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  3. INTRODUCTION Floors of a building are as important as the foundation of a building.They have to bear the forces of our everyday activities and at the same time provide an aesthetic appearance to the interior of the building .It is therefore important to choose the right flooring that is versatile and suits our building the best. There are various types of flooring materials used in building construction and their selection depends on application , aesthetics and choice of user
  4. WHAT IS FLOOR ? A floor is the 'lower horizontal surface of any space in a building, including finishes that are laid as part of the permanent construction. ' THE IMPORTANCE OF FLOORING Flooring, the general term used to refer to the material covering the bare floor plate, is one of the largest elements to consider when designing a space. Since the floor is underfoot and takes up so much real estate in any space, it has a significant impact on the aesthetic of your office.
  5. Factors to be considered while selecting material for flooring : Durability Flooring be should durable enough with a life equal to the life of other components of the structure Appearance The appearance of the floor should be aesthetic. Flooring products made of different materials are available in markets with colors, designs, different shapes, sizes, etc. Initial Cost The quality durability may increase along with the cost. But the selection of the cost of flooring material is done based on several factors Hardness and The floor material should be hard enough to resist the wear and tear caused by loads.It should not allow the formation of dents when loads are moved on it. Smoothness The top surface of the floor material should be smooth and level. A rough surface is not good to look and also damages the base of the equipment placed on the floor.
  6. Factors to be considered while selecting material for flooring : Damp resistance The floor material should exhibit good resistance against dampness in like and especially places kitchens bathrooms . Cleanliness The floor selected should be easy to clean. It should not absorb any solutions such as oils, greases, etc. It should not allow the formation of stains on it. Fire resistance The should floor have good fire resistance, especially upper floors Thermal Insulation The floor material should offer good thermal resistance. PVC, asphalt, cork, rubber, etc. are good thermal insulators. Sound Insulation The floor material good in insulating should be sound otherwise it will produce noise when users walk on it.
  7. CEMENT CONCRETE FLOORING Cement concrete flooring is one of the most common types of used in both in as well flooring residential buildings owing to as public its non- absorbent nature and thus it is very useful for water stores, durability, smooth and pleasing in appearance, good wearing properties, easy maintenance and is economical.
  8. MANUFACTURE Cement concrete flooring tiles shall be manufactured from a mixture of cement, natural aggregates and colouring material where required, by pressure process (with or without vacuum dewatering) or vibration (with or without vacuum dewatering) or a combination of both, so that the tiles meet the requirements specified in the standard. Concrete is the most commonly used flooring material. It is suitable for any type of construction and is cheaper than others and durable. Cement Concrete mix of 1:3:6 to 1:5:10 or lime concrete with 40% 1:2 lime sand mortar and 60% coarse aggregate is used as base course. After hardening, 1:2:4 cement concrete mix with 40 mm thick layer is laid as the topping. In industrial buildings, a granolithic finish is provided to obtain hard wearing surface. The granolithic finish can be obtained from rich concrete with a tough quality coarse aggregate mix.
  9. 1.First properly compact the earth in the plinth. 2.Over this compacted earth filling, uniformly spread a layer of clean coarse sand about 10 to 15 cm thick. 3.A base concrete of grade M10 (1 cement : 3 sand : 6 coarse aggregate) is then laid over the sand layer in the required slope and tamped properly. The thickness of base concrete is generally 100 mm. 4.Level the top of the base concrete and left it to set and harden. 5.Thoroughly clean the surface upon hardening. 6.Divide the top of the floor into panels, rectangular or square in shape, by using glass or other strips. The area of the panels should preferably less than 2 square meters. 7.After completion of the paneling, moist the top of the base concrete and apply cement slurry on it. PROCESS 8.Over this cement slurry, provide a layer of cement concrete of grade M15 (1 cement :2 sand : 4 coarse aggregate) of required thickness (say 40 mm). 9.Tamp the top surface thoroughly to compact it and use wooden floats to obtain a smooth surface. The surface so obtained is cured for about 10 days before putting it to use.
  10. MARKET SURVEY Red And Grey Concrete Cement Ramp Track Tile, Thickness: 25 M M ₹ 25/ sq ft Red and Yellow concrete checkered cement tile Size :1 SQ.FT. ₹30/ Piece Gloss Cement Concrete Checkered tile Thickness :25 M M ₹25/ Piece
  11. MARBLE FLOORING Marble is a very popular natural stone that is quarried and cut into slabs and tiles for a variety of residential and commercial building applications, including countertops, floors, and wall tiles. It is a metamorphic rock that forms when a sedimentary stone, such as limestone, is transformed under heat and pressure into a harder stone with beautiful color and veined patterns. Marble is sometimes confused with granite, however, granite is an igneous volcanic magma, not rock derived from layered sedimentary rock. Granite typically has a pebbly or spotted color pattern, while marble usually has a wavy veined pattern.
