2. The term ‘motivation’ has been derived from the word ‘motive’. Motive may be defined as an inner state of our mind that
activates and directs our behaviour. It makes us move to act. It is always internal to us and is externalized via our
behaviour. Motivation is one’s willingness to exert efforts towards the accomplishment of his/her goal.
Motivation can be classified in different ways.one is given below −
3. ‣ It requires external stimuli, e.g. reward, certificate.
‣ Usually aroused by concrete stimulus but sometimes abstract stimulus can arouse it, e.g. desire
to score more.
‣ Unlike intrinsic motivation it is not that active and fruitful.
‣ It does not last long.
‣ If the stimulus of extrinsic motivation is obtained before finishing the work then motivation is
lost before achieving goal.
Example —tries to do well in exam to get prize, behave well to be praised by all etc.
Extrinsic motivation means that the individual's motivational stimuli are coming from outside. In other
words, our desires to perform a task are controlled by an outside source. Note that even though the stimuli
are coming from outside, the result of performing the task will still be rewarding for the individual
performing the task. This type of motivation is everywhere and frequently used within society throughout
your lifetime. When one is motivated to behave, achieve, learn or do based on a highly regarded outcome,
rather than for the fun, development or learning provided within an experience, one is being extrinsically
4. Intrinsic motivation means that the individual's motivational stimuli are coming from within. The individual has the desire
to perform a specific task, because its results are in accordance with his belief system or fulfills a desire and therefore
importance is attached to it. When one is intrinsically motivated, one enjoys an activity, course or skill development solely
for the satisfaction of learning and having fun. There is not external inducement when intrinsic motivation is the key to
behavior or outcome.
‣ When one pursues an activity for the pure enjoyment of it, one does so because one is intrinsically
‣ The Second feature of IM is feeling challenged by the activity.
‣ Third is experiencing a sense of control over the activity.
‣ The fourth feature, is deep attention and the experience of high motivation.
‣ Intrinsic motivation lasts longer than extrinsic motivation.
‣ Abstract stimulus arouses such motivation.
‣ It does not require any external stimulus.
Example — reading books to know something.
5. Challenge : People are more motivated when they pursue goals with personal meaning and when attaining the goal is
possible but not necessarily certain. These goals may also relate to their self-esteem when performance feedback is available.
Curiosity : Internal motivation is increased when something in the physical environment grabs the individual's attention
(sensory curiosity). It also occurs when something about the activity stimulates the person to want to learn more (cognitive
Control: People want control over themselves and their environments and want to determine what they pursue.
Cooperationand competition : Intrinsic motivation can be increased in situations where people gain satisfaction from
helping others. It also applies to cases where they are able to compare their own performance favorably to that of others.
Recognition : People enjoy having their accomplishment recognized by others, which can increase internal motivation.
6. Locusof Control:
Those who are always at the mercy of luck, fate and unforeseen uncontrollable
outside force and feel helpless all the time and never like to take the responsibility
for their bad outcomes and miserable performances in life are said to have external
locus of control.
When a person believes that he or she is able to act so as to maximize the
possibility of good outcomes and to minimize the possibility of bad outcomes
he is said to have internal locus of control.
Internal Locus of Control:
External Locus of Control:
Locus of control refers to one’s assumption about responsibility for good and bad events. Every person during his lifetime
comes across some good and some had outcomes. While he acts to maximize the possibility of good outcomes and enjoys the
success of his life, he tries to minimize the possibility of bad outcomes.
7. Create a student-centered classroom. When students are involved in their own learning, they are more
intrinsically motivated. Allow students to have a say in the course where possible and try to incorporate an active
learning activity every 15-20 minutes.
Promote a mastery goal, rather than a performance goal. If students are motivated to gain mastery, rather than simply
aiming for a performance goal, they are more likely to invest more effort into their own learning.
Encourage students’ actions, not their character or person. Focus on their effort, not their innate ability. Direct students’
attention to the process of completing the project and the effort involved, rather than on the end product.
Provide clear learning goals. By providing clear learning goals at the beginning of class or before an activity, students
may be more intrinsically motivated to work toward those goals.
Have high, but realistic expectations for students. standards should be set high enough to challenge students and
motivate them to do their best without being so high that students feel they are unattainable. If students believe
achievement is within their grasp, they will work toward that goal.
8. Intrinsic motivation stimulates individual internally to perform a task while extrinsic motivation uses
external stimulous to motivate one to perform a task. Both have their own importance in achievement of a
goal. But if it can be used in fields of teaching-learning, that will have positive outcome. Extrinsic
motivation will engage students in learning process and intrinsic motivation will create the need for
learning and will keep students involve in learning process.