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  1. 1. ROY ADAPTION MODEL CREDENTIALS OF THEORIST Sr. CallistaRoyishighlyrespectednursetheorist,writer,lecturer,andresearcher. She born 14th October1939 inLos Angeles,California. EDUCATION / TRAINING & DEGREE  Mount St. Mary’s College,LosAngeles,B.A.,1963( nursing)  Universityof California,LosAngelesM.S1966( nursing – Pediatrics&maternity)  Universityof California,LosAngeles,M.A 1973( sociology,self&role systems)  Universityof California ,Los AngelesPhD1977( sociology)  University of California , San Francisco, Postdoc. Fellow, 1983-85( neuroscience nsg/ admin/ ethics) HONORS AND AWARDS (selected)  1981-Sigma Theta tau,,International foundersaward  1983 - HonoryDoctorate Alvernocollege,Milwaukee;  2000 – Alpha Sigma Nu Jesuit universities Book award for Roy’s adaptation Model – based research: 25 Years of contributionstonursingscience. THEORITICAL SOURCES  Dorothy Johnson encouraged her to develop her concept of adaptation as a frame work for adaptationduringhermastersprogramme at universityof California  Systemtheory processof responding  Helsons’s theory : acc to him adaptation is a process of responding positively to environmental changes  Humanism: the model usesthe conceptfromMaslow to explore beliefsandvaluesof person MAJOR ASSUMPTIONS PERSON :  Person is a bio-psycho social being in constant interaction with changing environment, he is a recipientof nursingcare.  An adaptive systemwithcopingprocess
  2. 2.  Describedasa whole comprisedof parts  Functionsasa unityforsome purpose  Includes people as individuals or in groups( families, organization, community and society as a whole.  An adaptive system with cognation and regulator subsystems acting to maintain adaptation in four adaptive modes : physiological physical, self concept group identity, role function and interdependence ENVIRONMENT:  All conditions, circumstances, and influences surrounding and affecting the development and behavior of persons and groups with particular consideration of mutuality of person and earth resources.  Three kindsof stimuli :focal,contextual &residual  Significantstimuli inall humanadaptationinclude stagesof development,familyandculture HEALTH AND ADAPTATION: A state and process of being and becoming integrated and whole person. Lack of integration representslackof health. Adaptation is a process of promoting physiological, psychological and social integrity and that integrityimpliesanunimpairedconditionleadingtocompletenessandunity. NURSING Nursing is the science and practice that expands adaptive abilities and enhances person and environmenttransformation. The goal of nursing as a promotion of adaptive responses in relation to four adaptive modes. Nursing seeks to reduce ineffective responses and promote adaptive responses as output behavior of the person. MAJOR CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS
  3. 3. DEFINITIONS SYSTEM: A system is a “set of units so related and connected as to form a unity or a whole and characterized by inputs, outputs, control and feedback processes.” Roy considers the recipient of care to be an openadaptive system  Are greaterthan someof it’s parts.  React to and interactwith othersystemin the environment  React asa whole , dysfunction in onecomponentaffecttheentire system.  Have boundariesthatareflexibleand open , permit interaction with anothersystem. CHARECTERISTICS OF SYSTEM INPUT In Roy’s system, input is defined as a stimuli which can come from the environment or from with in the person. stimuli are classified as focal, contextual , residual. Input also includes a persons adaptation level.Eachpersonsadaptationlevel isunique and changesconstantly. FOCAL STIMULLI The focal stimuli isthe degree of change orstimulusmostimmediately,which needsadaptation CONTEXUAL STIMULI Contextual stimuli are “ all other stimuli present that contribute to the behavior caused or precipitated by focal stimuli RESIDUAL STIMULI Nonspecificstimulisuchasbelief /attitude (pastexperience) THROUGHPUT Throughput makes use of a persons control processes and effectors. Processes refuse to control mechanism that a person uses as an adaptive system. Effectors refers to the physiological function, self conceptand role functionwhichevolvedinadaptation. OUTPUT Output is the out come of the system when the person is a system, output refers to the behavior of the person . In Roy’s system, output is categorized as adaptive responses or ineffective responses. These responsesoroutput provide feedbackforthe system
  4. 4. COPING:Waysof responding to stress ADAPTATION LEVEL: rangeof person’sability to respondsto and copewith stimuli COPING MECHANISMS There are twotypesof copingmechanisms REGULATOR The regulator sub system consists of inputs, internal process and output. Input stimuli can originate internally or externally to a person. The transmitters of regulator system are chemical, neural, or endocrine in nature. The regular sub- system control internal processes elated to physiological needs. COGNATOR :-The cognator subsystem consists of input , internal process and output. Cognator control process are related to the higher brain functions for perception of information processing is relatedtointernal processesof selection,attention,codingandmemory. ADAPTIVE MODES:- Roy identifies four adaptive modes or categories for assessment of behavior. That resultsfromregulator,cognatormechanismresponses. These adaptive modesare  The physiologicmode  The self conceptmode  The role of function/masterymode  The interdependencymode There are two interrelatedsystems inRoy’s model o The primary/functional/control processessubsystem: consistsof the regulatorandcognator. o The secondary,effectorssubsystem:consistsof fouradaptive modes Physiological needs,self concept,role functionandinterdependence
  5. 5. Stimuli adaptation level Feedback Control process EffectorsIn put output Coping mechanism Regulator Cognator Physiological function Self concept Role function interdependenc e Ada ptiv e and enef fetiv e resp ons es