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INIAD Talk City Of Tomorrow

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Talk held at INIAD, Toyo University, on July 19, 2019.

Publié dans : Technologie
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INIAD Talk City Of Tomorrow

  1. 1. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector TransformationBerner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences | ベルン応用科学大学 The City of Tomorrow: Open. Participatory. Resilient Prof. Stephan Haller, Institute Public Sector Transformation Image:pxhere,asawin
  2. 2. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation ▶ Current Position ▶ Professor at the Institute Public Sector Transformation of the Bern University of Applied Sciences (BFH) ▶ Head of the thematic focus area Buildings & Cities of the BFH Center Digital Society ▶ Teaching: E-Government, Project Management. Enterprise Architecture ▶ Research: Linked Open Data, Internet of Things, Smart Cities ▶ Experience ▶ > 25 years industrial ICT Research and Development (IoT since 1998) ▶ > 15 years project management of international ICT projects ▶ > 7 years R&D strategy definition ▶ Working experience in 3 countries: Japan (7 years, Matsushita, SAP), Germany (5 years, SAP) and Switzerland (Swissair, SAP, Vigience, BFH) ▶ Master Degree in Computer Science from the ETH Zurich Stephan Haller stephan.haller@bfh.ch
  3. 3. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Organisation of the Business School of BFH 公共部門改革研究所
  4. 4. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Open. Participatory. Resilient. https://de.wikipedia.org BFHWirtschaft Direct Democracy 4.0 is an open, participatory and digital democracy. At the core is the maximization of Public Value.
  5. 5. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Public officials and politicians have different goals than leaders in the private sector Types of public value (Harrison et al. 2011) ▶ Financial ▶ Political ▶ Social ▶ Strategic ▶ Ideological ▶ Stewardship Public Value 5 Public Value in Digital Government Efficiency Service Access Choice & Open- ness Citizen Satis- faction Service Delivery Trust Service Quality Inform. Quality Social Out- comes Transpa- rency Source: based on Puron-Cid 2017
  6. 6. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Open. Participatory. Resilient. That's how we imagine the public sector. And this is what we are committed to – with practical teaching and continuing education, as well as with application-oriented research. Our recipe for success: ▶ Think globally, act locally ▶ Bridging between different domains of expertise ▶ Multidisciplinary team well connected in science, practice and relevant communities. Our focus areas: ▶ Digital Democracy ▶ Data and Infrastructure ▶ Innovation. Institute Public Sector Transformation designed door Starline - Freepik.com
  7. 7. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Public Value at the Core: Topic-oriented, multi-stakeholder approach • Digitalisation monitoring for 2019 elections • AI/ML in political decision making … Digital Democracy • The Once-Only Project • Smart City • Memory institutions • Linked & Open Data … Data & Infrastructure • Communal monitoring • Chatbot Directorate of Education … Innovation
  8. 8. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Maturity Model Public Sector Transformation (based on Wirtz & Daiser 2017) Together Alone Information (Presence) Web, Search, etc. Interaction (Communication) Forms, Contacts, etc. Transaction Business Processes Integration (Interconnectedness) Interoperable Services (G2x) Integration Complexity organisational technical (Legally) Mandatory Information Additional Information Dynamic Communication Automated Communication Partially transactional Fully transactional Public Innovation Public Participation Public Collaboration / Co-Production
  9. 9. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Public Sector Innovation: Facets (OECD 2019) Source:https://trends.oecd-opsi.org/embracing-innovation-in-government-global-trends-2019.pdf https://oecd-opsi.org/projects/innovation-facets/
  10. 10. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation 1. Invisible to Visible 2. Opening Doors 3. Machine-Readable World Public Sector Innovation: New Trends (OECD 2019) Source:https://trends.oecd-opsi.org/embracing-innovation-in-government-global-trends-2019.pdf
  11. 11. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation 1. Invisible to Visible 2. Opening Doors 3. Machine-Readable World Public Sector Innovation: New Trends (OECD 2019) Source:https://trends.oecd-opsi.org/embracing-innovation-in-government-global-trends-2019.pdf