  12. Easily polished PROS: Elegant, upscale appearance Natural material CONS: Porous stone, requires sealing Scratches, stains easily Expensive Slippery and brittle Cold underfoot PROS AND CONS Maintenance and Repair Once installed, routine maintenance of a marble tile floor is relatively easy; it requires the same kind of sweeping and damp mopping you would do with a ceramic tile floor. However, unlike ceramic tile, marble is fairly porous, so you shouldn't allow water to puddle and stand on the surface. Accommodates radiant floor heating Standing water can penetrate the stone and discolor it. Adds real estate value
  13. MANUFACTURING Marble is an elegant addition to any home. From its timeless appearance to natural intricacies, this natural stone is an elegant addition to any home. Surface renovations benefit from the alluring appearance of marble, while even improving the overall resale value of the home or commercial property. A Result of Heat and Pressure When limestone is exposed to excessive heat and pressure, it goes through what is known as recrystallization, creating a mosaic of several different rocks (and colors). During this process, texture of limestone is changed so drastically it is transformed into marble. How Colors are Formed The marble forms into ornate white, sandstone, green, and even veined blue hues. White marble is the result of pure limestone going through a metamorphosis, while green marble occurs as the result of serpentine From Quarry to Manufacturer Marble is extracted in large chunks from quarries. Once it is “harvested” marble is transported to mills where it is sawed and cut. Marble and tile are inspected for imperfections and “faults” before being sold at the consumer level. The mill workers then check for cracks or faults which are filled by pigmented resins. After that process, the marble is then finished and sealed then sent to various retail stores
  14. INSTALLATION OF MARBLE FLOOR Marble flooring installation requires proper design and pattern as the veins in marble should get matched with other marble. Otherwise, it will look ugly, and therefore the whole charm of marble flooring will get lost. Marble flooring is laid with white cement and yellow sand. It should be moulded on all four side edges before laying. Therefore, proper joints space should be provided due to the moulding while marble flooring installation. This moulding will help during thermal expansion and it will provide not only good bond between two stones but it will also provide space for expansion so that it doesn’t pop up or buckle under heat like ceramic or vitrified tiles.
  17. GRANITE FLOORING Granite is a range of natural stone that is made from cooling molten rock in the ground. This time- consuming and high-pressure process results in granite stone. It is an igneous rock that is mainly strong and solid. Granite is made up of minerals such as feldspar and quartz, which add to its feature sparkle. It can be used in almost any part of your house and comes in both honed, matte slabs, as well as brushed, shiny tiles.
  18. PROS AND CONS Pros It is durable Granite is incredibly hard, meaning that it will stand up excellently to things like pet claws or heavy foot traffic with out so much as a scratch. When properly sealed, granite is very resistant to moisture Granite’s natural beauty is one of the main reasons that people choose it as a flooring material. Cons Granite is costly. Granite can be slippery when it is highly polished Granite has a cumbersome installation process. Granite needs to be periodically resealed in order to keep it properly protected.
  19. Clean and dry the sub-floor dry before installing. Peeling paint paints and residual sealant should be removed using sanding or scrapping. Use 90 degree corner granite floor tile. Lay floor tiles and use plastic spacer to keep the granite tiles properly aligned. Trim the tiles using a wet saw, so as to fit. Now mix the thin-set as per the instructions on the pack. Then use a trowel to spread an even layer of thin-set over the sub- floor. Place the backer-board and screw it down. This makes the surface smooth and which protect granite from damages. Hold the trowel at 45 degree angle to form consistent ridges. Use a slight twisting motion to press the granite tile into the mortar, by tapping it down with a rubber mallet. This ensures force out air pockets for complete contact. Allow the mortar to dry for 24 hours. PROCESS OF GRANITE FLOORING :
  20. In small batches mix grout and use it within 20 minutes. The consistency of grout should be like toothpaste. Then work the grout into the tile joints with a grout float. Clean off any excess grout paste with the help float and using damp sponge. Now leave the grout for three days. Now apply a penetrating grout sealant. After applying the sealant remove the excess sealant from the tile.
