2. Robot is a machine that resembles a human
being and does mechanical routine tasks on
Robotics is an interdisciplinary subject that
benefits from mechanical engineering, electrical
and electronic engineering, computer science,
biology, and many other disciplines.
4. An industrial robot is an automatically
controlled, programmable, multi purpose
manipulator programmable in three or
◦ Articulated robots
◦ SCARA robots
◦ Delta robots
◦ Cartesian coordinate
1. Material handling applications
◦ Material transfer – pick-and-place, palletizing
◦ Machine loading and/or unloading
2. Processing operations
◦ Spray coating
◦ Cutting and grinding
3. Assembly and inspection
6. Autonomous or remote-controlled devices that are
capable of taking surveillance photographs, and even
accurately launching missiles at ground targets,
without a pilot.
Risking money instead of a human
7. Dragon Runner
They are also used as rescue robots.
8. In aerospace robots are used for outer space
Aerospace robots or unmanned robotic spacecraft
play a key role in outer space probe.
Scientists can explore in outer space without
putting themselves in great danger considering the
risks involved if they go to outer space themselves.
With controlled robots, the same results can be
The risk to lose a human life in outer space has been
9. Magnetic microbots are a group of tiny robots used in
various operation such as removing plaque from a patients
arteries or helping with occular conditions and disease
With the proper tools and set-up in
place, proper healthcare could be delivered
to the patient even in remote areas without
the corresponding risks involved.
It also provides a facility to move supplies such as medicine,
linens and food from one space to another.
One TUG robot working two shifts a day
saves the labour of nearly three full time
employees, yet they cost less.
11. The robonaut (R2) was developed by
NASA and General Motors.
The Robonaut 2 has the size and
shape of a human. It can operate
machinery made for humans in
environments that don’t sustain
human life such
as outer space.
The Robonaut must be capable
to work in areas where there is
low gravity, high radiation, and
13. The robonaut is designed to help fix any problems that
occur on the ISS.
In February 2010, R2 was unveiled – a faster, more
dexterous, more technologically advanced humanoid
robot than had ever been seen before.
Currently, Robonaut 2 is undergoing experimental
trials with astronauts aboard the orbiting laboratory. If
that goes well, it may even do some active duty!
14. Swarm robotics is a new approach to
the coordination of multi-robot systems
which consist of large numbers of
mostly simple physical robots.
Swarm intelligence is a artificial
intelligence (AI) technique based on the
collective behavior in decentralized,
Generally made up of agents who
interact with each other and the
Based on group behavior found in
15. U.S. Military is applying SI techniques to control of
NASA is applying SI techniques for planetary
Medical Research is trying SI based controls for nano
robots to fight cancer.
SI techniques are applied to load balancing in
Entertainment industry is applying SI techniques for
battle and crowd scenes.
16. Prosthetics is an artificial device
that replaces a missing body part
lost through trauma, disease, or
Recent advances in robotics
make it possible to create
prosthetics that can duplicate the
natural movement of human
17. Robotic prosthetic knees allow those
with amputations done above the
knee to have more control.
They are now equipped with a
special microprocessor that helps
regulate joint resistance during
inclines and fluid control.
Prosthetic limbs that are able to
move by reading sensors have
allowed much more precise
movement, such as using the fingers of
a prosthetic hand.
Sensors are used to read signals from
the muscles in the amputees residual
It uses nerve endings to replicate the
sensory-motor abilities in the hand.
18. Neural network scientists have produced a
computer that operates like a human brain. In
one study, the computer was allowed to
browse the net. Scientists were surprised to see
that it seemed to “choose” to look at pictures of
cats. Then, they asked the computer if it could
come up with its own image of a cat. The
image was very accurate.
19. The Nautilus is a thinking computer.
This one was devised to be able to predict the
future. Scientist fed the Nautilus information that
it compiled and analyzed. In one test, it looked for
clues about the location of Osama Bin Laden.
Scientists already knew the answer, but only gave the
computer news stories up to a certain date before
Bin Laden was found.
This machine was able to predict where Osama
Bin Laden had been hiding using news reports.
20. Robots increase productivity, safety, efficiency, quality, and consistency of products.
Robots can work in hazardous environments without the need.
Robots need no environmental comfort.
Robots work continuously without experiencing fatigue of problem.
Robots have repeatable precision at all times.
Robots can be much more accurate than human.
Robots can replace human workers .
Robots can process multiple stimuli or tasks simultaneously.
Robots lack capability to respond in emergencies.
Robots, although superior in certain senses, have limited capabilities in Degree of freedom,
Dexterity, Sensors, Vision system, real time response.
Robots are costly, due to Initial cost of equipment, Installation costs, Need for Peripherals,
Need for training, Need for programming.
21. Advancements represent a future
generation of robotics, and they are truly
amazing. A robust series of innovations has
made robotics the answer to many challenges
from disaster response to military safety. It is
evident that the robots have proved that
they can do the impossible.
Man’s short stay in this planet is influenced
by these machines created by the human
brain. Hopefully in a few years these man-
made machines or the so called “Brain
child of mankind” doesn’t dominate and
overpower its own creator.
22. CAO, Y., FUKUNAGA, A., AND KAHNG, A. 1997. Cooperative mobile
robotics: Antecedents and directions. Autonomous Robots 4, 1, 7–27.
Goss, S. and Deneubourg, J.-L., "Harvesting by a group of robots,"
presented at First European Conference on Artificial Life: Toward a
Practice of Autonomous Systems, pp.195-204, 1992.
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state and program for minimal-agent foraging," presented at Fourth
International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior: From
Animals to Animats, vol. 4, pp. 626-633, 1996.
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robot system using communication," North Dakota State University,
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