  12. 12. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation 1. Invisible to Visible 2. Opening Doors 3. Machine-Readable World Public Sector Innovation: New Trends (OECD 2019) Source:https://trends.oecd-opsi.org/embracing-innovation-in-government-global-trends-2019.pdf
  13. 13. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation The Urban Space as a Transformation Pioneer Many societal problems manifest themselves in the urban space first – Resilience is needed ▶ By 2030, 60% of all people will live in cities ▶ Cities consume 75% of all resources ▶ Cities are responsible for 80% of greenhouse gases Cities provide a good environment to start transformation processes ▶ Innovative environment - people and companies ▶ Existing infrastructures (networks, open data, start-up promotion, etc.) «How can we support cities in their transformation process and in generating public value?» Images: Flickr (Water and Air, Nguyen Tan Tin)
  14. 14. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Vision… 14Images: Smart City Nansha, ISA Internationales Stadtbauatelier, Wikimedia Commons;
  15. 15. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Vision… 15Images: Smart City Nansha, ISA Internationales Stadtbauatelier, Wikimedia Commons; Village Exotica
  16. 16. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation … or Nightmare? 16 Images: CBS News; Nanjin Transport Police's public Weibo post; ABC Australia
  17. 17. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Smart City Definitions „A city to be smart when investments in human and social capital and traditional (transport) and modern (ICT) communication infrastructure fuel sustainable economic growth and a high quality of life, with a wise management of natural resources, through participatory governance” Caragliu et al., 2011 „A smart city is a well-defined geographical area, in which high technologies such as ICT, logistic, energy production, and so on, cooperate to create benefits for citizens in terms of well-being, inclusion and participation, environmental quality, intelligent development; it is governed by a well-defined pool of subjects, able to state the rules and policy for the city government and development” Dameri, 2013 „A smart sustainable city is an innovative city that uses information and communication technologies (ICTs) and other means to improve quality of life, efficiency of urban operations and services, and competitiveness, while ensuring that it meets the needs of present and future generations with respect to economic, social, environmental as well as cultural aspects.” ITU-T, 2016 „Eine Smart City bietet ihren Bewohnern maximale Lebensqualität bei minimalem Ressourcenverbrauch dank einer intelligenten Verknüpfung von Infrastruktursystemen (Transport, Energie, Kommunikation, etc.) auf unterschiedlichen hierarchischen Stufen (Gebäude, Quartier, Stadt). "Intelligent" ist in diesem Zusammenhang nicht automatisch mit "IT" gleichzusetzen. Bei ähnlicher Performance sind passive oder selbstregulierende Mechanismen den aktiv geregelten Ansätzen vorzuziehen.” P. Richner, EMPA / IG Smart City Schweiz 17
  18. 18. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Smart City: Why? 18 Sources: based on Gil-Garcia et al. 2015, Griffinger et al. 2007 Smart Environment Environment and ecologic sustainability Built environment and urban infrastructure Natural resources and mobility SmartSociety Social and educational capital Social and ethnic plurality Flexibility and creativity Openness and engagement Smart Economy Competitiveness and spirit of innovation Entrepreneurship – networking and flexibility Economic image and brand Smart Government Institutional structure Transparency and quality Collaborative services Participatory decisions Smart City
  19. 19. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Do you need a Smart City Strategy? Example: Zürich Source: City of Zurich
  20. 20. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Toolbox for City Developers Smart City Strategy Framework 20 Smart City • Population • Development Stage • Political System • Education Level • Pressures City Context • Governance Model • Citizen Involvement • Motivation • City Role • Process Responsibility • Business Sector Development • Approach • Regional Cooperation Governance • Implementation Model • Application Domains • Performance Measures Implementation • Data Infrastructure • Networking Infra. (WLAN, IoT) • Cloud Infrastructure Infrastructure Smart City Source:HallerS,NeuroniA,FraefelM,andSakamuraK(2018):PerspectivesonSmartCities Strategies:SketchingaFrameworkandTestingFirstUses.InProceedingsof19thAnnual InternationalConferenceonDigitalGovernmentResearch(dg.o’18),AnnekeZuiderwijkAand HinnantC(Eds.).ACM,NewYork,NY,USA,Article4,9pages.
