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  1. 1. SUBMITTED BY: DR. PA RAJESWARI, Assistant Professor (SG), Food Science and Nutrition Department JOLLY T T , 22PHFSNF001 SUBMITTED TO:
  2. 2. Why scientific writing?  Scientists write to communicate their research results and findings with other scientists or experts.  In this way, information is shared in a systematic manner, so that researchers can build upon the work of others. 1/31/2023 2 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  3. 3. Although there are different ways to share information amongst the scientific community Oral or poster presentations on scientific conferences Science blogs Written reports especially those reviewed by peer scientists and published in international journals 1/31/2023 3 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  4. 4. Significance of Report writing  Research report is considered a major component of the research study for the research task remains incomplete till the report has been presented and/or written.  As a matter of fact even the most brilliant hypothesis, highly well designed and conducted research study, and the most striking generalizations and findings are of little value unless they are effectively communicated to others.  The purpose of research is not well served unless the findings are made known to others.  Research results must invariably enter the general store of knowledge. 1/31/2023 4 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  5. 5. Different steps in report writing Logical analysis of the subject- matter Preparation of the final outline; Preparation of the rough draft Rewriting and polishing preparation of the final bibliography and writing the final draft. 1/31/2023 5 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  6. 6. Reporting according to the IMRAD structure 1/31/2023 6 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  7. 7. COMPONENTS/ LAYOUT OF A RESEARCH REPORT • Title page, Acknowledgement, Preface, table of contents, table of figures Beginning material • Introduction –statement of the problem, hypotheses, why it is important, objectives of the work, scope of the work Chapter 1 • Background and literature review- discuss related works and indicate how it relates to report Chapter 2 • Procedure-describe the procedure used in project, data used, and how it was obtained Chapter 3 • Results- indicate what happened and interpret what it means Chapter 4 • Conclusions and recommendations- summarize conclusions and what they mean Chapter 5 1/31/2023 7 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  8. 8. Introduction  This section contains:  The background of the study and problem statement;  Research question, aim of the study, or hypothesis;  An outline of the approach taken. 1/31/2023 8 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  9. 9. Introduction  Did you clearly explain the reason why the work was done – the existing problem?  Did you clearly and briefly explain what you did to make progress – what is new?  Did you cite pertinent work done before? Even by people, you may not like  Did you read the introductions of several related papers to be sure you explained the ideas properly and cited the important work? 1/31/2023 9 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  10. 10. Introduction 1/31/2023 10 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  11. 11. Methods  It describes the procedures that you have taken and which materials you used to find an answer to your research question  contains all necessary information to repeat the study.  In the methods section, you show that the data were collected in a consistent, accurate, and accountable manner.  This provides important information under which conditions your research outcomes have been established and, thus, in which context they can be interpreted.  Although the methods section is primarily descriptive, it is also recommend to give reasons why you have chosen for the methods and materials used 1/31/2023 11 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  12. 12. Methods  Sub sections Study area Field methods Laboratory methods Data processing 1/31/2023 12 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  13. 13. Methods 1/31/2023 13 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  14. 14. Result  Describe the main outcomes of your study obtained according to the methods section in a neutral (i.e. without interpretations that may be subject to discussion) and accessible manner.  Limit yourself to only those results that are relevant to answer your research question.  Present the relevant results in the form figures, tables, photographs, and maps. In the accompanying text, you elucidate the general patterns in the outcomes and give relevant quantitative information 1/31/2023 14 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  15. 15. Results 1/31/2023 15 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  16. 16. Discussion  give interpretations of your results by relating and comparing them to each other (e.g. Do they support or contradict each other?)  put them in a broader context of the literature (e.g. what did others find that relate to your subject?).  Alternative interpretations may also be given (e.g. “The 1/31/2023 16 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  17. 17. Discussion  Discuss the consequences of your findings for the aim/research question/hypothesis (e.g. do the outcome support or oppose the hypothesis? should you revise your assumptions? what information is still missing to definitely answer your research question?;  Furthermore, you identify and discuss the implications for science (e.g. what new questions arose from your work?) and society (e.g. how can the new findings be used to solve societal issues or to develop new technology?). 1/31/2023 17 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  18. 18. Discussion 1/31/2023 18 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  19. 19. Conclusions  Summarize the main findings and provide answers to your research question.  The conclusions should logically follow from your results and discussion.  Do not present new facts or results that have not been discussed in a previous section.  Finally, draw wider conclusions regarding the implications for new questions that arose from 1/31/2023 19 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  20. 20. Conclusion 1/31/2023 20 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  21. 21. Other necessary content 1/31/2023 21 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  22. 22. Title  The title of a paper or report reflects the content of the report and is informative and short (approximately 15 words at maximum).  Omit any redundant phrases, such as “a study of..” or “a report of…”. For reports, a subtitle may be added.  An example of an appropriate title is “Assessment of soil erosion in Africa using remote sensing”,  because it informs the reader about  1) The subject (assessment of soil erosion),  2) the location (Africa), and  3) the research method (remote sensing).  In a paper, the title is placed on top of the first page, followed by a list of authors.  