatures a
greater amount of water is required to hold slump constant than is needed at lower
• increase the rate of setting and shorten the length of time within which the
concrete can be transported, placed, and finished.
• Setting time can be reduced by 2 or more hours with a 10°C increase in
• There is an increased tendency for cracks to form both before and after hardening.
• Rapid evaporation of water from freshly placed concrete can cause plastic-shrinkage cracks
before the surface has hardened.
• Cracks may also develop in the hardened concrete because of increased drying shrinkage
due to higher water contents or thermal volume changes as the concrete cools.
Cooling Concrete Materials:-
• Lower the temperature of concrete materials before mixing.
• The contribution of each material is related to
• Specific heat.
• Quantity of each material.
T = temperature of the freshly mixed concrete, °Celsius
Ta, Tc, Tw, and Twa = temperature (°Celsius) of aggregates, cementing
materials, added mixing water, and free water on aggregates, respectively..,
adding ice for substituting water in the concrete mix
• where Mi is the mass in kilograms of ice
If ice is not adding the temp of concrete is 31.1˚C
Supplementary Cementitious Materials:-
• The use of supplementary materials (fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag)
can help in hot weather conditions.
• These material slow the rate of setting as well as the rate of slump loss.
Preparation Before Placing:-
• Mixers, chutes, conveyor belts, hoppers, pump lines, and other equipments for handling
concrete should be shaded, painted white, or covered with wet burlap to reduce solar heat.
• Forms, reinforcing steel, and subgrade should be fogged or sprinkled with cool water just
before concrete is placed.
• Restrict placement of concrete to early morning, evening, or night time hours, especially
in arid climates. This will help in minimizing thermal shrinkage and cracking of thick
slabs and pavements.
Transporting, Placing, and Finishing:-
• Should be done as quickly as practical during hot weather.
• Delays contribute to the loss of slump and increase in concrete
• Prolonged mixing should be avoided.
• If delays occur, stopping mixer and then agitating can minimize the heat
generated by mixing.
• Setting of concrete is more rapid in hot weather.
• Extra care must be taken with placement techniques to avoid cold joints.
• Temporary sunshades and windbreaks help to minimize cold joints.
Plastic Shrinkage Cracking :-
• Associated with hot-weather concreting,
• It can occur any time ambient conditions produce rapid evaporation of moisture from the
• These cracks occur when water evaporates from the surface faster than it can rise to the
surface during the bleeding process.
• Rapid drying shrinkage creates tensile stresses in the surface that often result in short,
• Plastic shrinkage cracking increases with:
1. Low air temperature
2. High concrete temperature
3. Low humidity
4. High wind speed
Length ranges from 5 to 100 cm
Spaced in an irregular pattern
from 5 to 60 cm
• When the rate of evaporation exceeds 1 kg/m2 per hour, precautionary measures
such as windscreens are required around all sides of concrete elements.
• With concrete mixtures containing pozzolans, cracking is possible if the rate of
evaporation exceeds 0.5 kg/m2 per hour.
• Concrete containing silica fume is particularly prone to plastic shrinkage because
bleeding rates are commonly only 0.25 kg/m2 per hour.
Precautions to Minimize Plastic Shrinkage Cracking:-
1. Moisten concrete aggregates that are dry and absorptive.
2. Keep the concrete temperature low by cooling aggregates and mixing water.
3. Dampen the subgrade (Fig. 13-9) and fog forms prior to placing concrete.
4. Erect temporary windbreaks to reduce wind velocity over the concrete surface.
5. Erect temporary sunshades to reduce concrete surface temperatures.
6. Protect the concrete with temporary coverings, such as polyethylene sheeting, during any
appreciable delay between placing and finishing.
7. Add plastic fibers to the concrete mixture to help reduce plastic shrinkage crack formation.
Methods to Minimize Plastic Drying Shrinkage:-
• Use of a fog spray will raise the relative humidity of the ambient air over the slab, thus
reducing evaporation from the concrete.
• Fog nozzles atomize water using air pressure.
• Spray application of temporary moisture-retaining films (usually polymers).
• Reduction of time between placing and the start of curing by eliminating delays during
Curing in Hot Weather :-
• The need for moist curing of concrete slabs is greatest during the first few hours after
• To prevent the drying of exposed concrete surfaces, moist curing should commence as
soon as the surfaces are finished.
• When the air temperature is at or above 27°C, curing during the basic curing period
should be accomplished by water spray or by using saturated absorptive fabric
• For mass concrete, curing should be by water for the basic curing period when the air
temperature is at or above 20°C, in order to minimize the temperature rise of the concrete.
• If approved, the application of the curing compound should be preceded by 24
hours of moist curing.
• Crazing cracks are very fine and barely visible except when the concrete is
drying after the surface has been wet. They do not penetrate much below the
• A retarding admixtures can be very helpful in delaying the setting time, despite
increased rate of slump loss resulting from their use.
• A hydration control admixture can be used to stop cement hydration and setting.
