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Organisational change, Innovation and Transformation communication

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The global business environment is turbulent and successful organisations must effectively communicate change, innovation and transformation to all stakeholders.

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Organisational change, Innovation and Transformation communication

  1. 1. An Analysis of Communication of Change, Innovation and Transformation Tindi Stephen & Braima Rose || CMS, UEW
  2. 2. Presentation Outline  Definitional overlaps  Innovation  Theories  Communication and innovation  Change  Models  Strategic communication in change  Transformation  Thoughts and processes  Communication in transformation  Conclusion and references
  3. 3. Of Innovation, Change and Transformation  All organizations irrespective of size or nature need the right injection of innovation, change and transformation in order to survive. “I am convinced that if the rate of change inside an institution is less than the rate of change outside, the end is in sight”. John F. Welch- Former G.E. Chairman &CEO
  4. 4. Definitional and Concept Overlaps  Innovation is the process of making changes, large and small, radical and incremental, to products, processes, and services that results in the introduction of something new for the organization that adds value to customers and contributes to the knowledge store of the organization. (J. Fagerberg, 2000)  Transformation is the creation and change of a whole new form, function or structure. To transform is to create something new that has never existed before and could not be predicted from the past. Transformation is holistic and involves changing the organization in its entirety (Daszko & Sheinberg, 2005)  Change is a situational phenomenon that may sometimes be temporary. It refers to any ‘newness’ element and could be interim measures pertaining to any aspect of the organization.
  5. 5. Untangling the Mesh..  Change must have some degree of desirability and intentionality to be called innovation.  Whereas change can be positive or negative, innovation must add value (positive)  Change must be holistic to be called transformation  Meanwhile;  The terms are used interchangeably  The terms can be used in association; Innovative change, transformative change
  6. 6. Innovation  This involves acting on the creative ideas to make some specific and tangible difference in the domain in which the innovation occurs.  Innovation, like many business functions, is a management process that requires specific tools, rules, and discipline; among them is effective communication.
  7. 7. Types of Innovation  Incremental innovation Innovation is improved on gradual incrementing and regular degrees. EC and improvement in election administration  Radical innovation,  Innovation carried out from the root or base of a product or services. This innovation may be demand driven based on market requirements or social needs, or supplier driven due to new technological possibilities. MTN in Nigeria  Disruptive innovation Innovation that disrupts an existing market. It is also an innovation that causes a new and unexpected market through the application of a different set of values. EG: UT, lone in 48 hours, phone for loan
  8. 8. Understanding and Communicating Innovation  Diffusing Innovation Diffusion is “the process in which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system” .(Rogers, 1983)  Diffusion is a kind of communication Components of diffusion  Innovation; the new thing/ idea to be adopted  communication channels; media  Time; Period of diffusion  Social system; context, set of interrelated units
  9. 9. Innovation Decision Process 1. Knowledge, 2. Persuasion 3. Decision, 4. Implementation, and 5. Confirmation.
  10. 10. Predictors of Rate of Innovation Adoption  Relative advantage – apparently better than what was previously used  Compatibility – consistency with believes and personality  Complexity – ability to decipher and use new idea  Trialability – opportunity of experimentation  Observability – visible benefits These characteristics predict the rate of adoption of innovations and the speed of adoption is relative
  11. 11. Adaptor Categories  Innovators – ready and willing to accept new ideas but could face adverse consequences of innovation (gate keepers)  Early adopters – careful adopters (likely to be leaders)  Early majority – early to be convinced and have networks but not leadership influence  Late majority –They are skeptical, adopt a wait and see attitude but eventually buy into the innovation idea  Laggards – have traditional or conventional views and are most skeptical about innovation. They take the longest time to adopt innovation if at all
  12. 12. Innovation Curve (Adopted from Rogers, 1983)
  13. 13. Innovation Agents  There are communication agents in the innovation process referred to as of intermediaries or boundary spanning agents.  boundary spanning agents are individuals who are strongly linked internally and externally and can both gather and transfer information from within and outside their work units.  They are communication stars that effectively communicate widely within their work unit, across work units and outside their organisation. Boundary spanning agents are able to act as translators, brokers or mediators.
  14. 14. Significance of Communication in Innovation  Innovation does not happen spontaneously. It is gradual and should be supported and sustained by effective communication  Innovation usually needs more than one person, department s and units to achieve (cooperation).  The outcome of innovation can be uncertain and breed organizational anxiety
  15. 15. Using Communication for Successful Innovation  Analyze the innovation adoption behavior before a communication strategy is proffered.  Ensure through effective communication that the people involved see a clear advantage in the adoption of innovation.  Relate the innovation to the existing values and experiences of staff and general organizational culture. Communicate well with staff, make the change as easy as possible to understand and use; allow people to try the change step-by-step, making adjustments as they go.  Communicate clearly every step of the innovation process but avoid information overload
