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Mobile search for seniors
Mobile search engines for senior citizens:
Design challenges and opportunities

University of Ba...
Mobile search for seniors
! 5. Suggested Search Design Guidelines
Agenda:
1. Today’s Modern Senior
2. Health and Aging Fac...
Mobile search for seniors
!
Today’s Modern Senior
Mobile search for seniors
Defining “Senior Citizen”
• Goldman Sachs defines seniors as those who are at least 60 years old...
Mobile search for seniors
17.5M
2009
19M
2012
20M
2015
7M	
  
85+	
  age
2020
Population Statistics and Internet Usage
Mobile search for seniors
“Wired” Seniors - General Statistics
	
  66% Product	
  research
66% Health	
  or	
  medical	
  ...
Mobile search for seniors
Mobile Usage Among Seniors
• 2010, smartphone sales accounted for 19.3% of overall mobile phone ...
Mobile search for seniors
!
Health and Aging Factors
Mobile search for seniors
Vision Impairments
Impairment
• Most common health issue in adults.
• Vision decline typically s...
Mobile search for seniors
Hearing Impairments
Impairment
• 18.8% of seniors age 61 - 80 experience moderate -
severe deafn...
Mobile search for seniors
Meta-cognition Impairments
Definition
• The understanding and awareness of one’s own
thought pro...
Mobile search for seniors
Search is a Cyclic Process
Mobile search for seniors
Search is a Cyclic Process
Mobile search for seniors
01
Preparation
Search is a Cyclic Process
Mobile search for seniors
01
Preparation
Search is a Cyclic Process
Decide	
  which	
  S.E	
  to	
  use	
  and	
  
how	
  ...
Mobile search for seniors
01
Preparation
Search is a Cyclic Process
Decide	
  which	
  S.E	
  to	
  use	
  and	
  
how	
  ...
Mobile search for seniors
01
Preparation
02
Exploration
Search is a Cyclic Process
Decide	
  which	
  S.E	
  to	
  use	
  ...
Mobile search for seniors
01
Preparation
02
Exploration
Search is a Cyclic Process
Decide	
  which	
  S.E	
  to	
  use	
  ...
Mobile search for seniors
01
Preparation
02
Exploration
Search is a Cyclic Process
Decide	
  which	
  S.E	
  to	
  use	
  ...
Mobile search for seniors
01
Preparation
02
Exploration
03
Consolidation
Search is a Cyclic Process
Decide	
  which	
  S.E...
Mobile search for seniors
01
Preparation
02
Exploration
03
Consolidation
Search is a Cyclic Process
Decide	
  which	
  S.E...
Mobile search for seniors
01
Preparation
02
Exploration
03
Consolidation
Search is a Cyclic Process
Decide	
  which	
  S.E...
Mobile search for seniors
01
Preparation
02
Exploration
03
Consolidation
Search is a Cyclic Process
Decide	
  which	
  S.E...
Mobile search for seniors
Physical Impairments
Impairments
• Reduced muscular control = hand tremors
• Postural instabilit...
Mobile search for seniors
!
Search Behavior
Mobile search for seniors
Factors that affect search
DDomain Knowledge
SSearch expertise
CCognitive schemas
SSearch goals
Mobile search for seniors
Each can be used together, with the user tailoring their search based on initial
search goal and...
Mobile search for seniors
Search Patterns
Mobile search for seniors
Search Patterns
Search	
  and	
  
browse
1. User  goes  to  search  
2. Enters  query  
3. Click...
Mobile search for seniors
Search Patterns
Search	
  and	
  
browse
1. User  goes  to  search  
2. Enters  query  
3. Click...
Mobile search for seniors
Search Patterns
Search	
  and	
  
browse
1. User  goes  to  search  
2. Enters  query  
3. Click...
Mobile search for seniors
Search Patterns
Search	
  and	
  