  21. 21. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Key Learning Successful digital transformation rests on 5 pillars Data for fact-based decisions Inter- connection People, machines, ideas Openness Open digital city culture and willingness to learn Innovation Policies Fostering of creativity and innovation Participation Population, public authorities, economic sector Images: Wikimedia Commons (Ryoji Ikeda, Günther Herrler), pixabay (rihaji, reinery), Publicdomainpictures (George Hodan)
  22. 22. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Openness and Participation go Hand in Hand Data for fact-based decisions Inter- connection People, machines, ideas Openness Open digital city culture and willingness to learn Innovation Policies Fostering of creativity and innovation Participation Population, public authorities, economic sector Images: Wikimedia Commons (Ryoji Ikeda, Günther Herrler), pixabay (rihaji, reinery), Publicdomainpictures (George Hodan)
  23. 23. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation ▶ Information Transparency • Freedom of Information (focus on access to government information) • Open Data (focus on re-usability of government information & data from a legal and technical perspective) ▶ Public Engagement (enhanced by technological advances) • Participation • Collaboration • Innovation (User Innovation, Co-Creation, etc.) ▶ Accountability What is Open Government? For an overview of various definitions of Open Government, refer to: http://thegovlab.org/open-government-whats-in-a-name/ Tallin Declaration, see: https://ec.europa.eu/newsroom/document.cfm?doc_id=47559
  24. 24. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation What is the Open Data? 24 «Open data is data that can be freely used, re- used and redistributed by anyone - subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and sharealike."  Availability and Access The data must be available as a whole and at no more than a reasonable reproduction cost, preferably by downloading over the internet. The data must also be available in a convenient and modifiable form.  Re-use and Redistribution: The data must be provided under terms that permit re-use and redistribution including the intermixing with other datasets.  Universal Participation Everyone must be able to use, re-use and redistribute - there should be no discrimination against fields of endeavour or against persons or groups. For example, ‘non-commercial’ restrictions that would prevent ‘commercial’ use, or restrictions of use for certain purposes (e.g. only in education), are not allowed.(CC-0, CC-BY, CC-BY-SA) Source: Open Knowledge International
  25. 25. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Many Cities have Open Data Portals … in fact, most Smart Cities do 25
  26. 26. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Effecting Transformation & Innovation Top-Down ▶ Traditional approach ▶ Often slow ▶ No failures accepted Bottom-Up 26 ▶ Co-Creation, building on knowledge, engagement and true needs of citizens ▶ Fast ▶ Fail to learn Typical Instruments ➜ Citizen Fora ➜ Hackathons ➜ Community Platforms ➜ Business Incubation Services ➜ …
  27. 27. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation ▶ First edition held Dec. 17 – May 18, approx. 100 submissions ▶ Now running in its 3rd edition Example
  28. 28. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector TransformationSource: https://tokyochallenge.odpt.org/index.html
  29. 29. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Typical Journey for Smart Cities? Source: L. Horvath, 2019, https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/smart-city-5-steps-process-laurent-horvath/
  30. 30. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation ▶ Cities need to learn from each other ▶ What works, what doesn’t… ▶ Needs ▶ Focus on public value, not technology ▶ Standardisation and interoperability ▶ The project conducted 3 open city workshops ▶ 2 in Tokyo, co-located with the TRON Symposium ▶ 1 in Bilbao, as part of IoT Week ▶ Cooperation with OASC (Open & Agile Smart Cities) Connecting Cities
  31. 31. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Goal Create an open Smart City Market based on the needs of cities and communities Involved Cities ▶ 133 cities from 26 countries and regions in Europe (110), Latin America (18) and Asia-Pacific (5) Approach ▶ Experience exchange between cities ▶ Minimum interoperability mechanisms (MIM) Open & Agile Smart Cities (OASC)
  32. 32. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Minimum Interoperability Mechanisms (MIM) Source:OASC2019,Annex1:MinimalInteroperabilityMechanisms(MIMs) https://oascities.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/OASC-MIMs-1.pdf Legacy System MIM 1 MIM 2 MIM 3 Context Management API OASC Data Models Integrating with Marketplace ETSI NGSI-LD API , OMA NGSI, ITU- T SG20/FG-DPM [FIWARE NGSI] SAREF, FIWARE, GSMA, schema.org, SynchroniCity RZ + partner data models TM Forum Business Ecosystem API, FIWARE Business Ecosystem and Marketplace Enabler API, SynchroniCity API