  21. USES OF GRANITE FLOORING Granite Floors Can Last a Lifetime There Are Many Colors and Patterns to Choose From It’s Resistant to Staining Granite Tiles Are Hypoallergenic .Granite Floors Can Boost the Value of Your Property Indian Granite Colors
  22. MARKET SURVEY Polished Desert Brown Granite Stone Slab Thickness: 17 mm ₹ 72/ Square Feet White Granite Stone ₹ 21.00 / Square Feet Onion Red Granite Stone, 20 Mm ₹ 400/ Square Feet
  23. MARKET SURVEY Granite Slabs, For Flooring, Thickness: 15-20 mm ₹ 75/ Square Feet Polished Slab Marqino Black Granite, Thickness: 15-20 mm ₹ 65/ Square Feet Polished Slab Granite Thickness: 15-20 mm ₹ 50/ Sq ft
  24. KOTA STONE Kota stone is a fine grained variety of Limestone (Chemical composition is Siliceous Calcium Carbonate), sedimentary origin, quarried in Kota and Jhalawar districts of Rajasthan. Kotastone’s fascinating natural look, toughness and cost effectiveness makes it the most extensively used stone for both residential and commercial flooring. Kota Stone Flooring comes with a shiny appearance and charismatic colours such as blue, yellow, grey, greenish-blue and brown. Kota Stone is available in different shapes and sizes and can easily blend with any home interior or exterior flooring design.
  25. PROS AND CONS PROS It is a hard, non-porous, and homogeneous material that can be widely used in different areas. It is not water absorbent and is anti-slip hence is the most perfect and hygienic flooring for humid areas. It is very strong and long-lasting. The stone can be polished again if a fresh appearance is desired. Kota is resistant enough to fit any climatic conditions – dry, humid, or cold. CONS It is not available in big slab sizes like marble or granite. Kota is a variety of limestone which is very fragile hence it is available in smaller sizes. Kota is not acid and alkali resistant and can be stained easily. Continuous usage of Kota stone might result in flaking. However if it is well maintained and polished regularly flaking of the stone might be prevented. Its surface finish is not so lustrous as marble or granite. The stone does need regular maintenance but care should be taken not to drag heavy furniture over it.
  26. KOTA STONE FLOORING PROCESS The thickness of mortar bedding shall not be less than 40 mm. The stone slabs shall be thoroughly wetted with clean water. Mortar of the specified mix shall be spread under the area of each slab in accordance with the overall slope. It shall be pressed tapped with a wooden mallet and brought to the level. The stone to be lifted and laid aside. The top surface of the mortar is to be corrected by adding fresh mortar at hollows. The mortar is allowed to harden a bit and cement slurry of honey-like consistency shall be spread over the same @ 4.4 Kg per SqM. The edges of the slabs are already paved to be buttered with cement with or without pigment. The slab is to be tapped to the desired level with a fine joint. The surplus cement slurry to be cleaned.
  27. CURING, POLISHING & FINISHING The curing of the slab by wetting the surface shall be continued for a minimum period of seven days. Thereafter the surface shall be ground evenly with a machine fitted with fine grade grit block (No. 120). After grinding the surface should be prepared by thoroughly washing and cleaning for final grinding. Final grinding is done the day after the first grinding with a machine fitted with the finest grade grit blocks (No.320). Hand polishing may be allowed instead of machine polishing for small areas after laying. In the case of hand polishing carborundum stones of medium grade (No. 80) and fine grade (No. 120) shall be used for first and final polishing respectively. The polished surface is then rubbed hard with oxalic acid sprinkled with water and spread at the rate of 33 gm per square meter using the pad of woolen rags, also known as namdah block.
  28. MARKET SURVEY Grey Normal polished Kota Stone SIZE: 32 to 37 MM ₹ 22/ Sq Ft Blue Leather Polish Kota Stone ₹ 27/ Square Feet Grey leather finish Flooring Kota Stone, Thickness: 25 To 45 Mm ₹ 25/ Square Feet
  29. MARKET SURVEY Uncut Kota Stone, Thickness: 20-25 Mm ₹ 20/ Square Feet Kota Green Limestone, Thickness: 15 To 35 Mm ₹ 8/ Square Feet Blue And Green Kota Stone ₹ 45/ Square Feet
  30. FLAGSTONE Flagstone (flag) is a generic flat stone, sometimes cut in regular rectangular or square shape and usually used for paving slabs or walkways, patios, flooring, fences and roofing. It may be used for memorials, headstones, facades and other construction. The name derives from Middle English flagge meaning turf, perhaps from Old Norse flaga meaning slab or chip. Flagstone is a sedimentary rock that is split into layers along bedding planes. Flagstone is usually a form of a sandstone composed of feldspar and quartz and is arenaceous in grain size (0.16 mm – 2 mm in diameter).