browse
1. User  goes  to  search  
2. Enters  query  
3. Click...
Mobile search for seniors
Results based on geographic location -
GPS.
Local results
#
Induces competition with limited
res...
Mobile search for seniors
1
2
3
4
5
7
6
2.6 words per query = 15
characters or less
Mobile search increases
from 5 AM - 10...
Mobile search for seniors
!
The Research Study - Observing Seniors Using Search
Mobile search for seniors
How do seniors use mobile search?$
Which search engine features do
seniors use and pay attention...
Mobile search for seniors
• 15 total participants
• Aged 55 - 70
• Age 55 - 59 = 4 participants
• Age 60 - 64 = 8 particip...
Mobile search for seniors
Tools Used
1
2
3
4
5
6
Magitest	
  -­‐	
  $50
Reflector	
  -­‐	
  $11
Camtasia	
  -­‐	
  $75
App...
Mobile search for seniors
Tasks
Mobile search for seniors
Tasks
Task	
  #1
You  and  a  friend  want  to  
see  the  movie  
“Transcendence”  tonight  
at...
Mobile search for seniors
Tasks
Task	
  #1
You  and  a  friend  want  to  
see  the  movie  
“Transcendence”  tonight  
at...
Mobile search for seniors
Tasks
Task	
  #1
You  and  a  friend  want  to  
see  the  movie  
“Transcendence”  tonight  
at...
Mobile search for seniors
Tasks
Task	
  #1
You  and  a  friend  want  to  
see  the  movie  
“Transcendence”  tonight  
at...
Mobile search for seniors
Task Results - Reported on Mobile
Task Google Bing Yahoo!
T1	
  -­‐	
  Movie	
  
showtimes
3	
  ...
Mobile search for seniors
Task #1 Observations
• Often resulted in rich snippet
• 4 out of 7 users saw and reported a succ...
Mobile search for seniors
Task #2 Observations
• Often resulted in rich snippet on both mobile and
desktop.
• Those on des...
Mobile search for seniors
Task #3 Observations
• Only 1 mobile found the rich snippet for flight information
as most queri...
Mobile search for seniors
Task #3 Video
Mobile search for seniors
Task #4 Observations
• Average time-on-task was longer on desktop than mobile.
• Shorter query o...
Mobile search for seniors
!
Suggested Search Design Guidelines
Mobile search for seniors
Best Practices and Observations
1
2
3
4
5
7
6
8
9
Use	
  action	
  words	
  in	
  links
Make	
  ...
Fusion
PowerPoint Presentation
www:
E-mail:
nicolekerber.com
nkerber1@gmail.com
ContactNikki Kerber
Thank you!
Prochain SlideShare
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Mobile Search Engines for Senior Citizens: Design Challenges and Opportunities

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Mobile Search Engines for Senior Citizens: Design Challenges and Opportunities. Thesis project, University of Baltimore.

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Mobile Search Engines for Senior Citizens: Design Challenges and Opportunities

