The beginnings of badminton can be traced to mid-18th century British India,
where it was created by British military officers stationed there.
Initially, balls of wool referred as ball badminton were preferred by the
upper classes in windy or wet conditions, but ultimately the shuttlecock
stuck. This game was taken by retired officers back to England where it
developed and rules were set out.
Although it appears clear that Badminton House, Gloucestershire, owned by
the Duke of Beaufort, has given its name to the sports, it is unclear when
and why the name was adopted.
As early as 1860, Isaac Spratt, a London toy dealer, published a
booklet, Badminton Battledore – a new game, but unfortunately no copy has
survived. An 1863 article in The Cornhill Magazine describes badminton as
"battledore and shuttlecock played with sides, across a string suspended
some five feet from the ground".
Badminton is a racquet sport played by either two opposing players (singles) or two
opposing pairs (doubles), who take positions on opposite halves of a rectangular court
that is divided by a net. Players score points by striking a shuttlecock with their racquet
so that it passes over the net and lands in their opponents' half of the court. Each side
may only strike the shuttlecock once before it passes over the net. A rally ends once the
shuttlecock has struck the floor.
The shuttlecock (or shuttle) is a feathered projectile whose unique aerodynamic
properties cause it to fly differently than the balls used in most racquet sports; in
particular, the feathers create much higher drag, causing the shuttlecock to decelerate
more rapidly than a ball. Shuttlecocks have a much higher top speed, when compared
to other racquet sports. Because shuttlecock flight is affected by wind, competitive
badminton is played indoors. Badminton is also played outdoors as a casual recreational
activity, often as a garden or beach game.
7. Badminton Racquet
Badminton racquets are lightweight, with top quality
racquets weighing between 70 and 95 grams (2.4 to 3.3
ounces) not including grip or strings. They are composed
of many different materials ranging from carbon fiber
composite to solid steel, which may be augmented by a
variety of materials.
Carbon fibre as an excellent strength to weight ratio,
is stiff, and gives excellent kinetic energy transfer. Before
the adoption of carbon fiber composite, racquets were
made of light metals such as aluminum. Earlier still,
racquets were made of wood. Cheap racquets are still
often made of metals such as steel, but wooden racquets
are no longer manufactured for the ordinary market,
because of their excessive mass and cost. Nowadays, non
material's such as fullerene and carbon annotates are
added to rackets giving them greater durability.
There is a wide variety of racquet designs, although
the laws limit the racquet size and shape. Different
racquets have playing characteristics that appeal to
different players. The traditional oval head shape is still
available, but an isometric head shape is increasingly
common in new racquets.
A shuttlecock (often abbreviated to shuttle; also called
a birdie) is a high-drag projectile, with an open conical
shape the cone is formed from sixteen
overlapping feathers embedded into a rounded cork base.
The cork is covered with thin leather or synthetic material.
Synthetic shuttles are often used by recreational
players to reduce their costs as feathered shuttles break
easily. These nylon shuttles may be constructed with
either natural cork or synthetic foam base, and a plastic
Badminton shoes are lightweight with soles of rubber or
similar high-grip, non-marking materials.
Compared to running shoes, badminton shoes have
little lateral support. High levels of lateral support are useful
for activities where lateral motion is undesirable and
unexpected. Badminton, however, requires powerful lateral
movements. A highly built-up lateral support will not be able
to protect the foot in badminton; instead, it will encourage
catastrophic collapse at the point where the shoe's support
fails, and the player's ankles are not ready for the sudden
loading, which can cause sprains. For this reason, players
should choose badminton shoes rather than general trainers
or running shoes, because proper badminton shoes will
have a very thin sole, lower a person's centre of gravity, and
therefore result in fewer injuries. Players should also ensure
that they learn safe and proper footwork, with the knee and
foot in alignment on all lunges. This is more than just a
safety concern proper footwork is also critical in order to
move effectively around the court.
11. Serving And Receiving Courts
• You shall serve from, and receive in, the right service court when you or
your opponent has scored an even number of points in that game.
• You shall serve from, and receive in, the left service court when you or your
opponent has scored an odd number of points in that game.
• You and your opponent will hit the shuttle alternately until a 'fault' is made
or the shuttle ceases to be in play.
12. Scoring And Serving
• You score a point and serve again from the alternate service court when your
opponent makes a 'fault' or the shuttle ceases to be in play because it touches
the surface of your opponent's side of court.
• No points will be scored when you make a 'fault' or the shuttles ceases to be in
play because it touches the surface of your side of court. The serving right will
then be transferred to your opponent.
14. Serving And Receiving Courts
• At the start of the game, and each time a side gains the right to serve, the
service shall be delivered from the right service court. Only your opponent
standing diagonally opposite of you shall return the service.
• Should your opponent's partner touched or hit the shuttle, it shall be a 'fault'
and your side scores a point.
15. Order Of Play And Position
After the service is returned, either you or your partner may hit the shuttle
from any position on your side of the net.
Then either player from the opposing side may do the same, and so on,
until the shuttle ceases to be in play.
16. Scoring And Serving
• If you are serving or receiving first at the start of any game, you shall serve or
receive in the right service court when your side or your opponent's side scored
an even number of points.
• You shall serve from or receive in the left service court when your side or your
opponent's side has scored an odd number of points.
• The reverse pattern shall apply to your partner.
• In any game, the right to serve passes consecutively from the initial server to the
initial receiver, then to that initial's receiver's partner, then to the opponent who is due
to serve from the right service court, then to that player's partner, and so on.
• You shall not serve out of turn, receive out of turn, or receive two consecutive
services in the same game, except as provided in service court errors and 'lets'.
17. Officials And Appeal
The referee is in overall charge of the tournament.
The umpire, where appointed, is in charge of the match, the court and
its immediate surrounds. The umpire shall report to the referee.
The service judge shall call service faults made by the server should they occur.
A line judge shall indicate whether a shuttle landed 'in' or 'out' on the line
or lines assigned.
An official's decision is final on all points of fact for which that official
18. Umpire’s Role
• Upload and enforce the Rules of Badminton and, especially, call a 'fault' or 'let' should either
• Give a decision on any appeal regarding a point of dispute, if made before the next service is
• Ensure players and spectators are kept informed of the progress of the match.
• Appoint or remove line judges or a service judge in consultation with the referee.
• Where another court official is not appointed, arrange for that official's duties to be carried out.
• Where an appointed official is unsighted, carry out the official's duties or play a 'let'.
• Record and report to the referee all matters in relation to continuous play, misconduct and
• Take to the referee all unsatisfied appeals on questions of law only. (Such appeals must be made
before the next service is delivered, or, if at the end of the game, before the side that appeals
has left the court.)