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Measuring MNEs using big data: Introducing ADIMA

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In a world of Global Value Chains, understanding MNEs – where they are, how they operate, where they pay taxes – has never been more important. However, surprisingly little official statistics are currently available on individual MNEs.
To fill this gap the OECD has begun to develop a new database – the Analytical Database on Individual Multinationals and Affiliates (ADIMA) – using a number of open big data sources that can provide new insights on individual MNEs and their global profiles.

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Measuring MNEs using big data: Introducing ADIMA

  1. 1. MEASURING MNES USING BIG DATA: INTRODUCING ADIMA Graham Pilgrim OECD Statistics and Data Directorate
  2. 2. Analytical Database on Multinationals and their Individual Affiliates (ADIMA) 2 Objective Provide statistics on the scale and scope of international activities of MNEs, taking a ‘whole of the MNE’ view Output • A register of MNE affiliates • A digital register of MNE websites • A set of indicators (at MNE and country level) • A timely monitoring tool of MNEs’ restructuring Principles of ADIMA • Open: Use of open data allows for full dissemination without privacy restrictions • Blended: Mixes traditional with alternative data sources, reflects importance of digitalisation and allows for real-time insights. • Verifiable: Decision path of how the relationships have been determined is available. Use • Build on/contribute to other initiatives • Aid profiling work of NSOs and reduce asymmetries created by MNEs • Support narrative on trade-investment nexus and global value chains Progress • Data are now available for 100 of the world’s largest MNEs and coverage will be extended in future releases.
  3. 3. • Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) have been at the forefront of changes in the global economy over the last few decades – Trade and investment barriers, and transportation and communication costs have declined – Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) stocks now amount to 40% of Global GDP (up from 25% in 2005). – Despite the current slowdown in FDI flows, digitalisation provides scope for renewed momentum. • In a world of Global Value Chains, understanding MNEs has never been more important. However, surprisingly little official statistics are currently available on individual MNEs. • OECD AMNE database compiles aggregated MNE data, however coverage varies by country – ADIMA aims to complement this data source. Why is ADIMA needed? 3
  4. 4. Data Source Description Annual Reporting Annual reports give details of financials and reporting scope. Manually captured. PermID Database of companies made available by Thomson Reuters. Legal Entity Identifier Database of companies engaging in financial transactions along with relationships. Security Certificates Database of websites and the security certificate which exists on the site Common Crawl Database of websites: including underlying text, underlying links and importance of each site Wikidata Database of companies from Wikidata, including websites, relationships and daily page views GDELT Project Database of global news and events, fully searchable by time period and phrase Open Street Map Database of geographic locations (eg. Shops, Factories etc). What does ADIMA consist of? 4
  5. 5. >Name >News articles OSM >Website >Location Wikidata >Website >Daily Page Views >Ownership >Name PermID >Business Name >Website >LEI How is data in ADIMA interlinked? 5 Annual Reporting >Declared Subsidiaries >Financial Variables NameMatching >LEI >Business No. >Ownerships Common Crawl >Website >Hyperlink Graph LEI Website LEI Ownership >Website >Business No. >Business NameBusiness No. Website Name Matching Website Website Ownership Name
  6. 6. What does this look like for a MNE? 6 Tesco PLC Carrefour SA  432 discovered subsidiaries  Presence found in 29 Countries  81 Websites  541 discovered subsidiaries  Presence found in 18 Countries  70 Websites
  8. 8. More targeted analysis • Lower Effective Tax Rate for MNEs in sectors where intangible assets are part of value-creation and provide scope for fiscal optimisation through locating the assets in lower-tax economies 8
  9. 9. Where are firms physically located? • ADIMA-100 captures 26,000 subsidiaries (Download) • In the UK, annual reports can identify 74 of the ADIMA-100 with a physical presence but complementary sources are able to identify a further 11 MNEs. 9
  10. 10. Why do we need to extend this focus to digital? • A focus on physical presence alone may not capture pure digital presence • The provision of digitised services currently sits uncomfortably (in international accounting standards) between the two traditional routes to global markets (foreign presence and cross-border trade) • This may affect the current international comparability of international trade, GDP and/or primary income flows (GNI). 10
  11. 11. What is the Digital Presence of MNEs? • ADIMA-100 captures around 20,000 websites (Download) – Significant and comparable to the physical presence • In Estonia, only 10 of the ADIMA-100 are captured as being physically present but a further 19 have an electronic presence. 11
  12. 12. How does ADIMA enhance geographic presence discovery? 12 But also at an MNE level. For example, Annual Reports for Alphabet, the parent company of Google, show subsidiaries in 2 OECD countries but ADIMA’s physical and digital register bumps this up to all OECD countries. ADIMA increases our knowledge of geographic presence for all OECD countries:
  13. 13. • Database and methodology now available: oe.cd/ADIMA • For any queries about ADIMA, please email : graham.pilgrim@oecd.org Get Involved 13