  1. 1. Mobile search for seniors Mobile search engines for senior citizens: Design challenges and opportunities
 University of Baltimore M.S Information Architecture & Interaction Design Thesis Presented by: Nikki Kerber, Senior Information Architect
  2. 2. Mobile search for seniors ! 5. Suggested Search Design Guidelines Agenda: 1. Today’s Modern Senior 2. Health and Aging Factors 3. Search Behavior 4. The Research Study - Observing Seniors Using Search
  3. 3. Mobile search for seniors ! Today’s Modern Senior
  4. 4. Mobile search for seniors Defining “Senior Citizen” • Goldman Sachs defines seniors as those who are at least 60 years old to be an “older adult”, who “as retirement from full-time work, life expectancy, health and economic expectations increase”. • Jakob Nielsen does not include individuals less than 65 years old. • Classification system proposed by Robert Bailey • Age 18 - 39 years = young users • Age 40 - 59 years = middle-aged users • Age 60 - 74 years = older users • Age 75 + = old-old users "
  5. 5. Mobile search for seniors 17.5M 2009 19M 2012 20M 2015 7M   85+  age 2020 Population Statistics and Internet Usage
  6. 6. Mobile search for seniors “Wired” Seniors - General Statistics  66% Product  research 66% Health  or  medical  content  /  research  27% Facebook    6% Twitter  51% More  likely  than  younger  users  to  use   search  engines  first
  7. 7. Mobile search for seniors Mobile Usage Among Seniors • 2010, smartphone sales accounted for 19.3% of overall mobile phone sales in the third quarter • On average, only 18% adoption rate of smartphones in 2014. • Search is the most visited website on mobile devices, constituting 77% of browser history
  8. 8. Mobile search for seniors ! Health and Aging Factors
  9. 9. Mobile search for seniors Vision Impairments Impairment • Most common health issue in adults. • Vision decline typically starts at age 40. • 10% are legally blind. • Age-related Macular-Degeneration (AMD). • Glaucoma. • Diabetic eye disease. Results in • Decreased ability to focus on near tasks. • Color perception and sensitivity issues. • Reduction of the visual field.
  10. 10. Mobile search for seniors Hearing Impairments Impairment • 18.8% of seniors age 61 - 80 experience moderate - severe deafness. • Miss attention getting sounds with peaks over 2500 Hz. Results in • Impaired listener may miss words in conversation, leading to guessing at overall meaning. • Speech software need to be able to cope with hearing impairment. • Incorporate transcripts into all audio and video files (and good to 508 compliance).
  11. 11. Mobile search for seniors Meta-cognition Impairments Definition • The understanding and awareness of one’s own thought process. Impairment • Hippocampus is critical for retention, whereas the frontal lobes are necessary for conditional aspects of a task. • Alzheimers - 1 in 8 older Americans affected.
  12. 12. Mobile search for seniors Search is a Cyclic Process
  13. 13. Mobile search for seniors Search is a Cyclic Process
  14. 14. Mobile search for seniors 01 Preparation Search is a Cyclic Process
  15. 15. Mobile search for seniors 01 Preparation Search is a Cyclic Process Decide  which  S.E  to  use  and   how  to  navigate  to  it.
  16. 16. Mobile search for seniors 01 Preparation Search is a Cyclic Process Decide  which  S.E  to  use  and   how  to  navigate  to  it.
  17. 17. Mobile search for seniors 01 Preparation 02 Exploration Search is a Cyclic Process Decide  which  S.E  to  use  and   how  to  navigate  to  it.
  18. 18. Mobile search for seniors 01 Preparation 02 Exploration Search is a Cyclic Process Decide  which  S.E  to  use  and   how  to  navigate  to  it. Explore  and  analyze  results.
  19. 19. Mobile search for seniors 01 Preparation 02 Exploration Search is a Cyclic Process Decide  which  S.E  to  use  and   how  to  navigate  to  it. Explore  and  analyze  results.
  20. 20. Mobile search for seniors 01 Preparation 02 Exploration 03 Consolidation Search is a Cyclic Process Decide  which  S.E  to  use  and   how  to  navigate  to  it. Explore  and  analyze  results.
  21. 21. Mobile search for seniors 01 Preparation 02 Exploration 03 Consolidation Search is a Cyclic Process Decide  which  S.E  to  use  and   how  to  navigate  to  it. Explore  and  analyze  results. Determines  if  results  match   the  their  goal.
  22. 22. Mobile search for seniors 01 Preparation 02 Exploration 03 Consolidation Search is a Cyclic Process Decide  which  S.E  to  use  and   how  to  navigate  to  it. Explore  and  analyze  results. Determines  if  results  match   the  their  goal.
  23. 23. Mobile search for seniors 01 Preparation 02 Exploration 03 Consolidation Search is a Cyclic Process Decide  which  S.E  to  use  and   how  to  navigate  to  it. Explore  and  analyze  results. Determines  if  results  match   the  their  goal. Results in • Time delays can lead to short term memory loss • Difficulty learning new technologies • Increases overall time-on-task • Must remember search topic • Must remember to begin or stop during one of these three stages