  31. PROS AND CONS PROS : 1.Flagstone flooring is very economical for the place where the stone is easily available. 2.Maintenance is easy and cheap. 3.It is hard, durable and wear-resistant. 4.It can withstand the wear due to movement of heavy load. CONS : 1.It is not a very fine and smooth type of floor. 2.It is not very impervious as water can percolate through damaged portions. 3.When iron-tired thellas move over the flagstone floor, it produces a lot of noise.
  32. METHOD OF FLAGSTONE FLOORING For the construction of flagstone flooring, first of all, a layer of earth is filled uniformly in the flooring area. The layer is rammed hard after mixing water to it. If the soil quality is not too good, a layer of rubble boulders or broken brick-bats around 250 mm thick is laid on it. This layer is then rammed so that broken bricks are fully embedded in the flooring soil, and a hard bed is obtained. A layer of lime concrete, 100 mm to 150 mm thick, is then spread over the hard bed. Again this layer is rammed to get a consolidated layer and left to set for 2 to 3 days. After this process, a layer of lime mortar, 20 to 25 mm thick is spread and flagstones are fitted in it. Once stone slabs are properly set in the mortar layer, mortar that has come out through joints is raked off for a depth of about 20 mm and flush pointed with 1:3 cement mortar. The standard dimensions of stone blocks are usually 300 mm x 300 mm, 450 mm x 450 mm, 600 mm x 600 mm and 450 mm x600 mm. The stones used should be enough hard, durable and of fine quality. The stones are dressed on all the edges so that joints are kept thin, to give them a better look. These types of floors are used in such a place(like as Stores, Godowns, sheds, etc.) where heavy load movement have to be handled
  33. INSTALLATION OF FLAGSTONE FLOORING 1)Preparation Choosing to use Flagstone tiles leaves you with a selection of design options, and one important consideration is the laying pattern. 2) Mixing Adhesive Adhesives are mixed in proportions as per the requirements 3) Apply the Adhesive Carefully apply the adhesive to one tile at a time, taking time to apply an even spread underneath each of the tiles. Arrange the tiles in the desired formation, ensuring an adequate quantity of tile adhesive. Be careful not to create an uneven surface by using different amounts of adhesive.
  34. 4) Level the tiles Use a spirit level to check that the tiles are level. If any adjustment is required, gently tap with a rubber mallet to knock back into place. 5) Grouting Use a pointer tool to apply grout into the gaps in the tiles. Remove any excess using a damp sponge or cloth and allow to dry. 6) Sealing Flagstone floors are robust and hard-wearing, but in order to maintain their freshness and to protect against unforeseen damage, it is recommended that the tile is sealed. A sealed floor will not only last longer but will repel spills and stains, requiring little maintenance and saving future expense.
  35. MARKET SURVEY Grey Green Yellow red Flagstone ₹ 43/ Square Feet Random Flagstones, For Flooring, Thickness: 5-10 mm ₹ 30/ Square Feet Kuppam Green Granite Flag Stone ₹ 50/ Square Feet
  36. TILE FLOORING These are commonly made of ceramic or stone, although recent technological advances have resulted in rubber or glass tiles for floors as well. Ceramic tiles may be painted and glazed. Small mosaic tiles may be laid in various patterns. Floor tiles are typically set into mortar consisting of sand, cement and often a latex additive. The spaces between the tiles are commonly filled with sanded or unsanded floor grout.
  37. PROS AND CONS PROS Very durable Impervious to water and stains Non-allergenic Many design options CONS Can be cold Hard underfoot Very heavy Difficult and time-consuming to install Constructed from the square, hexagonal, or other shapes Made of clay ( pottery), cement concrete, or terrazzo. Available in different sizes and thicknesses. Commonly used in residential houses, offices, schools, hospitals, and other public buildings, for floor to be laid quickly.