  33. 33. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation ▶ Main Swiss Cities of the German Part are involved ▶ Sharing of information, experiences and technology Smart City Hub Switzerland Source: Smart City Hub, https://www.smartcityhub.ch/
  34. 34. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Space for testing ideas, prototypes and services in the areas of mobility, logistics and more ▶ Operated by the Swiss Railways on a former freight yard Example: Basel Smart City Lab Source: Smart City Lab Basel, https://smartcitylabbasel.ch/
  35. 35. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Different Smart City Applications Themes in Amsterdam Categories in Vienna 35 Sources: Amsterdam Smart City; Cohen 2014; Griffinger al. 2007; Haller 2019; Smart City WIen Energy Mobility Circular City Governance & Education Citizens & Living Smart City Academy Digital City Buildings / Health / Social Affairs Environment / Energy Location Mobility Digital Education Innovation
  36. 36. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation β Implementation Models Start with single application, expand from there Example(s) ▶ Sapporo ▶ Winterthur ▶ Yokosuka Platform as a basis for all Smart City applications Example(s) ▶ Vienna ▶ Murcia Enable different stakeholders to try and test different applications Example(s) ▶ Amsterdam Anchor Platform Beta-city Source:JeremyGreen.2016.TheSmartCityPlaybook: smart,safe,sustainable:StrategyReport. TechnicalReport.MachinaResearch.
  37. 37. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation ▶ Community-Management rather than project management Example of a Smart City Community Platform Source: Amsterdam Smart City, https://amsterdamsmartcity.com/ 37
  38. 38. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Recommended Reading Study from Amsterdam – One of Europe’s leading Smart Cities Willem van Winden, Inge Oskam, Daniel van den Buuse, Wieke Schrama, Egbert-Jan van Dijck (2016). Organising Smart City Projects – Lessons from Amsterdam, Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences.
  39. 39. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Data as a key driver Data for fact-based decisions Inter- connection People, machines, ideas Openness Open digital city culture and willingness to learn Innovation Policies Fostering of creativity and innovation Participation Population, public authorities, economic sector Images: Wikimedia Commons (Ryoji Ikeda, Günther Herrler), pixabay (rihaji, reinery), Publicdomainpictures (George Hodan)
  40. 40. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Value Chain of Smart City Applications 40 Adapted from (Porter, 1985) and (Laaboudi, D'Ouezzan 2016) Core Elements Supporting Activities
  41. 41. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation What is the Internet of Things? 41 «Linking the real physical world with the virtual world of the Internet» Related Terms  Cyber-Physical Systems  Ubiquitous Computing  Pervasive Computing  M2M  Ambient Intelligence  ...
  42. 42. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation What is the «Thing»? 42 Entity of InterestDevice or
  43. 43. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Example IoT Infrastructure The Things Network ▶ Community-based effort to build communication infrastructure ▶ Technology: LoRaWAN ▶ Long range - multiple kilometers (world record 201 km) ▶ Low power - can last months (or even years) on a battery ▶ Low cost - less than 20€ CAPEX per node, almost no OPEX ▶ Low bandwidth - something like 400 bytes per hour ▶ Secure - 128bit end-to-end encryptedLoRaWAN ▶ Commercial LoRaWAN /LPWAN offerings also availble 43 Images: The Things Network Gateway End Node
  44. 44. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation The Things Network: Coverage Amsterdam 44 Source: The Things Network, https://www.thethingsnetwork.org/community/
  45. 45. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Examples of Smart City Sensors 45 Smart Lighting Pole, Wädenswil, Switzerland Smart Parking Sensors, Barcelona, Spain Smart Garbage Bins, New York, USA
  46. 46. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Four Perspectives of a National Data Infrastructure 46 Base Registers authentic data interoperability of data sharing of government data Open Data open data formats open access to data free re-use of data Big Data linkage of data from a variety of sources high volume and velocity of data data analytics My Data ownership of personal data access to personal data sharing of personal data National Data Infrastructure Components Coordination Collaboration
  47. 47. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation MyData X Individual / Data Subject MyData Operator Data Source Data-using Service Consent Flow Data Flow Source: Adapted from Kuikkaniemi, K., Poikola, A., & Honko, H. (2015). MyData A Nordic Model for human-centered personal data management and processing.