  24. 24. Mobile search for seniors Physical Impairments Impairments • Reduced muscular control = hand tremors • Postural instability • Parkinson's Disease • Arthritis Results • Difficult to move and click a mouse • Difficult to scroll down a web page • May miss standard size links or icons • Overall time-on-task increases
  25. 25. Mobile search for seniors ! Search Behavior
  26. 26. Mobile search for seniors Factors that affect search DDomain Knowledge SSearch expertise CCognitive schemas SSearch goals
  27. 27. Mobile search for seniors Each can be used together, with the user tailoring their search based on initial search goal and information found after initial search results have been displayed. Navigational queries Help the user find a particular website or pinpoint a specific source of information. Informational queries Help the user find a specific piece of information on a handful of websites. Transactional queries Help conduct a “web-mediated” activity like completing an online form or watching a video. A B C A B C Types of Search
  28. 28. Mobile search for seniors Search Patterns
  29. 29. Mobile search for seniors Search Patterns Search  and   browse 1. User  goes  to  search   2. Enters  query   3. Clicks  on  result  from   SERP   4. Navigates  through   website   5. Repeats  steps  2-­‐3
  30. 30. Mobile search for seniors Search Patterns Search  and   browse 1. User  goes  to  search   2. Enters  query   3. Clicks  on  result  from   SERP   4. Navigates  through   website   5. Repeats  steps  2-­‐3 Pogosticking 1. User  goes  to  search   2. Enters  query   3. Clicks  on  result   4. Back  to  SERP   5. Repeats  step  3-­‐4
  31. 31. Mobile search for seniors Search Patterns Search  and   browse 1. User  goes  to  search   2. Enters  query   3. Clicks  on  result  from   SERP   4. Navigates  through   website   5. Repeats  steps  2-­‐3 Pogosticking 1. User  goes  to  search   2. Enters  query   3. Clicks  on  result   4. Back  to  SERP   5. Repeats  step  3-­‐4 Minimize  result   set Filter  and  sort  results  if   given  result  set  is  too   large  for  user’s  comfort   level.
  32. 32. Mobile search for seniors Search Patterns Search  and   browse 1. User  goes  to  search   2. Enters  query   3. Clicks  on  result  from   SERP   4. Navigates  through   website   5. Repeats  steps  2-­‐3 Pogosticking 1. User  goes  to  search   2. Enters  query   3. Clicks  on  result   4. Back  to  SERP   5. Repeats  step  3-­‐4 Minimize  result   set Filter  and  sort  results  if   given  result  set  is  too   large  for  user’s  comfort   level. Judge  results   quickly Often  scan  the  first  SERP   and  proceed  several   pages  deep  into  the   result  set.   Will  only  look  at  the  first   page  if  it’s  decided  the   query  was  successful.  
  33. 33. Mobile search for seniors Results based on geographic location - GPS. Local results # Induces competition with limited resources required to navigate the environment safely. Context dependency # Impact on attention and overall decline in task performance. > Scanning environment up to 8 times while page loads, or other distraction. Bidding for user attention # Mobile Search Qualities 60% transactional 29% navigational 10% informational
  34. 34. Mobile search for seniors 1 2 3 4 5 7 6 2.6 words per query = 15 characters or less Mobile search increases from 5 AM - 10 PM Focus on top results on first page Local results, adult content, music, and sports stats < 10% results CTR = rely heavily on search snippets Mobile search observations
  35. 35. Mobile search for seniors ! The Research Study - Observing Seniors Using Search
  36. 36. Mobile search for seniors How do seniors use mobile search?$ Which search engine features do seniors use and pay attention to after performing a search? $ What kind of information do seniors look for online? $ Research Questions
  37. 37. Mobile search for seniors • 15 total participants • Aged 55 - 70 • Age 55 - 59 = 4 participants • Age 60 - 64 = 8 participants • Age 65 - 69 = 3 participants • English as primary language • Had some college education • Were slightly familiar with mobile devices (tablets and smart phones) • 8 retired • 7 part / full time employees • 1 -3 hours spent online for majority of participants % & ' " Participant Demographics
  38. 38. Mobile search for seniors Tools Used 1 2 3 4 5 6 Magitest  -­‐  $50 Reflector  -­‐  $11 Camtasia  -­‐  $75 Apple  iPhone  5s  running  OS   7.1.2 MacBook  Pro  running  OS   10.8.9  (Mountain  Lion) System  Usability  Scale  (SUS)   questionnaire
  39. 39. Mobile search for seniors Tasks
  40. 40. Mobile search for seniors Tasks Task  #1 You  and  a  friend  want  to   see  the  movie   “Transcendence”  tonight   at  the  AMC  Theatre  in   Tysons  Corner,  VA.  What   are  the  show  times  for   tonight?