  38. MANUFACTURING Water and raw materials mix together until a sand-like consistency is reached. Recipes vary slightly however feldspar, clay, silica sand and other materials are included in the mixture. In this next step, a spray dryer removes the excess moisture from the mixture until the perfect consistency is reached before the mixture is moved into a press. Now, the porcelain mixture is pressed to form the tile. Each size and shape of available porcelain tiles use a special punch to create the body of the tile, called Greenware. Greenware is the term used for tiles that have not been glazed or fired. Prior to that step, the raw materials are placed in a dryer to remove moisture, readying the tiles for the next step. After the tiles have dried, the next step is to add the pattern and colors using a state-of- the- art inkjet printer. After the pattern is applied, the glaze is applied to protect the tiles. After the tiles have dried, the next step is to add the pattern and colors using a state- of- the-art inkjet printer. After the pattern is applied, the glaze is applied to protect the tiles
  39. BASE FOR TILE FLOORING Flooring may be laid on a reasonably rigid base. Surface of the base shall be rough to form a suitable key with bedding mortar. The base, about 35 to 50 mm below the level of the finished floor, is to be properly graded and free from loose earth, dirt, dust, and lumps. LAYING OF TILES Laying of Bedding Mortar- For pre-finished ceramic tiles – the bedding mortar used for this has the cement and coarse sand ratio of 1:4 For glazed earthenware tile -the bedding mortar used for this has the cement and coarse sand ratio of 1:3 Quantity of water should be such that it gives the motar a sufficient amount of plasticity and also makes the mortar workable. Average thickness of bedding mortar = 20 mm Thickness under the tile = not less than 10 mm. Allowed to harden for 12 to 24 hours. Before laying the tiles, neat cement slurry is spread over the bedding mortar
  40. LAYING OF TILES Tiles are laid flat, gently pressed into the bedding mortar with the help of a wooden mallet. Before laying the tiles, a thin paste of cement is applied on their sides, over the entire perimeter surface Joints between adjacent tiles are cleaned of loose mortar etc. to a depth of 5 mm, using a wire brush Then grouted with cement slurry of the tile color. The slurry is also applied over the flooring. Then curing is done for seven days In Vitrified ceramic tiles – wetting of the back surface before laying is adequate. In Glazed earthenware tiles - tiles are soaked in water for an hour before laying.
  42. CARPET FLOORING Carpet Floor is a soft floor covering made of bound carpet fibers or stapled fibers, typically consisting of an upper layer of pile attached to a backing. Carpeting refers to wall-to-wall coverage, which is typically used indoors and can be used in both high and low traffic areas, it typically lasts for 15-18 years before it needs to be replaced. It offers the right balance of safety, comfort, performance and aesthetic pleasure.
  43. PROS AND CONS PROS Warm and soft to the touch fairly inexpensive there is a wide selection of colors and styles they offer insulation and sound proofing easy to clean easy to maintain and repair CONS May flatten and harden There is the possibility of mold grown in area of high moisture They tend to absorb large spills into the pads underneath They could require professional cleaning They have been known to retain odors and bacteria
  44. Preparing the yarn Dyeing the yarn Tufting the carpet Dyeing the tufted carpet Finishing the carpet Quality Control MANUFACTURING OF CARPET
  45. PREPARATION Measure the space area of the room to be carpeted make sure the room floor is clean and smooth scrape up any paint or remove the doors for easy installation STEPS cut tackle strips with strip cutter and nail them half- inch away from the wall lay the carpet pad perpendicularly and staple it near the tackle strips with a staple hammer use a utility knife to trim the carpet along the interior edge of the tackless strip so that they are exposed With the use of a carpet, knife trim the carpet to fit around any obstacle Trim away the excess carpet using a wall trimmer. INSTALLATION
  46. MARKET SURVEY Grey Fiber Decorative Carpet Flooring ₹30/ Square Feet Plain Carpet Flooring, Thickness (Millimetres): 4 mm,12 mm & 15 mm ₹ 34/ Square Feet PP Carpet Flooring ₹60/ Square Feet
  47. TIMBER FLOORING Wood flooring is any product manufactured from timber that is designed for use as flooring, either structural or aesthetic. Wood is a common choice as a flooring material and can come in various styles, colors, cuts, and species.
  48. PROS AND CONS PROS: A long-term investment Variety Quality that is ageless Easy maintenance and hygiene Healthy air quality at home Better for babies Good acoustics Improves the value of your home Organic Easy installation CONS: Cost Prone to termite attack Avoid water contact Scratching Limited usage Cupping Crowning Molds Noise High maintenance
  49. TYPES OF INSTALLATION OF TIMBER FLOORING 1.Nail/Staple down method of construction: It’s one of the most demanding methods of laying or installing a wooden floor and requires highly skilled people with specialized tools like a foot- nailer and so one needs to be a qualified professional. This method is possible only when there is a wooden sub-floor as nailing in concrete is practically not possible.This kind of method is used mostly for laying solid wood floors. This is because solid wood is thicker and more prone to expansion and hence a glue-down method is not ideal for it. 2.Wooden floorings Using Glue down floor laying method The key to this method is laying the sub-floor on co-ordinates of stability and sound, other than successful installation. It incorporates the use of specialist adhesives, also called bonding agents to glue the wooden boards to the sub-floor. One important note in this method of wooden flooring system is that we should only use flexible adhesives, as wood, be it any variety, has a property of expanding or contracting. For the same reason it is advisable to leave expansion joints around any fixed installation of wood.