  48. 48. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Example Implementation: Personal Data Stores Source: Tanaka, K. (2017). Initiatives to revitalize regional economies by advancing “OMOTENASHI” — Hospitality offered to foreign visitors to Japan. NEC Technical Journal, Vol.13 No.1
  49. 49. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Interconnection on technical level Networks, Platforms, Interoperability Data for fact-based decisions Inter- connection People, machines, ideas Openness Open digital city culture and willingness to learn Innovation Policies Fostering of creativity and innovation Participation Population, public authorities, economic sector Images: Wikimedia Commons (Ryoji Ikeda, Günther Herrler), pixabay (rihaji, reinery), Publicdomainpictures (George Hodan)
  50. 50. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Smart City: Siloed Applications? 50 Application A Network A Devices A Application B Network B Devices B Application C Network C Devices C Application D Network D Devices D
  51. 51. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Connecting Technologies: Smart City Platform
  52. 52. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Smart City Platform Federation
  53. 53. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation City Dashboard Example: Murcia, Spain 54 Source: http://mapamurcia.inf.um.es/
  54. 54. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Example Smart City Platform Implementation 55 Source: City of Vienna
  55. 55. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation City Dashboard Example: Vienna, Austria 56 Source: https://smartdata.wien/iot/
  56. 56. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation City Dashboard Example: Santander, Spain 57 Source: http://maps.smartsantander.eu/
  57. 57. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation City Dashboard Example: Darmstadt, Germany 58 Source: The Urban Institute [ui!], https://www.informatik.tu-darmstadt.de/media/telekooperation/teaching_5/vorlesungsmaterialien/materialien_ucg/Ubicomp-Biz-2017-Part-II-LH.pdf
  58. 58. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Open.Participatory.Resilient - The Smart City スマートシティ・ダイバシティ・セーフシティ Bild:pxhere,asawin Projekt «Staat der Zukunft» 18/19 ¦ Tabea Schär Ein Studierendenprojekt der Hochschule der Künste Bern HKB in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Departement Wirtschaft der BFH
  59. 59. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation No Smart City Lift-off Smart City Minimum Smart City Integrated Smart City Established Smart City Learning Smart City Vision / Political commitment Strategy & project plan Smart City Culture Pilot projects Isolated Smart City projects Programs across application domains Integrated programs across all application domains Self-learning, adaptive Smart City Analysis of current situation and requirements (structures, ressources, processes) Involvement of key stakeholders Benchmarking Isolated business cases Business cases across all application domains Smart City Maturity Model Sources:AdaptedfromJaekel,2016&ZHAW/Hivemind,2018, https://issuu.com/prestigemedia/docs/_bundesrundschau_2_2018_gesamt Time SmartCityMaturity
  60. 60. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation A city should ask itself: ▶ What is the motivation to do something in the smart city area? What challenges and opportunities exist? ▶ Where is the public value? ▶ What strategy should be pursued? ▶ What is the role of the city and what is the implementation model? ▶ How can you scale up? Concluding Remarks
  61. 61. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation ▶ Smart City is about more than equipping the city with technology (Internet of Things, sensors) ▶ It is about quality of life, addressing social, ecological and economic challenges as well as the city's capacity for transformation  «Resilient City» as a new buzzword ▶ Open data, openness to exchange experiences with others and participatory approaches, experimentation and a dynamic economic environment are important to exploit the city’s innovation capacities Summary 62