In reports, the title is on the cover page. The cover page also includes the names of the authors (and student number, if applicable), date and location of publication, name and code of the course and supervisor (if applicable). 1/31/2023 22 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  23. 23. Preface  In a longer research report, you may include a preface in which you the framework in which you carried out the study (e.g. part of your study programme or larger research project),  acknowledgements to persons and institutes who have contributed to your research (e.g. for assistance during fieldwork or laboratory analyses, for providing data, for providing of funding, or for feedback on an earlier draft of your report or paper).  The preface is not a chapter, so it is not numbered. 1/31/2023 23 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  24. 24. Table of contents  a table of contents comes at the beginning of your report.  It contains a list of all chapters and sections, and if applicable subsections.  The table of contents reflects the logical order of the chapters and section and for each item, the table of contents refers to the respective page in the report where this item starts.  Furthermore, a complete list of figures and tables and a list of appendices is included with reference to the pages they appear.  Both tables and figures are numbered consecutively (do not use Roman numerals), but in research reports or bachelor theses it is also allowed to number the tables and figures consecutively per chapter (e.g. Figure 1.1, 1.2 or Table 3.1, 3.2, .3.3, 3.4). 1/31/2023 24 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  25. 25. References  At the end of the report or paper (after the conclusions section or chapter), you include a reference list, in which you list all literature, to which you have referred to in your main text.  Conversely, all references in the reference list should appear in the main text.  The reference list is not a chapter, so it is not numbered. Just as the summary, the reference list is ordered in alphabetical order 1/31/2023 25 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  26. 26. Appendices  An appendix contains materials that would obscure the structure and message of the text if it is included in the main text.  Examples include tables of all quantitative research results, examples of field observation forms, or computer code.  All appendices should be given an appropriate title and numbered consecutively 1/31/2023 26 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  27. 27. 1/31/2023 27 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  28. 28. I. Technical report II. Popular report TYPES OF REPORTS 1/31/2023 28 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  29. 29. Technical report  In the technical report the main emphasis is on  the methods employed,  assumptions made in the course of the study,  the detailed presentation of the findings including their limitations and supporting data. 1/31/2023 29 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  30. 30. Popular Report  The popular report is one which gives emphasis on simplicity and attractiveness.  The simplification should be sought through clear writing, minimization of technical, particularly mathematical, details and liberal use of charts and diagrams.  Attractive layout along with large print, many subheadings, even an occasional cartoon now and then is another characteristic feature of the popular report.  Besides, in such a report emphasis is given on practical aspects and policy implications 1/31/2023 30 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  32. 32.  While determining the length of the report (since research reports vary greatly in length), one should keep in view the fact that it should be long enough to cover the subject but short enough to maintain interest. In fact, report- writing should not be a means to learning more and more about less and less. 1/31/2023 32 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  33. 33.  A research report should not, if this can be avoided, be dull; it should be such as to sustain reader’s interest.  Abstract terminology and technical jargon should be avoided in a research report. The report should be able to convey the matter as simply as possible. This, in other words, means that report should be written in an objective style in simple language, avoiding expressions such as “it seems,” “there may be” and the like. 1/31/2023 33 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  34. 34.  Readers are often interested in acquiring a quick knowledge of the main findings and as such the report must provide a ready availability of the findings. For this purpose, charts, graphs and the statistical tables may be used for the various results in the main report in addition to the summary of important findings. 1/31/2023 34 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  35. 35.  The layout of the report should be well thought out and must be appropriate and in accordance with the objective of the research problem.  The reports should be free from grammatical mistakes and must be prepared strictly in accordance with the techniques of composition of report-writing such as the use of quotations, footnotes, documentation, proper punctuation and use of abbreviations in footnotes and the like 1/31/2023 35 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  36. 36.  The report must present the logical analysis of the subject matter. It must reflect a structure wherein the different pieces of analysis relating to the research problem fit well  A research report should show originality and should necessarily be an attempt to solve some intellectual problem. It must contribute to the solution of a problem and must add to the store of knowledge 1/31/2023 36 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  37. 37.  Towards the end, the report must also state the policy implications relating to the problem under consideration. It is usually considered desirable if the report makes a forecast of the probable future of the subject concerned and indicates the kinds of research still needs to be done in that particular field.  Appendices should be enlisted in respect of all the technical data in the report.  Bibliography of sources consulted is a must for a good report and must necessarily be 1/31/2023 37 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  38. 38.  Index is also considered an essential part of a good report and as such must be prepared and appended at the end.  Report must be attractive in appearance, neat and clean, whether typed or printed.  Calculated confidence limits must be mentioned and the various constraints experienced in conducting the research study may also be stated in the report.  Objective of the study, the nature of the problem, the methods employed and the analysis techniques adopted must all be clearly stated in the beginning of the report in the form of introduction 1/31/2023 38 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T
  39. 39. 1/31/2023 39 22PHFNF001 - JOLLY T T