  50. 3.Floating Wooden floor installation Rather than fixing the floorboards to the sub- floor, you fix the panels or boards to each other and keep them floating. It is done by tongue and groove joinery, but this joint is fixed firmly by using a PVA adhesive. There is also a click-lock system, where we don’t need an external adhesive as the boards get locked together. SO when the boards expand, the entire wooden floor expands as a whole unit. For this reason, an expansion gap is left around the periphery of the entire room, to accommodate any differences caused. Ideally, Laminate flooring can be done Floating floor installation technique. engineered wood is also possible using using But, this technique. However, it is not a good option for solid wood flooring.
  51. Houses in hilly areas USES: In Dancing Halls In Auditoriums
  52. Manufacturers and suppliers Sundek interio Private Limited Fort, Mumbai Crown Inc. Dharampeth ,Nagpur Interclas Creations koramangala ,Bengaluru A to Z Lifestyle (India) Private Limited Mumbai Designerz Chennai Apex (India) Agencies Basni ,Jodhpur Timber Floorings - Timber Floorboards Latest Price, Manufacturers & Suppliers (
  53. BRICK FLOORING A brick floor is defined as a floor surface constructed out of many individual bricks laid like tiles, either with or without mortar or grouting. Red brick is used for the flooring which is made from clay. Red brick is the most popular and leading building material because it is cheap, hard, durable and easy to handle and to work with. Brick flooring is derived from pavers, which are thinner than the regular bricks used in walls and other structural elements. Brick Flooring is commonly used in godowns; ware houses, residential houses, garden, roads and in areas where good bricks are available.
  54. PROS Durable and easy to clean Non-allergenic Fireproof Adds drama Non-slip surface CONS Hard surface Cold underfoot Susceptible to stains Requires sealing PROS AND CONS
  55. LAYING OF BRICKS Bricks are laid on edge and on bed. The joint between the brick should not exceed10mm thickness The brick is protected from rain when mortar is still green. LAYING The bricks shall be laid on the edge on 12mm mortar bed in plain or diagonal herring bone pattern. Each brick should be properly bedded and set home by gently tapping with wooden trowel handle or mallet. Its inside face is applied with mortar, before the next brick is laid and pressed against it. On competition of a portion of flooring the joints should be filled with mortar. The surface of the flooring during laying should be frequently checked with a straight edge. CURING Brick work should be protected from rain by suitable covering when the mortar is still green. Brickwork shall be kept constantly moist on all faces for a period of 7 days.
  58. MARKET SURVEY Natural brick flooring ₹ 70/ Piece Herringbone Brick Pattern Stamp Concrete Flooring ₹ 55/ Square Feet
  59. MUD FLOORING Mud flooring is one of the types of flooring. When our ancestors shifted to building homes, they first started off with building mud houses. Even when they started to build houses with bamboo strips, the flooring type was still mud flooring.
  60. PROS AND CONS PROS: The main advantage of mud flooring is; it is eco-friendly. Mud flooring is a very cheap option Mud flooring has the ability to control temperature variations. During summer it stays cool and vice versa during wintertime. It can provide a fairly warm atmosphere. It is a fire-resistant Skilled laborers are not required to do the mud flooring. CONS: It is not durable Mud flooring requires frequent maintenance, once or twice a week. The surface of the mud flooring is not smooth Mud flooring gets weathered due to certain activities i.e. walking, moving of furniture, etc. It is not moisture resistant therefore there are chances of the growth of bacteria which is unhygienic. It dost not resist heavy load as the floor gets a dent. Mud flooring has low resistance to stain as it has high porosity.
  61. CONSTRUCTION Wet the base floor with water Spread out the mix Ram well so as to get the consolidated thickness of 150 mm Water is not added during the process of ramming Flatten the floor surface with a trowel To maintain the mud floor in good condition, a thin coat of cement cow dung is added or twice a week in proportion of a 1:2 ratio MATERIALS REQUIRED FOR MUD FLOORING Sifted sand Clay Cow dung Chopped and sifted straw
  63. LINOLEUM FLOORING A covering available in rolls which is spread directly on concrete or wooden flooring.Linoleum sheets may be plain or printed . It may be 2 to 6 mm thick and 2 to 4 m wide . Linoleum tiles are also available.Linoleum coverings are attractive , resilient,durable,cheap and can be cleaned easily .It rots when gets wet .Hence it cannot be used for bathroom and kitchen
  64. PROS AND CONS CONS : Limited Selection Discoloration Expensive PROS : Resiliency flooring. Water- resistance Eco-friendly Low maintenance Modern manufacturing methods are used to produce plain and decorative patterns. made by cutting squares out of inlaid, or printed, Inlaid patterns are two differently coloured linoleum sheets and attaching them to the backing material. MANUFACTURING process n the original for manufacturing linoleum, a thin film of linseed oil was allowed to oxidize. This process was eventually replaced by a faster method in which linseed oil is oxidized in large cylindrical kettles where stirred the oil is at elevated temperatures.