  16. 16. Evidence of Communication in Innovation The interest in communication has stimulated the emergence of new (applied) academic disciplines such as;  Agricultural Extension Studies  Health Education/Public Health Education)
  17. 17. Change  Organizations can only institute a change program when employees who are involved in the program understand and have confidence in its value.  Effective change rides on the back of clear/ strategic communication
  18. 18. Thinking Change… Kurt Lewin in 1947 introduced a three stage theory of change (Force-field Analysis) Change is a journey rather than a simple step. This journey may not be simple and may involve several stages of misunderstanding before people cross to the other side.
  19. 19. Stages of Change Identified by Kurt Lewin
  20. 20. Limitations of Lewin’s Model  The final stage (refreezing) suggests that the stage is static, this defeats the description of change as a continuous process.  The logic of the model takes into account only organizations that are in a situation or problem that require changes but not those already working well and wish to perform better.  The model is deceptively simplistic
  21. 21. The John Kotter Model of Change
  22. 22. Criticism of the Kotter Model  The main problem in all eight stages proposed by Kotter is changing people's behavior, not strategy, not systems, not culture. These elements are extremely important, but the core issue is the behavior - what people do and that is how they need to be changed significantly.
  23. 23. Other Models of Organizational Change  Natural change: The flow or succession of institutional life cycles. ie; Start up, expansion, capitulation  Planned change: The organization itself decides to alter the way it does business or some aspect of its operations due to competition, or need for efficiency, in response to a problem among others. - Miller (2002)
  24. 24. Challenges of the Change Process  Ownership tension  Resistance  Uncertainty These can be addressed through effective communication Employees prefer negative information on upcoming organizational change to no information
  25. 25. Communication in Change  Communication must be featured prominently in the change planning process  Different channels of communication must be used.  Speak to the right people but avoid the ‘tunnel vision’ trap  Research and identify effective strategies suitable for communication  Involve workers in the change process as much as possible (openness)  Employees would certainly try to understand the change process on their own by seeking information and discussions. Feed their quest with the right information.
  26. 26. Change Communication Strategies  Spray and Pray – give the information and hope it would be sifted by employees  Tell and sell – give out only what management considers relevant  Underscore and explore – give out basic information and give employees the freedom to fathom the puzzle  Identify and rely – wait on the concerns of workers and address them appropriately  Withhold and upload – withhold information as much as possible, upon confrontation with questions and rumors, uphold the party line (Official position)
  27. 27. Transformation  Often, people confuse transformation with any kind of change, technology breakthrough, innovation, process improvement or transition. However, few changes are truly transformational-(Daszko & Sheinberg, 2005)  While all transformation is change, not all change is transformation.
  28. 28. More on Transformation  Organizational Transformation takes place when people managing a system focus on creating a new future that has never existed before, and based on continual learning and a new mindset, take different actions steps from what was done in the past. Butterfly undergoing transformation
  29. 29. More on Transformation …  Transformation occurs through a system of continual questioning, challenging, exploration, discovery, evaluation, testing, and creation of an organization’s management theory and application; beginning with the realization or revelation that the organization’s current thinking /management style is incomplete/flawed.
  30. 30. The Transformation Process  Awakening_ Realisation  Intention _Decision  Action _Dispel fear or uncertainty and go all out for the next big thing. There is so much uncertainty in transformation Transformation requires cooperation and communication in this period must be clear, strategic and informed by research.
  31. 31. Conclusion  “There is nothing more difficult to plan, more doubtful of success, nor more dangerous to manage than the creation of a new order of things.” Niccolo Machiavelli The Prince (1513)
  32. 32. References  Beckett, R. C. & Hyland, P. (2009). Effective Communication In Innovation Processes. CI Net Journal 978-90-77360-12 (5)  Crawford, C. B. (2001) Leadership And Innovation : champions And Techies As Agents Of Influence. Paper Presented to the Association of Leadership Educators 2001 Conference Review Committee, America  Daszko, M. & Sheinberg (2005). Survival Is Optional: Only Leaders With New Knowledge Can Lead the Transformation  Glor, D. E. (2001) Key Factors Influencing Innovation In Government The Innovation Journal: The Public Sector Innovation Journal Volume 6 (2), 2001  Kotter, J. P. (1995) Leading Change: Why Transformation Efforts Fail. Harvard Business Review.  Linke, A & Zerfass (2011). Internal communication and innovation culture: Developing a change framework. Journal of Communication Management 15 (4) 2011 332-348  Roggers, E. M. (1983) Diffusion of Innovations. Third Ed, Free press, America  Sahin, I. (2006). Detailed Review Of Rogers’ Diffusion Of Innovations Theory And Educational Technology-related Studies. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology. 5 (2)  Miller, K. (2002). Organizational Communication, Approaches and Processes. Fourth Edition. Thomson wadsworth.  Weick, K. E. & Quinn, R. E. (1999) Organizational Change And Development. Annual Review Psychology 61-–86