  41. 41. Mobile search for seniors Tasks Task  #1 You  and  a  friend  want  to   see  the  movie   “Transcendence”  tonight   at  the  AMC  Theatre  in   Tysons  Corner,  VA.  What   are  the  show  times  for   tonight? Task  #2 At  a  recent  doctor’s  visit,  it   was  suggested  that  you   might  have  COPD.  What  is   COPD  and  how  do  you   treat  this  condition?
  42. 42. Mobile search for seniors Tasks Task  #1 You  and  a  friend  want  to   see  the  movie   “Transcendence”  tonight   at  the  AMC  Theatre  in   Tysons  Corner,  VA.  What   are  the  show  times  for   tonight? Task  #2 At  a  recent  doctor’s  visit,  it   was  suggested  that  you   might  have  COPD.  What  is   COPD  and  how  do  you   treat  this  condition? Task  #3 Your  daughter  is  getting   married  in  Austin,  TX  this   August.  Find  the  price  of   a  round-­‐trip  ticket  from   BWI  airport  in  Baltimore   to  Austin,  TX  this  Sunday,   August  2  -­‐  Saturday,   August  9.
  43. 43. Mobile search for seniors Tasks Task  #1 You  and  a  friend  want  to   see  the  movie   “Transcendence”  tonight   at  the  AMC  Theatre  in   Tysons  Corner,  VA.  What   are  the  show  times  for   tonight? Task  #2 At  a  recent  doctor’s  visit,  it   was  suggested  that  you   might  have  COPD.  What  is   COPD  and  how  do  you   treat  this  condition? Task  #3 Your  daughter  is  getting   married  in  Austin,  TX  this   August.  Find  the  price  of   a  round-­‐trip  ticket  from   BWI  airport  in  Baltimore   to  Austin,  TX  this  Sunday,   August  2  -­‐  Saturday,   August  9. Task  #4 Your  financial  advisor   suggested  that  opening   an  online  savings   account  typically  yield   higher  interest  than   banks  like  PNC  Bank.  Find   out  which  online  bank(s)   offers  the  highest  rates.
  44. 44. Mobile search for seniors Task Results - Reported on Mobile Task Google Bing Yahoo! T1  -­‐  Movie   showtimes 3  /  3 2  /  2 2  /  3 T2  -­‐  Define  COPD 3  /3   2  /  2 3  /  3 T3  -­‐  Flight  Ticket 3  /3   2  /  3 4  /  4 T4  -­‐  Online  Savings   Account 91.6% 88% 92.8%
  45. 45. Mobile search for seniors Task #1 Observations • Often resulted in rich snippet • 4 out of 7 users saw and reported a successful answer using rich results • Would not use a desktop to find movie times or similar data.Task  #1 You  and  a  friend  want  to   see  the  movie   “Transcendence”  tonight   at  the  AMC  Theatre  in   Tysons  Corner,  VA.  What   are  the  show  times  for   tonight?
  46. 46. Mobile search for seniors Task #2 Observations • Often resulted in rich snippet on both mobile and desktop. • Those on desktops, thought this was an ad —> • Would go directly to credible health website rather than use search first. Task  #2 At  a  recent  doctor’s  visit,  it   was  suggested  that  you   might  have  COPD.  What  is   COPD  and  how  do  you   treat  this  condition?
  47. 47. Mobile search for seniors Task #3 Observations • Only 1 mobile found the rich snippet for flight information as most queries did not result in a display. • Almost all participants used generic terms like “Expedia” or “Travelocity”. • This is considered to be a “serious” task and would be best suited for desktops. • Longest time-on-task at 6 minutes. Task  #3 Your  daughter  is  getting   married  in  Austin,  TX  this   August.  Find  the  price  of   a  round-­‐trip  ticket  from   BWI  airport  in  Baltimore   to  Austin,  TX  this  Sunday,   August  2  -­‐  Saturday,   August  9.
  48. 48. Mobile search for seniors Task #3 Video
  49. 49. Mobile search for seniors Task #4 Observations • Average time-on-task was longer on desktop than mobile. • Shorter query on mobile - “online savings” and “internet only banks” • All mobile users clicked on the same search result, compared to desktop. Task  #4 Your  financial  advisor   suggested  that  opening   an  online  savings   account  typically  yield   higher  interest  than   banks  like  PNC  Bank.  Find   out  which  online  bank(s)   offers  the  highest  rates.
  50. 50. Mobile search for seniors ! Suggested Search Design Guidelines
  51. 51. Mobile search for seniors Best Practices and Observations 1 2 3 4 5 7 6 8 9 Use  action  words  in  links Make  link  treatments   consistent   and  obvious Use  scalable  fonts  and   options  to     increase  font  size Use  consistent  instructions  to   users,     and  keep  terminology  simple Use  simple  navigation  and     provide  redundant   navigational  cues Use  simple  navigation  and     provide  redundant   navigational  cues Ensure  search  results  can  be   easily  scanned  and  are   comprehensible  by  allowing   filter  and  sort  functionality Highlight  the  terms  that   match  the  original  search   query Rich  Snippets  were  used  both   on  desktop  and  mobile,  with   more  usage  on  desktop 10 Autocomplete  on  mobile   implies  that  a  suggested   query  be  used.
  52. 52. Fusion PowerPoint Presentation www: E-mail: nicolekerber.com nkerber1@gmail.com ContactNikki Kerber Thank you!

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