  65. INSTALLATION Remove Old Flooring Level the Floor Acclimate Flooring Mark Center Point Dry Fit the Tile Spread the Adhesive Cut the Tiles to Fit Cover the Edge Roll the Floor
  67. MARKET SURVEY Linoleum Flooring ₹ 200/ Square Feet Laminated Linoleum Flooring ₹ 12/ Square Feet Linoleum Carpet ₹ 36/ Square Feet
  68. TERAZZO FLOORING Terrazzo is a composite material either poured in place or precast or hydraulically pressed as tiles. Terrazzo is used for floor and wall decorative finishes. It consists of marble, quartz, granite, glass, or other suitable chips; sprinkled or unsprinkled, binder that and poured with a is cementitious, chemical or a combination of both.
  69. hardens naturally for several weeks. The next step is abrasive polishing, which removes a surface layer of 2-5 mm and uncovers the decorative aggregates. Finally, to harden the surface and brighten the colours a final fine surface polishing is done. PROS AND CONS PROS : Long-lasting. Seamless look Durability Easy to keep clean. Versatility Eco-friendly CONS : Maintenance Slippery Cold underfoot Not DIYable Expensive Installation risks MANUFACTURING Terrazzo is a type of concrete manufactured with care and incorporating quality components: white cement, (powders fine aggregates and micro- aggregates) and chips, fragments or pieces of marble or other decorative materials. After adding water, this mixture is poured into a mould and then
  70. INSTALLATION PROCESS The first and most important step in the installation of terrazzo is preparing the surface, which aids in preparing the substrate for a strong bond to the terrazzo mixture. The surface is prepared with a shot blast machine that releases metal shot to remove any residue from the substrate. The next step in terrazzo installation is crack detailing. Next, you prime the floor with an epoxy primer to again strengthen the bond to the substrate. Once the floor is primed, the terrazzo divider strips are put into place and secured. This allows for multiple colors, complex designs, and whimsical patterns to be constructed. The aggregate, epoxy, and hardener are then mixed together. Once the mixture is made the artisans begin pouring into the metal forms placed on the floor. The terrazzo craftsman will either hand trowel or utilize a power trowel to even out the mixture and make sure it is distributed throughout the form evenly. Once level, it is left to cure. When the floor is cured the artisans will grind the floor with a floor grinder that utilizes pads comprised of diamond plates that are spun at a high velocity, taking the floor texture from rough to smooth ensuring an even and brilliant surface. Once the grinding process is complete the floor is then grouted to cover any pinholes. The final step is to hone and seal the floor, giving it extra protection and brilliance to the final product.
  71. MARKET SURVEY Glossy Terrazzo Flooring, Thickness: 3 mm ₹ 250/ Square Feet Polus Smooth And Shiny Epoxy Terrazo Flooring Thickness: 4 To 6mm ₹ 400/ Square Feet White O Dusk Terrazzo Flooring ₹ 61/ Square Feet
  72. MARKET SURVEY Multicolor Pcc Terrazzo Epoxy Flooring ,Thickness: Thickness 3mm 15mm ₹ 400/ Square Feet Polished, Leather Terrazzo, Size: 4 X 10, Thickness: 18mm ₹ 475/ sq ft Matt Gray Terrazzo Tile, Thickness: 20-22 Mm, (12 Inch x 12 Inch) ₹ 75/ sq ft
  73. RUBBER FLOORING Rubber flooring can be made from either natural tree rubber or from synthetic materials, which are often recycled from vehicle tires. These materials allow for an extremely durable and low-maintenance surface option for homeowners. flooring also provides plenty of Rubber choices when it comes to how to install it in your room.