  62. 62. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation Smart City as a Process …
  63. 63. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation ありがとう!Gracias Mulțumesc 謝謝 Paldies Eskerrik asko Dziękuję Mahalo ‫תודה‬Go raibh maith agat спасибо Grazzi आभारी Xin cảm ơn 감사합니다 நன்றி Köszönöm ‫ﻣﺮﺳﻲ‬ Ndiyabulela Grazia Tak Благодаря Aitäh Terima kasih Děkuji Teşekkür ederim Asante Diolch ‫ﺷﻜﺮا‬ Takk Ďakujem Gràcies Kiitos Obrigado Ngiyabonga Þakka þér Grazas Tapadh leibh ขอบคุณ Faleminderit Thanks Danke Ačiū Merci Grazie Hvala Ευχαριστώ Dankon Tack Dank je Grazcha stephan.haller@bfh.ch https://www.slideshare.net/StephanHaller/iniad-talk-city-of-tomorrow
  64. 64. Bern University of Applied Sciences | Institute Public Sector Transformation ▶ Cohen B (2014): The Smartest Cities In The World 2015: Methodology. https://www.fast-company.com/3038818/the-smartest-cities-in-the-world-2015-methodology ▶ Fraefel M, Haller S, and Gschwend A (2017): Big Data in the Public Sector. Linking Cities to Sensors, In 16th IFIP Electronic Government (EGOV) and 9th Electronic Participation (ePart) Conference, September 2017. ▶ Gil-Garcia J R, Pardo T A, and Nam T (2015): What makes a city smart? Identifying core components and proposing an integrative and comprehensive conceptualization, Information Polity 2015, 20, 1: 61–87. ▶ Griffinger R, Fertner C, Kramar H, Kalasek R, Pichler-Milanović N, and Meijers E (2007): Smart cities: Ranking of European medium-sized cities, Final Report, Centre of Regional Science, Vienna UT. ▶ Haller S, Neuroni A, Fraefel M, and Sakamura K (2018): Perspectives on Smart Cities Strategies: Sketching a Framework and Testing First Uses. In Proceedings of 19th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research (dg.o’18), Anneke Zuiderwijk A and Hinnant C (Eds.). ACM, New York, NY, USA, Article 4, 9 pages. ▶ Haller S (2019) Smart Cities and Regions: Die digitale Transformation in der Stadtentwicklung und E-Government. In: Stember J., Eixelsberger W., Neuroni A., Spichiger A., Habbel FR., Wundara M. (eds) Handbuch E-Government. Springer Gabler, Wiesbaden ▶ Harrison T M, Guerrero S, Burke G B, Cook M, Cresswell A, Helbig N, Hrdinová J, and Pardo T (2011): Open government and e-government: democratic challenges from a public value perspective. In Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Digital Government Research Conference Digital Government Innovation in Challenging Times, June 2011. ▶ Laaboudi K, and D’Ouezzan S (2016): White Pater: Smart City Value Chain, available from: http://www.e-madina.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/White-Paper-e- Madina-3.0-Value-Chain-of-Smart-cities.pdf. ▶ Lee G, Kwak Y H (2011): Open government implementation model: a stage model for achieving increased public engagement, Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Digital Government Research Conference: Digital Government Innovation in Challenging Times, ACM (pp. 254-261). ▶ Porter M E (2014): Wettbewerbsvorteile: Spitzenleistungen erreichen und behaupten = (Competitive Advantage), 8th ed. Frankfurt am Main: Campus-Verlag, 2014. ▶ Puron-Cid G (2017): From Technology to Social Development: Applying a Public Value Perspective to Digital Government in Local Governments in Mexico. In Proceedings of the 18th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research - dg.o '17, June 2017. ▶ Walser K, Haller S (2016): Smart Governance in Smart Cities. In: Meier A, Portmann E (ed), Smart City: Strategie, Governance und Projekte, Springer Vieweg, p 19-46. ▶ Winden, W van, Oskam, I, Buuse, D van den, Schrama, W, and Dijck, E van (2016): Organising Smart City Projects: Lessons from Amsterdam. Amsterdam: Hogeschool van Amsterdam, http://www.hva.nl/carem/publicaties/content/publicaties-algemeen/2016/organising-smart-city-projects.html References 65

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