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5Consequentialism & Deontology Consequentialism – rightness depends on consequences Deontology – rightness depends at least in part on a formal moral rule or principle
6$180 billion government bailoutA few months later... $165 million in bonuses to 400 executives
7 Relativism“What I feel is right is right. What I feel is wrong is wrong.” – Jean Jacques Rousseau Ethical Subjectivism - There are no objective moral truths – only an individual’s feelings or preferences. Some Criticism: No arbitration between views possible, other than the exercise of power. Anyone can harm others if it feels right to them And we do tend to think that arbitration is possible – we do it all the time. And that it’s wrong to harm others for such a reason.
8 Relativism Cultural Relativism - All (not some) moral values are nothing more than cultural customs and laws. Some Criticism: Guilty of deriving ought from is (the Naturalist Fallacy). Offers no criteria for distinguishing between reformers and criminals Can’t explain moral progress Encourages blind conformity to cultural norms, rather than rational analysis of moral issues (which we think is important) Doesn’t work in pluralistic cultures (like ours) Can lead to suspicion and mistrust of other cultures
9Following the law is not thesame thing as acting morally Laws can be immoral Laws can provide insufficient direction Laws can be ambiguous Doing the moral minimum is doing what you are morally obligated to do (not doing bad) Doing good: going beyond your obligations
10Moral Development & Maturity Postconventional thinking does not need to reject cultural norms, but rather to evaluate them. If it accepts them, it’s because they are the right norms to have – not because they are the norms we do have, The more you think about your choices, the more you think about your reasons and the reasons of others, the more you open your mind and widen your horizons, the more your moral reasoning is likely to mature!
11Ethical Egoism - everyone ought to do what is inhis or her own rational self-interest “The achievement of his own happiness is man’s highest moral purpose” – Ayn Rand, The Virtue of Selfishness (1964) Some Criticism: Justifies any self-interested action – no matter how it effects others. Selfishness is usually associated with immorality, altruism with morality
12UtilitarianismJeremy Bentham (1748 – 1831)The morally right act for an agent A at a timet is that act available to A at t, that willmaximize the total amount of good in theworld (that will have the bestconsequences).“The greatest good for the greatest number”
13Hedonistic UtilitarianismWhat is good? Pleasure and the absence of pain are goodPleasure is any sensation you would rather havethan no sensation at all; and pain is any sensationyou’d rather not have than no sensation at all..
14What Bentham thinks are theadvantages of Utilitarianism Neutralistic – treats everyone in the same way Realistic – it’s based on real psychology. It works with people as it finds them and organizes society so that they being that way actually has good consequences for everyone. Non-metaphysical – it doesnt make goodness/badness right/wrongness some sort of weird qualities. What in the world is “a natural right?” Non-elitist – it counts all sentient creatures. And all types of pleasures equally Determinate in principle – in principle, you can use the hedonic calculus to get an actual answer to the question of “what should I do in this case?”.
15 The Hedonic CalculusFor each action-alternative: Determine Intensity x duration Determine Probability Calculate Total = (intensity x duration) x ProbabilityPerform the action-alternative with the highest total
How do we regard different 16types of pleasures? What counts as pleasure? What about sadistic and masochistic pleasures? Bentham: the source of pleasure doesn’t matter Are there higher and lower pleasures? Bentham: It’s a subjective criterion – “Pushpin is as good as poetry” J.S. Mill: There is an objective quality to different pleasures that should also be factor into our calculations Quality comes from what people would choose if they had access to all possible pleasures
17 Are all goods commensurable? Can all pleasures be roughly compared? Can they be reduced to some sort of homogenous value?
18Utilitarianism & businessMarket view – Free and unregulated markets would maximize the overall goodby most efficiently connecting supply with demand.Administrative view – Policy experts manipulate the economy to attempt toimprove the outcome beyond the capacities of a purely free market.