  74. PROS AND CONS PROS : Resistance to tough workouts and heavy traffic Numerous style options Perfect fit for your space Quick and easy installation due to their interlocking design and light weight No adhesives required If damage occurs, only one piece needs to be replaced rather than the whole floor Easy to remove, store, and reuse in another location CONS : Installation in larger spaces is very time-consuming The floor may not appear completely seamless Seams can let water through to the subfloor Smooth, untextured rubber tiles become slippery when wet Rubbery smell in the first couple of months after installation
  75. HOW TO PREPARE FOR RUBBER FLOORING It's important that the installation area be flat. If we notice there are any low spots, we'll need to strip off old flooring and adhesives until we get down to the subfloor and then raise up the uneven areas with the appropriate leveling compound. Once we have ensured the existing floor or subfloor is level, clean it well. Hard surfaces should be vacuumed and mopped, whereas wood subfloors should be vacuumed. When ordering new rubber flooring for indoor purposes, as CalRecycle points out, it's important to only use rubber flooring made for interior-only purposes. This is because rubber flooring products made for exterior use tend to have drastically higher levels of volatile organic compounds, which could contain potentially dangerous chemicals. When you receive your rubber flooring, remove it from the packaging and lay it on the subfloor for at least one night before installing so it can acclimate to the temperature of the surrounding room and, in the case of rubber rolls, flatten out.
  76. INSTALLATION Lay out the rubber rolls on your floor the way you want them to be installed. Cut the rubber sheets so they fit in the room, leaving a few inches of excess on the end of each section of roll that will touch the last wall. Use a hammer and wood block to get the sheets in tightly against the walls and one another. For the last row, measure the size you will need and then leave a few extra inches on each side. Measure the exact width of the floor area on the last row, being sure to measure at each end and the center of each roll in the row. I Lift up the first roll and then stick double-sided tape along the perimeter of where it will lay on the ground before laying the mat back down. Then, lift up the rubber a little at a time and peel up the other side of the double-sided tape, gently placing the mat back into place to avoid trapping air bubbles. Press down on the mat to help it stick. Repeat this process section by section until all mats are secured. If you are using glue, lift up all the rolls, marking where each should sit if necessary, and lay a light layer of adhesive over a 10-foot-long stretch of the floor using a trowel. Then, carefully unroll 10 feet of the flooring over the adhesive. After waiting 60 minutes for the adhesive to stick, roll the mats with a 50- or 100-pound carpet roller to help the rubber stick to the adhesive. Do this again after another 30 minutes.
  77. MARKET SIURVEY Color Coated Black Rubber Flooring ₹ 60/ sq ft Rubber Puzzle Interlocking Mat ₹ 265/ Square Feet Rubber Flooring ₹ 55/ Square Feet
  78. PVC SHEET FLOORING PVC flooring or PVC Vinyl flooring is nothing but an alternative term used vinyl flooring. PVC refers to polyvinyl chloride, which is the material used to make vinyl flooring. Thus, it is often simply, called vinyl polyvinyl flooring or flooring, the most common term for this particular floor covering.
  79. PROS AND CONS CONS : Environmental Impact Wears over time Difficulty in repair MANUFACTURING Vinyl resins and plasticizers are stirred together in a plastisol, vat to make a which is then heated to form a batter. PROS : Easy to install Versatile Cost-effective Low maintenance Durable Moisture resistance Comfort The vinyl foam batter is spread onto the baking and heated, forming a sheet. The pattern is then printed on the flooring and a wear layer is applied.
  80. INSTALLATION Step 1: Clear The Room And Prepare The Subfloor Step 2: Install An Underlayment (If Needed) Step 3: Measure The Installation Area Step 4: Cut The Vinyl
  81. INSTALLATION Step 6: Spread The Adhesive Step 5: Lay The Vinyl On The Subfloor Step 7:Press Bubbles Out Of The Vinyl Sheet Step 8: Clean Stray Adhesive And Replace The Baseboards
  82. MARKET SURVEY Ruby Red Vinyl Flooring, Thickness: 2-6 Mm ₹ 55/ Square Feet LG Vinyl Flooring ₹ 50/ Square Feet LG Vinly Vinyl Flooring Sheet, Thickness: 0.65 To 1.5 mm ₹ 50/ Square Feet
  83. REFERENCES HOW TO CONSTRUCT CEMENT CONCRETE FLOOR? - CivilBlog.Org q=HOW+MARBLE+IS+MANUFACTURED+FOR+FLOORING&cvid=a763dee9636a48ba8c1f69076020489f &aqs=edge..69i57.13897j0j1&pglt=41&FORM=ANNTA1&PC=U531 Marble Flooring Pros and Cons ( Marble Flooring: One of the Most Luxurious Flooring Option ( process/#:~:text=%20Steps%20in%20the%20Tile%20manufacturing%20Process%20are%3A,and%20mi xed%20together.%20There%20are%20various...%20More%20 Carpet Flooring: Buy Custom Floor Carpet | Carpet Tile Online In India ( How carpet is made - making, used, dimensions, industry, machine, Raw Materials ( Brick Flooring: All you Need Know (