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SourceBrief descriptionBooks – non-fictionNon-fiction books are those which deal with the factual, rather than the imaginary. Text books are good examples.Books – fictionNovels are good examples of fiction – works of literature like this deal with imaginary events and people.Books (electronic)A single work written by an author or authors that is viewed using electronic equipment.Conference proceedingsPapers presented at a conference, written up and put together as a single work.Government/officialPublications issued by the government and its departments, including acts of parliament, bills, budget information, press releases, and consultation documents.Journal articles (print and electronic)Journals are usually published monthly or quarterly, and contain a selection of articles providing details of recent research. Often they will also contain reviews of relevant books.MapsDrawings of (part of) the earth's surface showing the shape and position of different countries, political borders, natural features such as rivers and mountains, and artificial features such as roads and buildings. Maps are traditionally drawn to scale and usually on a flat surface but increasingly the internet is used to provide maps with added physical features. And, http://earth.google.com/ now allows you to view the earth via satellite image with or without a representational map overlay.Newspapers (print and electronic)Usually published daily or weekly, containing news, articles, features, images, and advertising. Newspapers can be in printed format, or they may be available electronically via the web.DatabasesDatabases are searchable collections of references compiled and maintained by people. There are two main types; bibliographic, which contain references to articles in journals or books (and sometimes a summary or abstract); and full text, which give access to whole articles or (sometimes) books. Occasionally a database will contain a mixture of bibliographic and full text information.SourceBrief descriptionPatentsThe Patent Office defines a patent as follows: 'a patent for an invention is granted by government to the inventor, giving the inventor the right for a limited period to stop others from making, using or selling the invention without the permission of the inventor'.ImagesImages or pictures include works of art and photographs of people, animals or things. Images can be found in printed publications and as individual photographs or slides. Images are also increasingly available as digital images, which are pictures you can store, read or display on a computer.ReportsHere we are defining ‘reports’ as material that has not been published in the conventional way (presented formally in an academic journal or appearing in a publisher's list). This body of material is often known as the 'grey literature'. It includes internal reports, papers written within a research group or government body, consultants' reports, and so on.ThesesA thesis is usually defined as a major piece of original research submitted as a requirement for the award of a Doctorate (e.g. PhD). The less weighty piece of original work submitted as part of a postgraduate degree requirement is usually referred to as a dissertation.StandardsStandards embody accepted current methodologies and technologies relating, for example, to dimensions, quality, testing, terminology and codes of practice. There are also series of more general application dealing with, for example, quality management (ISO 9000), design and innovation management (BS 7000) and environmental control (ISO 14000).StatisticsBy statistics we mean numerical data assembled systematically, probably by an official body but also possibly by a commercial organisation, covering national demographics, economic, financial and social phenomena, and various market and industrial activities.Music scoresMusic scores are written or printed pieces of music, in which all the vocal and instrumental parts are noted on a series of staves one under the other. Music scores may be individual books or sets of parts, such as orchestral or choral parts.Sound recordingsSound recordings capture an audible event, such as a spoken or musical performance. They are available in a variety of formats that require a dedicated device (such as a CD player) for the user to listen to them.Web PagesThese are internet pages usually prepared by a particular organisation, group or individual to present an opinion. Specialist web pages include: Blogs – similar to online journals, a series of diary or reflection entries on a single web page by a single person or groupWikis – flexible interconnected pages which can be changed and edited by anyone with access to the wiki; these encourage collaborative working
Grey literature – a term mainly used by librarians, to describe semi or not formally published material that is not available commercially, e.g. internal reports. This type of material is often very difficult to trace. Primary literature – describes the first level of texts in a particular subject area. The definition varies by discipline. In science, for example, primary literature refers to reports on original research; in philosophy, it refers to the original works of philosophers; in literature, it refers to the texts of literary authors; in history, manuscript materials are included; in the social sciences, data from questionnaires, polls and surveys, as well as statistical data (such as census materials).Secondary literature – the second level of literature in a subject area, which reflects upon, analyses, criticises or reports on the primary literature (see above). Secondary literature is often repackaged and disseminated more widely, and usually contains information that has appeared in another form, e.g. current awareness or review journals, textbooks and databases
Sources of information
Sources of Information
Images Reports Maps Surveys Databases – Diaries abstracts and Patents Statistics indexes Web Pages Sound Conference Recordings e.g. BLOGS & Market Research papers Wikis Standards Theses Government Legal documents documents Journals –Print & BOOKS! Print & E Newspapers – In-house e.g. MIS E Journals Books online/print or Personnel recordsAdapted from Open University Study Skills May 2009 http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=3513
Primary • First Hand • Eye Witness • Second hand • Written about, Secondary commenting on, reviewing primary sources Grey Literature •semi or not formally publishedIMPORTANT TO USE A •material that is not available VARIETY! commercially, e.g. internal reports
PRIMARY SOURCE SECONDARY SOURCELincolns Gettysburg Address Garry Wills book Lincoln at Gettysburg: The Words That Remade AmericaThe poem "Field Work" by Seamus Heaney "A Cold Eye Cast Inward: Seamus Heaneys Field Work." by George Cusack in New Hibernia Review (2002 Autumn), pp. 53-72.The figures for Ithaca College found in a table An article in the Ithacan entitled "Study findsof "Number of Offenses Known to the Police, eastern colleges often conceal campus crime"Universities and Colleges" in the FBIs UniformCrime Reports, 2008The lyrics of 2 Live Crews album As Nasty As The article "Discouraging Objectionable MusicThey Wanna Be Content: Litigation, Legislation, Economic Pressure, and More Speech" found in Communications & the Law, April 2003, that discusses 2 Live Crews lyrics.Cynthia Scheibes doctoral dissertation on the An article in Parents Magazine discussingdevelopmental differences in childrens experts views on the harm of lying to childrenreasoning about Santa Claus about Santa ClausThe text of Barack Obamas keynote address to A 2004 editorial in The New York Times entitledthe 2004 Democratic National Convention, "Everybody Loves Obama"found in The New York Timeshttp://www.ithacalibrary.com/sp/subjects/primary
Images Reports Maps Surveys Databases – Diaries abstracts and Patents Statistics indexes Web Pages Sound Conference Recordings e.g. BLOGS & Market Research papers Wikis Standards Theses Government Legal documents documentsJournals –Print & BOOKS! Print & E Newspapers – In-house e.g. MIS E Journals Books online/print or Personnel records