19Criticisms of Utilitarianism It’s too difficult to apply People care about more than just pleasure We can not reduce all human goods into quantifiable units which can be aggregated and compared There is no non-arbitrary limit to how far into the future we should consider consequences Intention is important for determining the moral status of actions, but no room for this in utilitarianism Justifies acts that seem to be plainly wrong like murder and rape
20Other forms of Utilitarianism Rule Utilitarianism - Always act according to the rule that would produce the most utility in the world (vs. “act” utilitarianism) Preference Utilitarianism: Always act so as to maximize satisfaction of people’s preferences (vs. “Hedonistic” Utilitarianism)
21Rights and duties One way to think of a right is as a trump against the claims of the general welfare. Rights hook into correlative duties: if you have a right not to be killed, then I have a duty not to kill you. Negative rights are rights to non-interference A right not to be killed, have your property stolen, raped, etc. Positive rights are rights to aid – entitlements to be provided with something Right to due process of law in the US, to free education, to healthcare coverage, etc.
22Kantianism Moral actions follow from the right moral principles How do we know if our moral principles are good ones? Hypothetical imperatives are conditional, rather than categorical/absolute All moral rules must rest on a categorical imperative (CI) To find out whether a moral principle is ok to act from, you see if it’s compatible with the Categorical Imperative (CI)
23The Categorical Imperative 2nd formulation of Categorical Imperative: “Never treat a person merely as a means to an end, but always treat them as an end in themselves” 1st formulation of Categorical Imperative: "Act only according to that maxim that you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.” (a rule that applies to everybody) Step 1: Formulate a sincere and rational maxim (a subjective principle of action that states what you propose to do, and why) Step 2: Universalize the maxim to everyone, past, present and future. (everyone, as if by a law of nature, does A in C in order to achieve E)
The Categorical Imperative 24 Step 3: Imagine the world that would result from conjoining all the laws of physics, psychology, sociology, etc. with the law you made in Step 2 Step 4: Test the maxim The contradiction in conception test – In the social world of (3) would it be possible to achieve your end by means of the action you proposed in 1? The Contradiction in the Will test - Could I consistently will that this social world actually exist?If a maxim of action fails the CI tests, it is NOT permissible to act on that maxim! AND that means that not to do that thing is a moral duty.
25 Criticisms of Kantianism Its absolutist and inflexible (What if the negative consequences are too high?) Some maxims which seem to be ok, fail the CI test. (e.g. Go to the beach on a sunny day) We have no positive formula for constructing maxims, so it seems we may propose any number of maxims for any action. Which should we follow? The whole approach of basing morality on rationality, rather than feelings is mistaken.
26Some major moral principles The Principle of Nonmaleficence – We ought to act in ways that do not cause needless harm or injury to others The Principle of Beneficence – We should act in ways that promote the welfare of other people The Principle of Utility – We should act in such a way as to bring about the greatest benefit and the least harm
27Virtue Ethics Virtue ethic focuses on having a good character – tells you what kind of person you ought to be It is action-guiding in the sense that it recommends that you become the kind of person that will do what is right – perhaps instinctively How do you become virtuous? Develop the sort of habits or instincts that a virtuous person has through good upbringing, education, reflection, experience, and effort What habits or instincts are these? Those that your “moral exemplars” poses
28Virtue Ethics – the virtues Mor al Benevolence, compassion, honesty, charity, sincerity, Virtu sympathy, respect consideration, kindness, thoughtfulness, loyalty, fairness, etc. es Practical/non-moral virtues Rationality, intelligence, tenacity, capability, patience, prudence, skillfulness, shrewdness, proficiency, etc.
29Criticisms of Virtue Ethics (1) Different cultural groups have had different, sometimes conflicting, opinions on what constitutes a virtue. If Virtue Ethics has no universal basis, it leads to an undesirable cultural relativism. (2) Virtue Ethics may praise certain character traits, but this provides us with no or insufficient practical guidance about which specific actions to perform