As a general rule a 5°C to 9°C temperature rise per 45 kg of Portland cement can
be expected from the heat of hydration.
Cold weather concreting:-
• Concrete can be placed safely without damage from freezing throughout the winter
months in cold climates if certain precautions are taken.
• Cold weather is defined by ACI Committee 306 as a period when for more than
3 successive days the average daily air temperature drops below 5°C (40°F) and stays
below 10°C (50°F) for more than one-half of any 24 hour period.
• Under these circumstances, all materials and equipment needed for adequate protection
and curing must be on hand and ready for use before concrete placement is started.
Normal concreting practices can be resumed once the ambient temperature is above 10°C
(50°F) for more than half a day.
• During cold weather, the concrete mixture and its temperature should be adapted to the
construction procedure and ambient weather conditions.
• Preparations should be made to protect the concrete; enclosures, windbreaks, portable
heaters, insulated forms, and blankets should be ready to maintain the concrete
• Forms, reinforcing steel, and embedded fixtures must be clear of snow and ice at the time
concrete is placed.
• Thermometers and proper storage facilities for test cylinders should be available to verify
that precautions are adequate.
Effect of Temperature on Strength Development:-
EFFECT OF FREEZING FRESH CONCRETE:-
• Concrete gains very little strength at low temperatures. Freshly mixed concrete must be
protected against the disruptive effects of freezing until the degree of saturation of the
concrete has been sufficiently reduced by the process of hydration. The time at which this
reduction is accomplished corresponds roughly to the time required for the concrete to attain a
• Concrete that has been frozen just once at an early age can be restored to nearly normal
strength by providing favourable subsequent curing conditions.
• The critical period after which concrete is not seriously damaged by one or two freezing
cycles is dependent upon the concrete ingredients and conditions of mixing, placing, curing,
and subsequent drying.
• For example, air-entrained concrete is less susceptible to damage by early freezing than non-
• Up to 50% reduction of ultimate strength can occur if frozen -
• Within a few hours
• Before reaching a strength of 3.5 MPa (500 psi)
• Frozen only once at an early age -
• With curing nearly all strength can be restored
• Less resistance to weathering
• More permeable
• “For every 10°C (18°F) reduction in concrete temperature, the times of setting of
the concrete double, thus increasing the amount of time that the concrete is
vulnerable to damage due to freezing.”
HEAT OF HYDRATION:-
• Concrete generates heat during hardening as a result of the chemical process by which
cement reacts with water to form a hard, stable paste.
• The heat generated is called heat of hydration; it varies in amount and rate for different
cements. Dimensions of the concrete placement, ambient air temperature, initial concrete
temperature, water- cement ratio, admixtures, and the composition, fineness, and amount
of cementitious material all affect heat generation and build-up.
• Heat of hydration is useful in winter concreting as it contributes to the heat needed to
provide a satisfactory curing temperature; often without other temporary heat sources,
particularly in more massive elements.
• Fig. 14-8 shows a concrete pedestal being covered with a tarpaulin just after the concrete
was placed. Tarpaulins and insulated blankets are often necessary to retain the heat of
hydration more efficiently and keep the concrete as warm as possible.
SPECIAL CONCRETE MIXTURES:-
• High strength at an early age is desirable in winter construction to reduce the length of
time temporary protection is required.
• High-early-strength concrete can be obtained by using one or a combination of the
1. Type III or HE high-early-strength cement
2. Additional Portland cement (60 to 120 kg/m3 or 100 to 200 lb/yd3)
3. Chemical accelerators
• Small amounts of an accelerator such as calcium chloride (at a maximum dosage of 2%
by weight of Portland cement) can be used to accelerate the setting and early-age
strength development of concrete in cold weather.
• Accelerators containing chlorides should not be used where there is an in-service
potential for corrosion, such as in concrete members containing steel reinforcement or
where aluminium or galvanized inserts will be used.
• Specially designed accelerating admixtures allow concrete to be placed at temperatures
down to -7°C (20°F).
• The purpose of these admixtures is to reduce the time of initial setting, but not necessarily
to speed up strength gain. Covering concrete to keep out moisture and to retain heat of
hydration is still necessary.
• traditional antifreeze solutions are used .
• Entrained air is particularly desirable in any concrete placed during freezing weather.
Concrete that is not air entrained can suffer strength loss and internal as well as surface
damage as a result of freezing and thawing .
• Air entrainment provides the capacity to absorb stresses due to ice formation within the
• The maturity concept is based on the principle that strength gain in concrete is a
function of curing time and temperature. The maturity concept, as described in ACI
306R-88 and ASTM C 1074 can be used to evaluate strength development when the
prescribed curing temperatures have not been maintained for the required time or
when curing temperatures have fluctuated. The concept is expressed by the equation
• M = maturity factor
• = summation
• C = concrete temperature, degrees Celsius
• F = concrete temperature, degrees Fahrenheit
• t = duration of curing at temperature C (F), usually in hours
Metric: M = (C + 10) t
Inch-Pound: M = (F – 14) t