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ROY ADAPTION MODEL
CREDENTIALS OF THEORIST
She born 14th
October1939 inLos Angeles,California.
EDUCATION / TRAINING & DEGREE
Mount St. Mary’s College,LosAngeles,B.A.,1963( nursing)
Universityof California,LosAngelesM.S1966( nursing – Pediatrics&maternity)
Universityof California,LosAngeles,M.A 1973( sociology,self&role systems)
Universityof California ,Los AngelesPhD1977( sociology)
University of California , San Francisco, Postdoc. Fellow, 1983-85( neuroscience nsg/ admin/
HONORS AND AWARDS (selected)
1981-Sigma Theta tau,,International foundersaward
1983 - HonoryDoctorate Alvernocollege,Milwaukee;
2000 – Alpha Sigma Nu Jesuit universities Book award for Roy’s adaptation Model – based
research: 25 Years of contributionstonursingscience.
Dorothy Johnson encouraged her to develop her concept of adaptation as a frame work for
adaptationduringhermastersprogramme at universityof California
Systemtheory processof responding
Helsons’s theory : acc to him adaptation is a process of responding positively to environmental
Humanism: the model usesthe conceptfromMaslow to explore beliefsandvaluesof person
Person is a bio-psycho social being in constant interaction with changing environment, he is
a recipientof nursingcare.
An adaptive systemwithcopingprocess
Describedasa whole comprisedof parts
Functionsasa unityforsome purpose
Includes people as individuals or in groups( families, organization, community and society as
An adaptive system with cognation and regulator subsystems acting to maintain adaptation
in four adaptive modes : physiological physical, self concept group identity, role function
All conditions, circumstances, and influences surrounding and affecting the development and
behavior of persons and groups with particular consideration of mutuality of person and earth
Three kindsof stimuli :focal,contextual &residual
Significantstimuli inall humanadaptationinclude stagesof development,familyandculture
HEALTH AND ADAPTATION:
A state and process of being and becoming integrated and whole person. Lack of integration
Adaptation is a process of promoting physiological, psychological and social integrity and that
Nursing is the science and practice that expands adaptive abilities and enhances person and
The goal of nursing as a promotion of adaptive responses in relation to four adaptive modes.
Nursing seeks to reduce ineffective responses and promote adaptive responses as output behavior
of the person.
MAJOR CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS
SYSTEM: A system is a “set of units so related and connected as to form a unity or a whole and
characterized by inputs, outputs, control and feedback processes.” Roy considers the recipient of
care to be an openadaptive system
Are greaterthan someof it’s parts.
React to and interactwith othersystemin the environment
React asa whole , dysfunction in onecomponentaffecttheentire system.
Have boundariesthatareflexibleand open , permit interaction with anothersystem.
CHARECTERISTICS OF SYSTEM
In Roy’s system, input is defined as a stimuli which can come from the environment or from with in the
person. stimuli are classified as focal, contextual , residual. Input also includes a persons adaptation
level.Eachpersonsadaptationlevel isunique and changesconstantly.
The focal stimuli isthe degree of change orstimulusmostimmediately,which needsadaptation
Contextual stimuli are “ all other stimuli present that contribute to the behavior caused or precipitated
by focal stimuli
Nonspecificstimulisuchasbelief /attitude (pastexperience)
Throughput makes use of a persons control processes and effectors. Processes refuse to control
mechanism that a person uses as an adaptive system. Effectors refers to the physiological function, self
conceptand role functionwhichevolvedinadaptation.
Output is the out come of the system when the person is a system, output refers to the behavior of the
person . In Roy’s system, output is categorized as adaptive responses or ineffective responses. These
responsesoroutput provide feedbackforthe system
COPING:Waysof responding to stress
ADAPTATION LEVEL: rangeof person’sability to respondsto and copewith stimuli
There are twotypesof copingmechanisms
The regulator sub system consists of inputs, internal process and output. Input stimuli can originate
internally or externally to a person. The transmitters of regulator system are chemical, neural, or
endocrine in nature. The regular sub- system control internal processes elated to physiological
COGNATOR :-The cognator subsystem consists of input , internal process and output. Cognator
control process are related to the higher brain functions for perception of information processing is
relatedtointernal processesof selection,attention,codingandmemory.
ADAPTIVE MODES:- Roy identifies four adaptive modes or categories for assessment of behavior.
These adaptive modesare
The self conceptmode
The role of function/masterymode
There are two interrelatedsystems inRoy’s model
o The primary/functional/control processessubsystem: consistsof the regulatorandcognator.
o The secondary,effectorssubsystem:consistsof fouradaptive modes
Physiological needs,self concept,role functionandinterdependence
Control process EffectorsIn put output